Tag Archives: American Society for Microbiology

Lamium Galeobdolon

Botanical Name: Lamium Galeobdolon
Family:    Lamiaceae
Genus:    Lamium
Species:    L. galeobdolon
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Lamiales

Synonyms:  Yellow Archangel. Weazel Snout. Dummy Nettle.

Common Names: Yellow Archangel , Artillery plant, or Aluminium plant

Habitat: : Lamium Galeobdolon is a widespread wildflower in Europe, and has been introduced elsewhere as a garden plant. It  grows in woods and shady hedgerows, usually on heavier soils. Sometimes becoming locally dominant, especially after coppicing.

Description:
Yellow archangel is a large-leaved perennial plant with underground runners growing to a height of about 40 to 80 cm (16 to 31 in). The paired opposite leaves are stalked, broadly ovate with a cordate base and toothed margin. The underside of the leaves is often purplish. The flowers grow in whorls in a terminal spike. The calyx is five-lobed. The corolla is yellow, 15 to 25 mm (0.6 to 1.0 in) long, the petals fused with a long tube and two lips. The upper lip is hooded and the lower lip has three similar-sized lobes with the central one being triangular and often streaked with orange. There are two short stamens and two long ones. The carpels are fused and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp……....click & see the pictures

Cultivation:    
Landscape Uses:Ground cover, Massing, Woodland garden. A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and conditions. It grows well in heavy clay soils, though it prefers a light calcareous soil. Dislikes dry soils. This species succeeds even in dense shade, growing well under trees. Once established, it can also succeed in drought conditions under the shade of trees, providing there is plenty of humus in the soil. There are at least four sub-species, L. galeobdolon montanum is the form generally found wild in Britain and it is a triploid. L. galeobdolon luteum and L. galeobdolon flavidum are both diploids. L. galeobdolon argentatum is the more rampant form, its clone ‘Variegatum’ is a commonly used ground cover plant for shady places. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. A very invasive plant, sending out long prostrate shoots that root at intervals along the stems. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Naturalizing.

Propagation:  
Seed – usually self sows freely and should not require human intervention. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. The seed can also be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe. Division in spring. Succeeds at almost any time in the growing season. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring

Edible Uses:  Young leaves and shoots – cooked. Young flowering tips – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Antispasmodic;  Astringent;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Styptic;  Vasoconstrictor.

The herb is antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, styptic and vasoconstrictor.The crushed leaves bound to open sores will cause rapid healing.

Other Uses:   A good ground cover plant, spreading rapidly by means of its rooting stems and succeeding even in dense shade. It is very vigorous, however, and can smother small plants. It does very well in woodlands.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamium_galeobdolon
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Lamium+galeobdolon
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/n/nettle03.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

Advertisements

‘Brushing Teeth Prevents Preterm Birth’

Products from Amazon.com

Preterm births are easier prevented than thought. Researchers in the United States have found that brushing your teeth properly and maintaining  proper oral hygiene reduces the chance of early labour by a large extent.

……………………..…CLICK & SEE

Researchers from Case Western Reserve and Yale Universities Previously undiscovered bacteria usually found in the mouth could be responsible for up to 80% of early preterm labours.

The research could help doctors prevent preterm births by encouraging oral hygiene or stop early labour from developing by prescribing targeted antibiotics, Discovery News reported on its website on Wednesday.

“The earlier the woman goes into preterm labor, the higher the chance that she will be infected,” said Yiping Han, a doctor at Case Western University and the first author on the study.

Most human pregnancies last about 40 weeks. A birth prior to 37 weeks is classified as preterm. Babies born preterm can face many hurdles: vision and hearing loss, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, even death.

Labour itself is still somewhat of a mystery to science, which makes puzzling out preterm labour even more difficult. Anything from socioeconomic status and race to bacterial infection and genetics have been linked to preterm births, but a definitive cause is still elusive.

Han and her colleagues think they have found a major cause, at least in mice. By infecting the rodents with Bergeyella, a previously unknown bacteria found in the mice, the researchers caused preterm births.

In humans, the scientists showed a strong correlation between infection and preterm births. Doctors removed amniotic fluid from 46 different women with potentially higher risk pregnancies. Of that group, 21 delivered an early preterm baby (32 weeks or earlier). Nineteen of those women, or about 85%, were positive for previously undetected bacteria.

The bacteria normally live in the mouth, but if a cut, cavity or other wound allows the bacteria to enter the blood stream, they can travel and eventually colonize the uterus. That triggers an immune response, which can inflame the uterus and eventually cause a mother to go into labour prematurely.

To identify bacteria behind preterm labour, doctors used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using PCR, the scientists identified the Bergeyella bacterium, as well as DNA belonging to 10 or 11 different strains of newly identified bacteria. Now that doctors know about another link to preterm labour, the next step is to treat it. Antibiotics that specifically target these new bacteria are currently being tested.

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Bug That Causes Bad Breath Nailed

Solobacterium moorei is the organism largely responsible for chronic bad breath, or halitosis, biologists reported at the annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research in Dallas.

Persistent bad breath, which can be very embarrassing, is often caused by the breakdown of bacteria in the mouth, producing foul-smelling sulphur compounds that reside on the surface of the tongue.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

“Tongue bacteria produce malodorous compounds and fatty acids, and account for 80 to 90% of all cases of bad breath,” said Betsy Clark, a student at the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine.

Some cases of bad breath originate in the lungs or sinuses.

In a study of 21 people with chronic bad breath and 36 subjects without this problem, Clark and colleagues found S moorei in every patient that had halitosis compared with only four comparison subjects. The four people without halitosis infected with S moorei all had periodontitis, an infection of the gums that can also lead to chronically bad breath.

In a previous study of eight patients with halitosis and five without, S moorei was “always found in patients with halitosis and never in patients who did not have this problem,” Dr Violet I Haraszthy, who was involved in both studies, noted. “A number of other studies have also found this bacterium in halitosis patients.”

Sources: The Times Of India

Getting the Lead Out

There is no question that lead poses a serious health risk to children. Exposure to lead can lower a child’s intelligence and lead to learning disabilities, hyperactivity, and reduced attention span.

Even though doctors and scientists cannot dispute the harmful effects of lead, they cannot seem to agree on just how much lead is dangerous. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of a child’s blood as the threshold at which problems begin. About 1.6 % of American children ages one to five have blood lead levels (BLL) above this limit, according to the CDC. However, even levels below the cut-off can cause neu­rological problems, the CDC said in a recent report. Scientific research indicates that there really is no  safe threshold for children’s blood lead levels.

Lead paint is one of the leading sources of lead expo­sure in children, along with contaminated soil, dust, and drinking water. Most homes built before 1960 contain lead paint   that’s about four million homes in the U.S., according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Home remodeling makes up a big part of children’s lead exposure, experts say.

Protecting Your Kids from Lead Exposure:....CLICK & SEE

Regardless of which blood lead level is most dangerous, it’s a good idea to avoid exposing your kids to lead as much as possible. The following checklist, from the book 365 Ways to Keep Kids Safe (Balloon Press), can help you spot potential lead dangers and keep your kids away from this toxic substance.

*Test your children for lead. This is especially important if you live in an older home. A routine lead level test is simple to take an usually costs around $25. Have your children screened for lead once a year until they reach age three, then once every five years.

*Test your home for lead. A home lead test is the only way to determine if you have lead in your home, and if so, how much there is. Don’t try to test yourself, though. Although many companies advertise do-it-yourself tests, these tests are unreliable. You’re better off calling an EPA-certified examiner. To find an examiner, call the National Lead Infor­mation Center (NLIC) at 1-800-424-LEAD.

*Check for lead outside. Contaminated soil is a sig­nificant source of lead, especially when that soil is located close to high-traffic roads or old buildings. Your kids can easily track in lead-tainted dirt when they go outside to play. If you  are concerned about lead near your home, the EPA-certified examiner you call to check the inside of your home can also test the soil outside of it.

*Know where your water travels. Many homes contain lead pipes, which can leech lead into your drinking water. To clean up your water, the EPA advises that you use a NSF International water filter. To learn more about these filters, visit the NSF website at http://www.nsf.org/consumer/drinking_water/dw_treatment.asp?program=WaterTre. You can also contact your local water authority to find out whether or not they are doing anything to reduce lead in the water supply, and to have your water tested for lead.

*Change your wallpaper. If your home contains wallpaper that was made before 1978, it may contain lead. Consider removing it and painting or re-wallpapering your walls.

*Check your blinds. Several types of mini-blinds, especially those made in the Far East, can contain high levels of lead. Ask your lead examiner to check your blinds. If they do contain lead, have them replaced.

*Be aware of playground lead dangers. Metal equipment on public playgrounds may be covered with lead paint, and if the equipment is not well maintained that paint can chip onto the ground and come into direct contact with children. Call your local department of recreation and ask if the playground contains any lead paint.

Source:kidsgrowth.com

Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

Lead Poisoning Remains a Problem in the United StatesBut it is Preventable

Lead has no known value to the human body and can adversely affect nearly every body system. Because lead poisoning often occurs with no obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. Therefore, many children with lead poisoning go undiagnosed and untreated.

Young children are particularly at risk for lead exposure because they have frequent hand-to-mouth activity and absorb lead more easily than do adults. Children’s nervous systems are still undergoing development and thus are more susceptible to the effects of toxic agents. Lead is also harmful to the developing fetuses of pregnant women.

Low levels of lead can cause reduced intelligence and attention span, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. Very high lead levels (blood lead levels 70[micro]g/ dL or greater) can cause severe neurological problems such as coma, convulsions, and even death. Such levels are now rare in the United States.

No safe blood lead level in children has been determined. About 310,000 U.S. children aged 1-5 years have blood lead levels greater than 10[micro]g/dL, the level targeted for elimination by 2010.

What is Lead?
Lead is a naturally occurring, bluish-gray metal found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. Lead contamination is widespread in the modern environment. Much of it comes from human activities including burning leaded gasoline, mining, and manufacturing. Lead is still used in many products today. It is used in batteries, ammunition, metal products (solder and pipes), and devices to shield x-rays. However, lead in paint is the main high-dose source of lead exposure to U.S. children today.

Lead was widely used in paint through the 1940s. That use declined during the 1950s and 1960s, and lead was banned from paint for residential use in 1978. Even so, lead remains a hazard in homes built before the ban, especially in pre-1950 housing. According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, nearly 38 million housing units contain lead-based paint.

The most common sources of lead exposure for children are chips and particles of deteriorated lead paint. Although children may be exposed to lead from paint directly by swallowing paint chips, they are more commonly exposed by ingesting house dust or soil contaminated by leaded paint. Lead paint chips become ground into tiny bits that become part of the dust and soil in and around homes. This usually occurs when leaded paint deteriorates or is subject to friction or abrasion (as on doors and windowsills and wells). In addition, lead can be dispersed when paint is disturbed during demolition, remodeling, paint removal, or preparation of painted surfaces for repainting.

Lead also may be found in other sources. These sources may be the exposure source for as many as 30% of lead-poisoned children in certain areas across the United States. They include:

* Traditional home health remedies such as azarcon and greta, which are used for upset stomach or indigestion, and paylooah, which is used for rash or fever

* Some imported candies (specifically those from Mexico)

* Imported toy jewelry

* Some imported cosmetics

* Pottery and ceramics

* Drinking water contaminated by lead leached from lead pipes, solder, brass fixtures, or valves

* Consumer products, including tea kettles and sidewalk chalk

Additionally, a variety of work and hobby activities and products expose adults to lead. This also can result in lead exposure for their families. Activities that are associated with lead exposure include indoor firing range use, home repairs and remodeling, and pottery making. “Take-home” exposures may result when people whose jobs expose them to lead wear their work clothes home or wash them with the family laundry. It also may result when they bring scrap or waste material home from work.

Prevention Strategies:

The goal is to prevent lead exposure to children before they are harmed. There are many ways parents can reduce a child’s exposure to lead. The key is stop children from coming into contact with lead. Lead hazards in a child’s environment must be identified and controlled or removed safely.

Lead-based paint is the major source of exposure for lead in U.S. children. All houses built before 1978 are likely to contain some lead-based paint. However, it is the deterioration of this paint that causes a problem. You should determine the construction year of the house or the dwelling where the child may spend a large amount of time (e.g., grandparents or daycare). In housing built before 1978, assume that the paint has lead unless tests show otherwise.

* Talk to your state or local health department about testing paint and dust from your home for lead.

* Make sure your child does not have access to peeling paint or chewable surfaces painted with lead-based paint.

* Pregnant women and children should not be present in housing built before 1978 that is undergoing renovation. They should not participate in activities that disturb old paint or in cleaning up paint debris after work is completed.

* Create barriers between living/play areas and lead sources. Until environmental clean-up is completed, parents should clean and isolate all sources of lead. They should close and lock doors to keep children away from chipping or peeling paint on walls. You can also apply temporary barriers such as contact paper or duct tape, to cover holes in walls or to block children’s access to other sources of lead.

* Regularly wash children’s hands and toys. Hands and toys can become contaminated from household dust or exterior soil. Both are known lead sources.

* Regularly wet-mop floors and wet-wipe window components. Because household dust is a major source of lead, parents should wet-mop floors and wet-wipe horizontal surfaces every 2-3 weeks. Windowsills and wells can contain high levels of leaded dust. They should be kept clean. If feasible, windows should be shut to prevent abrasion of painted surfaces or opened from the top sash.

* Prevent children from playing in bare soil; if possible, provide them with sandboxes. Parents should plant grass on areas of bare soil or cover the soil with grass seed, mulch, or wood chips, if possible. Until the bare soil is covered, parents should move play areas away from bare soil and away from the sides of the house. If using a sandbox, parents should also cover the box when not in use to prevent cats from using it as a litter box. That will help protect children from exposure to animal waste.

To further reduce a child’s exposure from nonpaint sources:

* Avoid using traditional home remedies and cosmetics that may contain lead.

* Avoid eating candies imported from Mexico.

* Avoid using containers, cookware, or tableware to store or cook foods or liquids that are not shown to be lead-free.

* Use only cold water from the tap for drinking, cooking, and for making baby formula. Hot water is more likely to contain higher levels of lead. Most of the lead in household water usually comes from the plumbing in your house, not from the local water supply.

* Shower and change clothes after finishing a task that involves working with lead-based products such as stained glass work, bullet making, or using a firing range.

If you are concerned that your child may have been exposed to lead, ask your doctor for a blood lead test. This simple test is the ONLY way to know for sure that your child does not have an elevated blood lead level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children ages 6-72 months who live in or frequently visit older buildings, including day care centers, have a blood lead test. Siblings, housemates, visitors, and playmates of children with confirmed lead poisoning may have similar exposures to lead and should be promptly tested. Children may also be exposed to other sources, such as those mentioned above, and should have a blood lead test. Children who have recently moved to the United States should be tested as well.

Source:kidsgrowth.com