Tag Archives: Animal testing

Aristolochia contorta

 

Botanical Name : Aristolochia contorta
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamily: Aristolochioideae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species : Aristolochia contorta
Order: Piperales

Synonyms : A. nipponica.

Common Name: Ma Dou Ling

Habitat : E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. .-Aug. Grows in edges of mountain woods.

Description:
Aristolochia contorta is a  perennial  herb, growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.

…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The shrub  has  stout elongated rhizomes. Stem slender, glabrous. Leaves alternate, cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 4-10 cm long, 3.5-8 cm wide, acute or obtuse at tip, cordate at base, entire, petioles 1-7 cm long.(CLICK & SEE) Peduncles axillary, 1-4 cm long, with prominent bracts at base. Flowers few in axils, fascicled, the pedicels 1-4 cm long; the calyx tubular, inflated and globose at base, loosely pilose inside; the limb dilated, obliquely truncate, narrowly deltoid, long-acuminate to a filiform point; stamens 6, ovary inferior. Fruit a capsule,globose, 3 cm in diameter, 6 valved. Jul.-Aug……...CLICK & SEE

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter, in sun or semi-shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers that are pollinated by flies.

Propagation
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Medicinal Uses;
Antiasthmatic;  Antiseptic;  Antitussive;  Cancer;  Expectorant;  Sedative.

The fruit and its capsule are antiasthmatic, antiseptic, antitussive and expectorant. A decoction of the fruit is used in the treatment of cancer, coughs, inflammation of the respiratory organs, haemorrhoids and hypertension. It is also used to resolve phlegm and lower blood pressure. It has an antibacterial action, effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, bacillus dysentericae etc. The root contains aristolochic acid. This has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aristolochic acid can also be used in the treatment of acute and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia. It also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells. Aristolochic acid is said to be too toxic for clinical use. The root is used as a purgative in the treatment of rabies and also has sedative properties.

A decoction of the fruit is used in the treatment of cancer, coughs, inflammation of the respiratory organs, hemorrhoids and hypertension. It is also used to resolve phlegm and lower blood pressure. It has an antibacterial action, effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, bacillus dysentericae etc. The root contains aristolochic acid. This has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aristolochic acid can also be used in the treatment of acute and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia. It also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells. Aristolochic acid is said to be too toxic for clinical use. The root is used as a purgative in the treatment of rabies and also has sedative properties.

Known Hazards:  No specific details for this species is found but most members of this genus have poisonous roots and stems. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aristolochia+contorta
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_contorta
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/files/pub/97/33.pdf

Enhanced by Zemanta
Advertisements

Could Stem Cells Make You More Beautiful?

Stem Cells Could Have Cosmetic Applications, but They’re Likely Far Off.

The prospect is a tantalizing one. To erase wrinkles and fine lines, or to get bigger breasts, without cosmetic surgery. Forget silicone, forget collagen. All you would need is stem-cell therapy.

Realistically speaking, though, such applications remain a pipe dream.

Of course, it wouldn’t be the first time a medical therapy had been bent in the direction of aesthetics. Take a look at Botox   the deadly botulinum toxin initially used to treat spasms is now used to improve the appearance of frown lines.

And while stem-cell applications for the vanity market may have to wait, some researchers have begun to research the possibilities of stem cells in plastic and reconstructive medicine.

“Stem-cell research appears promising for medicine and particularly for plastic surgery,” said Dr. Ronald Friedman, director of the West Plano Plastic Surgery Center and a board-certified plastic surgeon practicing in Plano, Tex.

“Hair follicular stem cells, tooth stem cells and skin stem cells all show therapeutic promise,” said Denis English, editor in chief of the journal Stem Cells and Development and director of cell biology at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Fla. “These can restore hair to a bald man, teeth to those in need and skin to scarred patients.”

The use of stem cells to regenerate tissue is believed to hold promise because stem cells can be nudged to develop into specialized cell types. And some researchers have turned an eye toward stem cells for this very purpose.

In October, a University of Pittsburgh team led by Dr. Peter Rubin received a three-year grant from the National Cancer Institute to explore the possibility of using stem cells derived from a patient’s own fat. Rubin, assistant professor of plastic surgery and co-director of the university’s Adipose Stem Cell Center, used those stem cells to create a durable, shaped piece of replacement tissue.

The research may one day allow breast cancer survivors to take advantage of a natural replacement after a mastectomy.

But with these possible applications in reconstruction, could cosmetic applications be far behind?

“Naturally, the public shows more interest in applications like breast augmentation,” said Dr. Peter Constantino, director of the Center for Facial Reconstruction and Restoration at Roosevelt Hospital in New York.

“In our society, there is such a huge demand for these rejuvenation surgeries, despite their significant risks, that the pragmatist in me cannot deny the likelihood that it will not be long before someone offers a two-stage procedure starting with liposuction followed by injection of these autologous stem cells for breast augmentation or into the face to rejuvenate,” said Dr. Daniel Salomon of the department of molecular and experimental medicine at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif.

Real-World Applications Still Far Off
Though initial research into the potential of stem cells in reconstructive surgery is promising, actual applications    particularly those of a purely cosmetic nature    are still distant.

“This is still very far in the future, except for tabloid speculation,” said Dr. Garry Brody, professor emeritus of plastic and reconstructive surgery at the University of Southern California’s Keck School of Medicine in Los Angeles. “By the time it becomes practical    and affordable    I suspect it will be beyond our lifetimes.”

“Stem cells do have the potential to revolutionize things, but it is not “just around the corner,'” said Constantino. “You can’t just inject ‘fat’ stem cells into a breast and just assume that it’s going to make a nice-looking breast. You could just end up with something fairly lumpy and unappealing.”

The cosmetic applications of stem cells are “25 to 30 years away, at the earliest,” said Thoru Pederson of the department of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Mass.

Yet some studies are already under way.
“We are starting to see clinical trials with stem cells for reconstructive surgery,” Rubin said. “A group from Japan reported on enriching liposuctioned fat with fat-derived stem cells and using the material successfully for breast enlargement.”

Cosmetic Uses of Stem Cells a Low Priority
Most experts agree, however, that many other potentially curative and life-saving applications of stem cells take precedence over cosmetic uses.

“Applications to rejuvenation or enhanced personal appearance are much harder to justify at this point and will be driven more by market forces in affluent countries   not just the U.S. certainly    rather than by science,” Salomon said.

“In my opinion, use of any cells for cosmetic surgery is still problematic,” said Dr. Darwin Prockop, director of the Center for Gene Therapy at Tulane University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans. “The trials that can be justified are in patients with terminal diseases in which the potential risks and benefits are carefully evaluated.”

“In all honesty, the more promising (and more quickly realized) aspects of stem cell use in plastic and reconstructive surgery will probably be in producing skin replacement grafts on a large scale,” Constantino said. “This could help many, many burn and chronic wound patients.”

But for now?
“Though there is an enormous amount of promise with stem cells in plastic and reconstructive surgery, the devil is in some pretty important details,” Constantino said.

Source:ABC News.

Magnetic Therapy

Magnetic therapy is a safe, non-invasive method of applying magnetic fields to the body for therapeutic purposes. It helps to speed the healing process and improve quality of sleep without any adverse side effects. Whether used independently or as an adjunct to your current treatment, magnetic therapy is very effective for the relief of discomfort due to joint and muscle pain, inflammation, and stiffness, making it an excellent choice for everyone……..CLICK & SEE

Over the centuries, it has been well documented that many cultures, including the ancient Chinese, Greeks and Egyptians, have applied magnets to relieve pain and other symptoms. However, the size and weight of the magnets existing during that time, made them difficult to use. Today, smaller and stronger magnetic materials have led to the application of modern day magnetic therapy products used by over 120 million people worldwide.

Clinical studies in the United States have shown magnetic therapy to be an effective method for relieving pain and discomfort. Japan and many eastern European countries have conducted studies for over 30 years, and researchers continue to find that it provides tremendous benefits for a wide range of conditions. Physicians in the United States using magnetic therapy in their practices have reported many case histories showing positive benefits for their patients as well.

All physical and mental functions are controlled by electromagnetic fields produced by the movement of electro-chemicals (ions) within the body. When an injury occurs and tissue is damaged, positively charged ions move to the affected area, causing pain and swelling. In order for healing to take place, the injured site must be restored to its natural negative electromagnetic charge. Pain and inflammatory-related electro-chemicals must be removed and oxygen and nutrients transferred to the area.

The application of a magnetic field to an injured area helps restore the normal electromagnetic balance. The magnetic field relaxes capillary walls, as well as surrounding muscle and connective tissues, allowing for increased blood flow. More oxygen and nutrients are transferred to the injury site, while pain and inflammatory-related electro-chemicals are more efficiently removed. The overall process restores the normal electromagnetic balance of the area, relieving pain and inflammation, and promoting accelerated healing.

Individual response time will vary, and can range from a few minutes, to a few weeks. The effectiveness of magnetic therapy is dependent upon using the correct magnetic products, the length of time they are applied, and the type and severity of the problem.

Yes, magnetic therapy is safe. No complications have ever been reported with its proper use. Magnetic therapy products use magnets that when applied to the body, have positive therapeutic benefits.

There are certain conditions where magnet therapy should not be used. Magnetic therapy should not be used if you are wearing a pacemaker, defibrillator, insulin pump or any other implanted electro-medical device, and should not be used if you are pregnant.

The electromagnetic fields surrounding power lines and electrical appliances are a very different type of magnetic field, and have no relation to the natural, healing fields produced by Healing Magnetic Products.

According to most experts in the field, if magnetic therapy products are designed and used properly they can be 80%-90% effective. The problem is that Biomagnetics is a far more complex science than most people realize, so knowing how to accomplish this is no easy task and requires highly specialized engineering and manufacturing capabilities.

To be effective, a magnetic therapy product must produce a magnetic field of sufficient strength and size at the site of the injury or affected area. The problem is that the strength of a magnetic field drops off rapidly as the distance from the magnet increases, and an injured area can be several inches below the surface of the skin. If the product is not properly designed, the field could easily drop below therapeutic levels before it even reaches the injury site, and the product would then be ineffective.

Companies that provide insufficient product information, and incorrectly use the gauss rating of magnets to indicate the strength of their products compound the problem. The manufacturer’s gauss rating of a magnet indicates the amount of magnetic energy (residual induction) that the magnetic material can hold, but alone is not an indication of the strength of the magnet.

Since the gauss rating is identical for all magnets made of the same material, regardless of the size or number of magnets, products using smaller and fewer numbers of magnets are made to appear more effective than they really are.

To be therapeutically effective, a magnetic field must penetrate the injured area at a high enough gauss strength. There is no way to tell if the magnetic field is strong enough just by knowing the gauss rating of the magnets.

The mass (surface area and thickness) of the magnets, the number of magnets, the polarity facing the body and the gauss rating of the magnets used, all determine the strength and penetration depth of the magnetic field produced by a magnetic therapy product.

No they are not. Most products on the market use magnets that are either too small, or insufficient in number and strength to provide any real benefit. The polarity of the magnets is also a very important issue. Many products contain magnets that are facing the wrong way (the south or positive polarity is facing the body), which can increase, rather than ease discomfort. There are also products that are improperly using bipolar (both poles on the same surface) magnets in products such as mattress pads, which is completely against recommended protocols and can cause increased discomfort.

So,It is always wise to buy the products from a renowned manufacturers who maintains highest quality standards. Designed by experts in the field of biomagnetics and complementary medicine.The products should have new engineering methods developed by the company to provide maximum effectiveness and eliminate the problems existing with other magnetic therapy products.

Help taken from:HEALIOHEALTH.COM

We can learn little more about this subject from this site.