Tag Archives: American Society for Horticultural Science

Diplotaxis tenuifolia

Botanical Name: Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Diplotaxis
Species: D. tenuifolia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms : Brassica tenuifolia, Sisymbrium tenuifolium,

Common Names:Wall Mustard, Perennial wall-rocket, wild rocket, sand rocket, Lincoln weed, white rocket; seeds sometimes marketed as “wild Italian arugula” or “sylvetta arugula”

Habitat :Diplotaxis tenuifolia is native to Southern and central Europe, possibly including Britain. It grows on old walls and waste places in S. England, a casual further north. This plant is doubtfully native in Britain.
Description:
Diplotaxis tenuifolia is an erect mustard-like perennial plant with branching stems that may exceed half a meter in height. It grows in clumps on the ground in a variety of habitats and is a common weed of roadsides and disturbed areas. It has long leaves which may be lobed or not. The foliage is aromatic when crushed. Atop the branches of the stem are bright yellow flowers with four rounded petals each about a centimeter long. The fruit is a straight, flat silique up to five centimeters long.

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It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from Jun to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
See the plants native habitat for ideas on its cultivation needs.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in situ as soon as it is ripe, though it can also be sown in situ in the spring. The seed usually germinates in the autumn.
Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw. Used in salads, they are very strongly flavoured of cress. The leaves have a hot flavour, very similar to rocket (Eruca vesicaria sativa) but more strongly flavoured – they make an excellent addition to a mixed salad but are too strong to be used in quantity on their own. The plant is very productive, producing leaves from early spring until the autumn.

Medicinal Uses:
Like other members of the Cruciferae this plant contains sulphuraed glucosides, and the juice of the fresh plant may be drunk as an expectorant to aid catarrh. The leaves have stimulant, diuretic, antiscorbutic and revulsant properties.

One of Trotula‘s works, Treatments for Women mentions “wild rocket cooked in wine” in a remedy for sanious flux in women.

Cancer:
D. tenuifolia inhibited the growth of HT-29 colorectal cancer cells with a marked cytotoxicity. Isothiocyanates and indoles have, in fact, been linked to anticarcinogenicity in mammals.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diplotaxis_tenuifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Diplotaxis+tenuifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

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Calochortus gunnisonii

Botanical Name ; Calochortus gunnisonii
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Calochortus
Species: C. gunnisonii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Common Names: Gunnison’s mariposa lily, Lily, Mariposa, Mariposa Lily, Gunnison’s mariposa lily

Habitat : Calochortus gunnisonii is native to the western United States, primarily in the Rocky Mountains and Black Hills: Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska (Sioux County) and eastern Idaho (Fremont County).
It grows on grassy hillsides and open coniferous woods[60]. Found in a variety of habitats from moist meadows and open woods to sandy and rocky hillsides and dry gulches between 1,200 and 3,300 metres.

Description:
Calochortus gunnisonii is a bulb-forming perennial with straight stems up to 55 cm tall.It is a typically large and beautiful member of the genus; its bell-shaped flowers have three broad, rounded white (rarely pink or pale yellow) petals and three thin, shorter, pointed sepals, with a ring of fine greenish-yellow hairs around the center and a circular band of purple. In the middle are six anthers and a three pronged stigma. Flowers are about 2 inches in diameter. The thin, bendy stalks bear a few grass-like leaves, and can branch a few times towards the top. Stem and leaves are hairless. Plants sprout from (edible) bulbs, usually deeply buried.

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 Varieties:
*Calochortus gunnisonii var. gunnisonii – most of species range
*Calochortus gunnisonii var. perpulcher Cockerell – New Mexico

USDA hardiness zone : 3-7 Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a deep very well-drained fertile sandy soil in a sunny position and must be kept dry from mid summer to late autumn. This is a rather difficult plant to cultivate in Britain, it is very cold hardy but is intolerant of wetness especially in the winter. It is easiest to grow in a bulb frame but is worth trying outdoors at the base of a south-facing wall, especially with shrubs that like these conditions. Bulbs can be lifted as soon as the foliage dies down in the summer and stored overwinter in a cool dry place, replanting in the spring. The bulbs must be replanted immediately according to another report. Bulbs frequently divide after flowering, the bulblets taking 2 years to reach flowering size. This species is closely related to C. ambiguus. Hand pollination is necessary if seed is required.
Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as ripe or early spring in a cold frame in a very sharply draining medium. Stratification may be helpful. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 6 months at 15°c. Leave the seedlings undisturbed for their first two years growth], but give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure they do not become nutrient deficient. It is quite difficult to get the seedlings through their first period of dormancy since it is all too easy either to dry them out completely or keep them too moist when they will rot. After their second year of growth, pot up the dormant bulbs in late summer and grow them on for at least another 2 years in the greenhouse before trying them outside. Seedlings take about 5 – 7 years to come into flower. Division of the bulbs as soon as the foliage dies down. The bulbs can be planted straight out into their permanent positions but in areas with wet winters it might be best to store them overwinter and replant them in the spring. Stem bulbils, harvested from the stems after flowering. They can be stored cool and dry then planted in pots in the cold frame in the spring
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed.
Edible Uses:

Bulb – raw or cooked. One report says that the raw bulb tastes like a raw new potato. It has a crisp nut-like texture and a pleasant flavour when cooked. The bulb can be dried and ground into a powder for making a sweet porridge, mush etc. Leaves – cooked. It is hard to obtain a sufficient quantity and use of the leaves will weaken the bulbs. Seed – ground into a powder. Flower buds – raw. Added to salads.

Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been taken internally to treat rheumatic swellings by the Acoma and Laguna Indians and by the Navajo to ease the delivery of the placenta. Juice of the leaves were applied to pimples.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calochortus_gunnisonii
http://www.americansouthwest.net/plants/wildflowers/calochortus-gunnisonii.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calochortus+gunnisonii

Aristolochia manshuriensis

Botanical Name : Aristolochia manshuriensis
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamily: Aristolochioideae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species : Aristolochia manshuriensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

Synonyms:
*Hocquartia Dum.
*Holostylis Duch., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 2: 33, t. 5. 1854.
*Isotrema Raf. (disputed)

Common Names; Manchurian pipevine, Chinese Aristolochia, Guan Mu Tong , Birthwort

Habitat : Aristolochia manshuriensis is native to Manchuria and Korea. It grows on the mixed forests in Korea, eastern Siberia and northeastern China including the area formerly known as Manchuria.
Description:
Aristolochia manshuriensis is a deciduous, woody, twining climber that produces unusual apetulous flowers, each of which features a calyx which resembles a dutchman’s pipe suspended on a thin stalk. . It has simple alternate leaves. This vine will typically grow to as much as 15-20’ long (to 8′ in one growing season). Large, leathery, orbicular, cordate, palmately-veined, light green leaves (to 11″ x 11″) are abaxilly covered with white hairs. Each creamy white flower is densely mottled with yellow-green and features a contrasting 3-lobed bronze-red limb at the apex of the corolla-like calyx. Flowers bloom singly or in pairs from the leaf axils in June-July. Each flower acts as a flytrap for insects (flowers are primarily pollinated by flies) that are lured by potent fragrance into entering the calyx where they are dusted with pollen before leaving. Flowers give way to cylindrical dehiscent seed capsules (to 4″ long) containing winged seeds which ripen in late summer. Capsules open basipetally when ripe, releasing the seed for distribution by wind…….... CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation & Propagation : Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20  Degree C. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5 Degree C. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter.
Medicinal Uses:
The flowers are diuretic. The whole plant is anodyne, antiphlogistic and carminative. A decoction is used in the treatment of rheumatoid aches and pains. The plant contains aristolochic acid, which is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. The stem treats fever, diabetes; increases flow or urine; induces menstruation; stimulates milk flow in women after labor.

Known hazards: Not much specific details for this species are available but most members of this genus have poisonous roots and stems. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia
http://en.hortipedia.com/wiki/Aristolochia_manshuriensis
https://sheffields.com/seeds/Aristolochia/manshuriensis/050892
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=241860
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm
http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/a/aristolochia-molissima.php

Plumbago europaea

 

Botanical Name : Plumbago europaea
Family: Plumbaginaceae
Genus: Plumbago
Species: P. europaea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms : P. angustifolia.

Common Names:Plumbago,Leadwort

Habitat : Plumbago europaea is found in  S. Europe.Grows in dry rocks, hills, maritime sands, roadsides etc

Description:
Plumbago europaea is a PERENNIAL herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

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The plant prefers light (sandy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained sandy or gritty soil in full sun. One report says that the plant is not very hardy in Britain and is usually grown in a greenhouse.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of basal shoots as new growth emerges in the spring. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 – 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Medicinal Uses;
Acrid;  Emetic;  Odontalgic;  Sialagogue;  Vesicant.

The whole plant, but especially the root, is acrid, emetic, odontalgic, sialagogue and vesicant. Chewing the root produces copious salivation and is said to be of benefit in treating toothache

Traditionally has been used for epilepsy and scabies.  The dried root is sometimes used as an astringent, or as a chewing-gum.  Chewing the root produces copious salivation. It has been used to treat toothache, and, in the form of a poultice or plaster, back pain and sciatica.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plumbago+europaea
http://search.myway.com/search/GGcached.jhtml?pg=GGmain&ord=1&action=click&searchfor=Plumbago%2Beuropaea&curl=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FFile%3APlumbago_europaea.jpg&isDirResults=false&cid=RKHurtN79LwJ&st=site&ct=GC
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://search.myway.com/search/GGcached.jhtml?pg=GGmain&ord=0&action=click&searchfor=Plumbago%2Beuropaea&curl=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FPlumbago_europaea&isDirResults=false&cid=4uzAcrk0q1MJ&st=site&ct=GC