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Artemisia capillaries

 

Botanical Name : Artemisia capillaries
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. scoparia
Order: Asterales

Common Names : Yin Chen Hao
English Name:Capillary Wormwood Herb
Pin Yin Name:Yin Chen

Other Pin Yin Name:Mian Yin Chen,Bai Hao,Rong Hao,Song Mao Ai,Ma Xian,Po Po Hao,Ye Lan Hao

Habitat :Artemisia capillaries  is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. It  grows on  the grassy thickets, and along rivers and seashores, C. and S. Japan. Humid slopes, hills, terraces, roadsides and river banks at elevations of 100 – 2700 metres in China.

Description:
Artemisia capillaris is a deciduous perennial herb or subshrub.Stem erect height 0.5 to 1 m,root woody,surface color yellow brown,vertical stripin,branches;seedling covered with brown silk hair,hairless when grow up.Bottom Leaf split wide and short,covered with short silky foliage;middle leaf split long and slim as hair,1mm width;top leaf split into 3 parts or no split,no hair.capitulum small and numerous,flower color yellow,pipe like,outer layer 3 to 5 bud,female,fertible,inner layer bisexual 5 to 7,infertility.Fruit long round shape width 0.8mm,hairless.Flowering during September to October.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.

Click to see the pictures.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, succeeding in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. This species is probably not hardy in all parts of Britain, it tolerates temperatures down to at least -5°c. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in spring or autumn.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves and stems – soaked and boiled

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial;  Anticholesterolemic;  Antiviral;  CholagogueDiureticFebrifugeHepatic;  Vasodilator.

Yin Chen Hao has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2,000 years. It is considered to be a bitter and cooling herb, clearing “damp heat” from the liver and gall ducts and relieving fevers. It is an effective remedy for liver problems, being specifically helpful in treating hepatitis with jaundice. Modern research has confirmed that the plant has a tonic and strengthening effect upon the liver, gallbladder and digestive system. The leaves and young shoots are antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, antiviral, cholagogue, diuretic, febrifuge and vasodilator. An infusion is used internally in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis, gall bladder complaints and feverish illnesses. Externally it has been applied in the form of a plaster for treating headaches. The plant is harvested in late spring and can be dried for later use. Yin Chen Hao is contraindicated for pregnant women

Yin chen hao is an effective remedy for liver problems, being specifically helpful for treating hepatitis with jaundice.  Traditional Chinese medicine holds that it is bitter and cooling, clearing “damp heat” from the liver and gall ducts and relieving fevers.  Yin chen hao is also anti-inflammatory and diuretic.  It was formerly used in a plaster for headaches.  Research indicates that yin chen hao has a tonic and strengthening effect on the liver and gallbladder and digestive system.  It is an effective remedy for liver problems, being specifically helpful in treating hepatitis with jaundice.    An infusion of the young shoots is used internally in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis, gall bladder complaints and feverish illnesses. Externally it has been applied in the form of a plaster for treating headaches.

Known Hazards : Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper05203.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+capillaris
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/25983/4.%20Capillaris.htm

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Blood Clots

Alternative Names: Clot; Emboli; Thrombi

Definition:
Blood is a liquid that flows within blood vessels. It is constantly in motion as the heart pumps blood through arteries to the different organs and cells of the body. The blood is returned back to the heart by the veins. Veins are squeezed when muscles in the body contract and push the blood back to the heart.

Blood clotting is an important mechanism to help the body repair injured blood vessels.

Blood consists of:

•red blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide (the waste product of metabolism),

•white blood cells that fight infection,

•platelets that are part of the clotting process of the body, and

•blood plasma, which contains fluid, chemicals and proteins that are important for bodily functions.

Complex mechanisms exist in the bloodstream to form clots where they are needed. If the lining of the blood vessels becomes damaged, platelets are recruited to the injured area to form an initial plug. These activated platelets release chemicals that start the clotting cascade, using a series of clotting factors produced by the body. Ultimately, fibrin is formed, the protein that crosslinks with itself to form a mesh that makes up the final blood clot.

The medical term for a blood clot is a thrombus (plural= thrombi). When a thrombus is formed as part of a normal repair process of the body, there is little consequence. Unfortunately, there are times when a thrombus (blood clot) will form when it is not needed, and this can have potentially significant consequences.
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Thousands more people will have long term health problems as a result of a blood clot in the vein. Many of these people would have been completely unaware that they were at increased risk of venous thrombosis, so missing out on treatment which could be life saving.

Clots can form in any vein deep within the body, but most often can be found in the deep veins of the leg. These deep vein thromboses (DVT) form in the calf or lower leg, behind the knee, in the thigh or in the veins passing through the pelvis.
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Each year more than one in every thousand people in the UK develops a blood clot in a vein, known as a venous thrombosis. For as many as 25,000, the clot will prove fatal; more deaths than from breast cancer, HIV and road traffic accidents combined.

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Causes and risk factors:
There are several factors that significantly increase someone’s risk of developing a venous thrombosis:

•Slowing of blood flow through the veins, for example when someone is confined to bed by illness or to a chair on a long journey.
•Damage to the walls of the blood vessels, for example during surgery on the legs, hips or pelvis, or as a result of age-related changes.
•An increased tendency of the blood to clot, because of inherited problems with the blood’s clotting system, cancer, or the hormone changes of pregnancy (or the contraceptive pill).
You may click to see :Family history linked to increased blood clot risk

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Those particularly at risk include:

•The elderly – one in 100 over the age of 80 are at risk.
•Those who are immobile, because of illness, surgery or travel.
•People undergoing surgery on the hips and knees. More than half of those people having a total hip replacement will develop a DVT if not given preventative medicine.
•Heart attack or stroke patients.
•People with cancer, especially after surgery or if they’re having chemotherapy.
•Women during pregnancy, or if they’re using the contraceptive pill or HRT.
•Those with previous blood clotting problems (including inherited abnormalities of clotting which are much more common than most people realise).
•Smokers.
If the DVT damages the delicate valves which help keep blood flowing upwards towards the heart, a condition called post-phlebitic syndrome may develop (occurring in one in five after a DVT). As a result, blood pools in the lower leg, increasing pressure in the vessels, causing swelling of the leg and ankle and a heavy sensation, especially after walking or standing. Skin ulcers may also develop.
Symptoms:
When the clot forms, it blocks the vein, preventing blood from draining from the limb as it should. The result is that the leg becomes swollen and painful, may change colour (turning pale, blue or reddish-purple) or the skin appears tight or shiny.

More worrying is the risk that part of the clot will break away, forming what is known as an embolus which travels around the circulation, through the heart and into the lungs where it blocks a blood vessel. This is known as a pulmonary embolus (PE) and estimates suggest that as many as 50 per cent of those with a DVT will go on to develop a PE.

The symptoms of PE include chest pain and shortness of breath, which may be sudden and severe. Although some people develop a PE without noticing any symptoms, it can be extremely dangerous and cause damage to the lung tissues proving fatal in as many as one in ten unless treated.

Long term complications include chronic pulmonary hypertension, where the pressure in the blood vessels of the lung remains persistently high.

Possible Complications:
Thrombi and emboli can firmly attach to a blood vessel. They can partially or completely block the flow of blood in that vessel.

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A blockage in the blood vessel prevents normal blood flow and oxygen from reaching the tissues in that location. This is called ischemia. If ischemia is not treated promptly, it can result in tissue damage, or death of the tissues in that area.


Diagnosis
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Symptoms of a DVT or PE may be minimal and can often go undiagnosed. When suspected, it can be difficult to reach a definite diagnosis because tests aren’t straightforward and don’t always give a clear result.

Tests include:
•A blood test known as a D-dimer (although a negative result means that a clot is unlikely, a positive can occur in a number of other illnesses so it is not specific for a DVT or PE).
•An ultrasound scan (good for showing a clot behind the knee or in the thigh, but not so accurate for a DVT in the calf). A special type of ultrasound, known as Doppler ultrasound, is increasingly used and can show how fast the blood is flowing through the veins.
•An x-ray dye test known as a venogram (more invasive than ultrasound).
•MRI or CT scans.
•Ventilation/perfusion scan, where the parts of the lung being filled with air are compared with those with blood flowing through them.

Treatment and prevention:
Once a DVT or PE has been diagnosed, treatment is started to thin the blood (known as anticoagulant therapy), reducing the risk that the clot will grow or spread.

Immediate treatment is given in the form of injections of a drug called heparin, and warfarin tablets, which take several days to build effect. When the cause of the clot formation is clear, such as after surgery, treatment is continued for three months, but when there’s no obvious cause it may be continued for six months or even indefinitely.

The effects of warfarin can vary. Other illnesses and treatments, or even a change in diet, can interfere and it’s quite easy to become over – or under – coagulated, leading to a risk of either a haemorrhage or further clots. Those taking warfarin must have regular blood tests to monitor their clotting levels, and the dose of warfarin adjusted accordingly.

Newer drugs are being developed which are more consistent in their effect and which one day may replace warfarin.

When someone is known to be at risk of venous thrombosis, clots can be prevented by taking a few simple steps and giving small doses of anti-coagulant drugs.

Herbal Treatment:-There are certain proven herbal treatments for thrombosis. One of the most prominent herbal treatments for thrombosis is sweet potato. Scientifically it is called Ipomoea batatas. However in the US of A it is popularly known as Yam. This herbal fruit is an antioxidant. It is also abundant in Vitamin A and C.  This being the case it is very effective in treating thrombosis. Another very potent herbal treatment for thrombosis is lemon.  The imbibing of 300 ml of lemon juice for 2 months would lessen the symptoms of thrombosis. These herbal treatments have been tried with success by scores of people with success.

During long distance travel, or other periods of immobility, you should:

•Keep well hydrated
•Wear elastic compression stockings to support blood flow through the veins (it’s important that these are put on correctly)
•Take a little exercise at frequent intervals (if stuck in a seat, carry out simple leg exercises in the chair such as flexing your ankles).
Heparin treatment will reduce the risk of DVT following cancer treatment or hip or knee surgery by 70 per cent. People having major surgery have a 30 per cent risk of DVT which is reduced by about 60 per cent with anti-coagulants.

If you’re going into hospital for an operation or other treatment you should be assessed for your risk of developing a blood clot and in most cases will be offered preventative treatment with anti-coagulant injections. Compression stockings may also be used.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bloodclots1.shtml
http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/deep-venous-thrombosis/overview.html
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/blood-clots/MY00109/DSECTION=causes
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001124.htm

http://www.herbalgranny.com/2009/08/24/herbal-treatment-for-thrombosis/

Now, Heart Can be Repaired Through the Wrist

For the first time, cardiologists at the University of Illinois and Jesse Brown VA medical centers have repaired an ailing heart by clearing Now, heart can  blocked arteries via the wrist.
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Called transradial angiography, the approach might lead to reduced patient complications and recovery time and decreased hospital costs. The cardiologists offered the approach to heart angiograms and clearing blocked arteries.

In the procedure, a catheter is threaded through the small radial artery in the wrist rather than the larger femoral artery in the groin.

“It’s a simple change that has a dramatic impact on the experience and recovery of the patient,” said Dr. Adhir Shroff, assistant professor of cardiology at UIC.

The transradial approach can reduce bleeding— the most common complication, particularly among women and the elderly— to under 1 percent. It also eliminates much of the discomfort associated with the procedure.

After a standard angiogram and angioplasty through the femoral artery, the patient needs to lie still on his or her back for four to six hours.

Shroff said that this can be very uncomfortable for elderly patients with back problems and walking can be uncomfortable for days.

On the other hand, patients who have the procedure done via the wrist can immediately sit up, eat, and walk without pain, said Shroff.

“The issue is really just the learning-curve. The change requires dozens of small changes — everything from redesigning the sterile drape so that the openings are at the wrist rather than the leg and finding smaller needles, wires and catheters to the way the table is set up,” said Shroff.

Source: The Times Of India

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Echocardiogram

Definition
An echocardiogram uses sound waves to produce images of your heart. This common test allows your doctor to see how your heart is beating and pumping blood. Your doctor can use the images from an echocardiogram to identify various abnormalities in the heart muscle and valves.

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It determines the size of your heart, and assess how well it is functioning. The test can estimate how forcefully your heart is pumping blood, and can spot areas of the heart wall that have been injured by a previous heart attack or some other cause.

Depending on what information your doctor needs, you may have one of several types of echocardiograms. Each type of echocardiogram has very few risks involved.

Why it’s done
Your doctor may suggest an echocardiogram if he or she suspects problems with the valves or chambers of your heart or your heart’s ability to pump. An echocardiogram can also be used to detect congenital heart defects in unborn babies.

Depending on what information your doctor needs, you may have one of the following kinds of echocardiograms:

*Transthoracic echocardiogram. This is a standard, noninvasive echocardiogram. A technician (sonographer) spreads gel on your chest and then presses a device known as a transducer firmly against your skin, aiming an ultrasound beam through your chest to your heart. The transducer records the sound wave echoes your heart produces. A computer converts the echoes into moving images on a monitor. If your lungs or ribs obscure the view, a small amount of intravenous dye may be used to improve the images.

*Transesophageal echocardiogram. If it’s difficult to get a clear picture of your heart with a standard echocardiogram, your doctor may recommend a transesophageal echocardiogram. In this procedure, a flexible tube containing a transducer is guided down your throat and into your esophagus, which connects your mouth to your stomach. From there, the transducer can obtain more detailed images of your heart.

*Doppler echocardiogram. When sound waves bounce off blood cells moving through your heart and blood vessels, they change pitch. These changes (Doppler signals) can help your doctor measure the speed and direction of the blood flow in your heart. Doppler techniques are used in most transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms.

*Stress echocardiogram. Some heart problems — particularly those involving the coronary arteries that feed your heart muscle — occur only during physical activity. For a stress echocardiogram, ultrasound images of your heart are taken before and immediately after walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike. If you’re unable to exercise, you may get an injection of a medication to make your heart work as hard as if you were exercising.

Risk Factors:
There are minimal risks associated with a standard transthoracic echocardiogram. You may feel some discomfort similar to pulling off an adhesive bandage when the technician removes the electrodes placed on your chest during the procedure.

If you have a transesophageal echocardiogram, your throat may be sore for a few hours afterward. Rarely, the tube may scrape the inside of your throat. Your oxygen level will be monitored during the exam to check for any breathing problems caused by the sedation medication.

During a stress echocardiogram, exercise or medication — not the echocardiogram itself — may temporarily cause an irregular heartbeat. Serious complications, such as a heart attack, are rare.

How do you prepare for the test?
No special preparations are necessary for a standard transthoracic echocardiogram. Your doctor will ask you not to eat for a few hours beforehand if you’re having a transesophageal or stress echocardiogram. If you’ll be walking on a treadmill during a stress echocardiogram, wear comfortable shoes. If you’re having a transesophageal echocardiogram, you won’t be able to drive afterward because of the sedating medication you’ll receive. Be sure to make arrangements to get home before you have your test.

What happens when the test is performed?

During the procedure
An echocardiogram can be done in the doctor’s office or a hospital. After undressing from the waist up, you’ll lie on an examining table or bed. The technician will attach sticky patches (electrodes) to your body to help detect and conduct the electrical currents of your heart.

If you’ll have a transesophageal echocardiogram, your throat will be numbed with a numbing spray or gel. You’ll likely be given a sedative to help you relax.

During the echocardiogram, the technician will dim the lights to better view the image on the monitor. You may hear a pulsing “whoosh” sound, which is the machine recording the blood flowing through your heart.

Most echocardiograms take less than an hour, but the timing may vary depending on your condition. During a transthoracic echocardiogram, you may be asked to breathe in a certain way or to roll onto your left side. Sometimes the transducer must be held very firmly against your chest. This can be uncomfortable – but it helps the technician produce the best images of your heart.

After the procedure
If your echocardiogram is normal, no further testing may be needed. If the results are concerning, you may be referred to a heart specialist (cardiologist) for further assessment. Treatment depends on what’s found during the exam and your specific signs and symptoms. You may need a repeat echocardiogram in several months or other diagnostic tests, such as a cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan or coronary angiogram.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
If a doctor does the test, you might get some results immediately. If a technician performs the test, he or she records the echocardiogram on a videotape for a cardiologist to review later on. In this case, you’ll probably receive results in several days.

Results:
Your doctor will look for healthy heart valves and chambers, as well as normal heartbeats. Information from the echocardiogram can reveal many aspects of your heart health, including:

*Heart size. Weakened or damaged heart valves, high blood pressure or other diseases can cause the chambers of your heart to enlarge. Your doctor can use an echocardiogram to evaluate the need for treatment or monitor treatment effectiveness.

*Pumping strength. An echocardiogram can help your doctor determine your heart’s pumping strength. Specific measurements may include the percentage of blood that’s pumped out of a filled ventricle with each heartbeat (ejection fraction) or the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute (cardiac output). If your heart isn’t pumping enough blood to meet your body’s needs, heart failure may be a concern.

*Damage to the heart muscle. During an echocardiogram, your doctor can determine whether all parts of the heart wall are contributing equally to your heart’s pumping activity. Parts that move weakly may have been damaged during a heart attack or be receiving too little oxygen. This may indicate coronary artery disease or various other conditions.

*Valve problems. An echocardiogram shows how your heart valves move as your heart beats. Your doctor can determine if the valves open wide enough for adequate blood flow or close fully to prevent blood leakage. Abnormal blood flow patterns and conditions such as aortic valve stenosis — when the heart’s aortic valve is narrowed — can be detected as well.

*Heart defects. Many heart defects can be detected with an echocardiogram, including problems with the heart chambers, abnormal connections between the heart and major blood vessels, and complex heart defects that are present at birth. Echocardiograms can even be used to monitor a baby’s heart development before birth.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/echocardiogram.shtml
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/echocardiogram/MY00095

http://www.sads.org.uk/cardiac_tests.htm

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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease that results in the arteries becoming narrowed. the condition can affect arteries in any area of the body and is a major cause of stroke, heart attack and poor circulation in the legs. the arteries become narrowed when fatty substances, such as cholesterol, that are carried in the blood accumulate on the side lining of the arteries and form yellow deposits called artheroma. these deposits restrict the blood flow through the arteries. in addition, the muscle layer of the artery wall becomes thickened, narrowing the artery even more. platelets (tiny blood cells responsible for clothing) may collect in clumps on the surface of the deposits and initiate the formation of blood clots. a large clot may then completely block the artery and result on an organ being deprived of oxygen.

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Atherosclerosis is much more common in the US and northern Europe than in developing countries in Africa and Asia. the condition also becomes more common with increasing age. In the US, autopsies on young men who have died in accidents reveal that nearly all have some artheroma in their large arteries, and most people who die in middle age are found to have widespread atherosclerosis when autopsied. however, the condition rarely causes Symptoms until age 45-50, and many people do not realize that they have Atherosclerosis until they experience a heart attack or stroke.

The female sex hormone estrogen helps protect against the development of atherosclerosis,, as a result, the incidence of atherosclerosis is much lower in women before menopause than in men. By age 60, the risk of women developing atherosclerosis has increased until it is equal with the risk for men. however, women who take hormone replacement therapy, which contains estrogen, may continue to be protected.

What are the causes?
The risk of developing atherosclerosis is determined largely by the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream, which depends on dietary and genetic factors. Since cholesterol levels are closely linked with diet, atherosclerosis is most common in western counties where people eat a diet high in fat. Some disorders such as diabetes mellitus can b associated with a high cholesterol level regardless of diet. Certain inherited disorders also result in a high level of fats in the blood.

In addition to high blood cholesterols levels, factors that make atherosclerosis more likely are smoking, not exercising regularly, having high blood pressure, and being overweight, especially if a lot of fat is around the waist.

What are the symptoms?
There are usually no symptoms in the early stages of atherosclerosis. later, symptoms are caused by the reduced or total absence of blood supply to the organs supplied by the affected arteries. If the coronary arteries, which supply the heart muscle, are partially blocked, symptoms may include the chest pain of angina. if there is a complete blockage in the coronary artery, there may be a sudden, often fatal, heart attack. Many strokes are a result of atherosclerosis in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. If atherosclerosis affects the arteries in the legs, the first symptom may be cramping pain when walking caused by poor blood flow to the leg muscles. If atherosclerosis is associated with an inherited lipid disorder, fatty deposits may develop on tendons or under the skin in visible lumps.

How is it diagnosed?
Since atherosclerosis has no symptoms until blood flow has been restricted, it is important to screen for the disorder before it becomes advanced and damages organs. Routine medical checkups include screening for the major risks factors of atherosclerosis, particularly raised blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus. Some current recommendations suggest that all adults should have their cholesterol levels measured at intervals of at least every 5 years after age 20.

If you develop symptoms of atherosclerosis, your doctor may arrange tests to assess the damage both to the arteries and to the organs they supply. Blood flow in affected blood vessels can be imaged by doppler ultrasound scanning or coronary angiography. If your doctor thinks that the coronary arteries are affected, an ecg may be carried out to monitor the electrical activity of the heart and imaging techniques, such as angiography and radionuclide scanning may be used to look at the blood supply to the heart. Some of these tests may be done as you exercise to check how the heart functions when it is put under stress.(TMT)

What is the treatment?
The best treatment is to prevent atherosclerosis from progressing. preventive measures include following a healthy lifestyle by eating a low-fat diet, not smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining the recommended weight for your height. These measures led to lower than average risk of developing significant atherosclerosis.

If you are in a good state of health but have been found to have a high blood cholesterol level, your doctor will advise you to adopt a low-fat diet. You may also be offered drugs that decrease your blood cholesterol level. For people who have had a heart attack, research has shown that there may be a benefit in lowering blood cholesterol levels, even if the cholesterol level is within the average range for healthy people.

If you have atherosclerosis and are experiencing symptoms of the condition, your doctor may describe a drug such as aspirin to reduce the risk of blood clots forming on the damaged artery lining.

Ayurvedic Recomendation: Arjunin , Cholecurb
Ayurvedic Recommended Therapy: Virechan

What is the prognosis?
A healthy diet and lifestyle can slow the development of atherosclerosis in most people. if you do have a myocardial infarction or a stroke, you can reduce risk of having further complications by taking preventive measures.

Click to learn about Atherosclerosis

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Source: http://www.charak.com/DiseasePage.asp?thx=1&id=187