Tag Archives: Anthemideae

Celtis occidentalis

Botanical Name : Celtis occidentalis
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Celtis
Species:C. occidentalis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names:Hackberry, Common hackberry, Nettletree, Sugarberry, Beaverwood, Northern hackberry, and American hackberry

Habitat : Celtis occidentalis is native to Eastern N. America – Quebec to Manitoba, North Carolina, Missouri and Oklahoma It grows in dry to moist and rich woods, river banks, rocky barrens etc. Frequently found on limestone soils.

Description:
Celtis occidentalis is a deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate.The bark is light brown or silvery gray, broken on the surface into thick appressed scales and sometimes roughened with excrescenses; pattern is very distinctive.

CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

The branchlets are slender, light green at first, finally red brown, at length become dark brown tinged with red. The winter buds are axillary, ovate, acute, somewhat flattened, one-fourth of an inch long, light brown. Scales enlarge with the growing shoot, the innermost becoming stipules. No terminal bud is formed. The leaves are alternately arranged on stems, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, more or less falcate, two and a half to four inches (102 mm) long, one to two inches wide, very oblique at the base, serrate, except at the base which is mostly entire, acute. Three-nerved, midrib and primary veins prominent. They come out of the bud conduplicate with slightly involute margins, pale yellow green, downy; when full grown are thin, bright green, rough above, paler green beneath. In autumn they turn to a light yellow. Petioles slender, slightly grooved, hairy. Stipules varying in form, caducous.

It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

The flowers appear in May, soon after the leaves. Polygamo-monœ cious, greenish. Of three kinds—staminate, pistillate, perfect; born on slender drooping pedicels. The calyx is light yellow green, five-lobed, divided nearly to the base; lobes linear, acute, more or less cut at the apex, often tipped with hairs, imbricate in bud.

Corolla: Wanting.
There are five stamens, which are hypogynous; the filaments are white, smooth, slightly flattened and gradually narrowed from base to apex; in the bud incurved, bringing the anthers face to face, as flower opens they abruptly straighten; anthers extrorse, oblong, two-celled; cells opening longitudinally.

Pistil: ovary superior, one-celled; style two-lobed; ovules solitary.
Fruit: Fleshy drupe, oblong, one-half to three-fourths of an inch long, tipped with remnants of style, dark purple. Borne on a slender stem; ripens in September and October. Remains on branches during winter.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Firewood, Aggressive surface roots possible, Street tree, Woodland garden. Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils. Tolerates alkaline soils. Established plants are very drought resistant. Wind resistant. Trees transplant easily. Trees prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in Britain, they often do not fully ripen their wood when growing in this country and they are then very subject to die-back in winter. Plants in the wild are very variable in size, ranging from small shrubs to large trees. They are fast-growing, and can be very long-lived, perhaps to 1000 years. Only to 200 years according to another report. They usually produce good crops of fruit annually. Trees respond well to coppicing, readily sending up suckers after cutting or the top being killed off in a fire. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features: North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[200]. Stored seed is best given 2 – 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw. Very sweet and pleasant tasting, they can be eaten out of hand or can be used for making jellies, preserves etc. The fruit is often produced abundantly in Britain, it is about the size of a blackcurrant, but there is very little flesh surrounding a large seed and it is therefore a very fiddly crop. The fruit is dark orange to purple- or blue-black when fully ripe, usually about 7-11mm in diameter, though occasionally up to 20mm. The flesh is dry and mealy but with a pleasant sweet taste. Seed. No more details. The fruit and seed can be ground up finely together and used as a flavouring. The N. American Indians ate them with parched corn.
Medicinal Uses:
An extract obtained from the wood has been used in the treatment of jaundice. A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of sore throats. When combined with powdered shells it has been used to treat VD.

Other Uses:
A dye is obtained from the roots. No more details are given. Fairly wind-tolerant, it can be planted as part of a shelterbelt. Wood – rather soft, weak, coarse-grained, heavy. It weighs 45lb per cubic foot and is sometimes used commercially for cheap furniture, veneer, fencing fuel etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_occidentalis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Celtis+occidentalis

Advertisements

Viburnum cylindricum

Botanical Name :Viburnum cylindricum
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: viburnum
Kingdom :Plants
Division: vascular plants
Class:Dicotyledonous angiosperms
Order: dipsacales

Common Names:

Habitat :Viburnum cylindricum is native to E. Asia – China to Burma and the Himalayas. It grows on rather dry forests, mainly with rhododendron and oak, 1200 – 2400 metres from Himachel Pradesh to S.W. China.

Description:
Viburnum cylindricum is a large, bold evergeen species growing 8-10′ with heights reaching 10-15′ on old specimens. Overall habit is slightly wider than tall. Leaves can be quite long giving them a drooping appearance. Leaf shapes can be extremely variable depending upon origin. Margins are usually toothed on younger leaves and entire on mature plants. On a common ground, the leaves are all dull, dark green and pale below. The inflorescence is 7 rayed which then branches 3 or 4 more times before setting the individual flowers. Flowers are white, scented and very cylindrical (tube shaped), hence its name. Each flower is accentuated with purple to lilac anters which extend above the flower. Fruits, which are rarely set, are egg shaped, ¼” or smaller and black....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, succeeding in most soils but ill-adapted for poor soils and dry situations. Prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. The flowers are sweetly scented.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring[80]. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months

Edible Uses: Oil; Oil…..An edible oil is obtained from the seed. It is used for cooking.
Medicinal Uses:

The oil from the seed is used to soothe itchy skin.

Other Uses: … Oil; Wood…..An oil from the seed is used as a luminant. Wood – hard, close grained

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.classicviburnums.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/plants.plantDetail/plant_id/7117/whichname/genus/index.htm
https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=https%3A%2F%2Fsv.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FViburnum_cylindricum&edit-text=
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+cylindricum

Asparagus racemosus

 

Botanical Name : Asparagus racemosus
Family: Asparagaceae
Subfamily:Asparagoideae
Genus: Asparagus
Species:A. racemosus
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Asparagus rigidulus Nakai,
*Protasparagus racemosus (Willd.) Oberm.

Common names in trade (local and foreign languages):
Satavari (Sanskrit); Shakakul, Satavari, Chatwal, Satawar (Hindi); Satmuli, Shatarnuli (Bengal); Satavar, Ekalkanto, Satavari, Satawar (Gujarati); Shatavari, Aheruballi, Ashadhi, Satmuli (Kanada); Sejnana (Kashmir); Shatavali, Chatavali, Satavari (Malayalam); Shatavari-mull, Asvel, Shatmuli, Satavari-mull (Marathi); Chhotaru, Mohajolo, Sotabari (Oriya); Tannirvittan-kizhangu, Ammaikodi, Kadumulla, Shimai Shadavari, Kilavari (Tamil); Satavari, Philli-taga, Challagadda, Pilli-gaddalu (Telugu)

Habitat : Asparagus racemosus is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, India. It is found at elevations up to 1,200 metres in the Himalayas, eastwards from Kashmir. Broad-leaved forests along streams or valleys at elevations of 2100 – 2200 metres in western China.

Description:
Asparagus racemosus is a perennial plant growing to 7 m (23ft). It is a tall, much branched, prickly climber with fascicle of fusiform roots. Cladodes 1.3-2.5 cm long, curved, in tufts of 2-6. Flowers small, white, in solitary or fascicled, simple or branched racemes.

It has has small pine-needle-like phylloclades (photosynthetic branches) that are uniform and shiny green. In July, it produces minute, white flowers on short, spiky stems, and in September it fruits, producing blackish-purple, globular berries.It has an adventitious root system with tuberous roots that measure about one metre in length, tapering at both ends, with roughly a hundred on each plant….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in any good garden soil[200]. Prefers a rich sandy loam. This species is not very frost-hardy and generally needs to be grown in a frost-free or fairly frost-free climate. It can be grown as a half-hardy perennial in areas where the winter is too cold for it to survive outdoors. The tubers are harvested in the autumn, stored in a cool frost-free place and replanted in the spring. The rots of this species are commonly collected from the wild for medicinal use. Overcollection in some areas of its range are causing conservation concerns. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
Propagation:
Seed – pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring or as soon as the seed is ripe in early autumn in a greenhouse. It usually germinates in 3 – 6 weeks at 25°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in early spring as the plant comes into growth.
Edible Uses:
Tender young shoots – cooked as a vegetable. A preserve prepared from the blanched shoots is said to be very agreeable. The tuber are candied as a sweetmeat. The only flavour is said to be that of the sugar. The roots are 5 – 13cm long.

Chemical Constituents:
Asparagus contains steroidal glycosides (asparagosides), bitter glycosides, asparagin and flavonoids. Fresh leaves yield diosgenin and other saponins such as shatavarin I to IV. Flowers and fruits contain glycosides of quercetin, rutin, and hyperoside. Ripe fruit contains cyanidin 3-glycosides. Presence of sitosterol, stigmasterol, their glucosides and sarsasapogenin; two spirostanolic and two furostanolic saponins have been reported in the fruits. Tubers and roots contain saccharine matters and mucilage. An antioxytocic compound, named racemosal (a 9, 10-dihydorphenanthrene derivative), has been isolated from this plant (Ghani, 2003).

Medicinal Uses:

Alterative; Antispasmodic; Aphrodisiac; Demulcent; Digestive; Diuretic; Galactogogue; Infertility; Women’s complaints.

Shatavari (this is an Indian word meaning ‘a woman who has a hundred husbands’) is the most important herb in Ayurvedic medicine for dealing with problems connected women’s fertility. The rhizome is a soothing tonic that acts mainly on the circulatory, digestive, respiratory and female reproductive organs. The root is alterative, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic, galactogogue and refrigerant. It is taken internally in the treatment of infertility, loss of libido, threatened miscarriage, menopausal problems, hyperacidity, stomach ulcers and bronchial infections. Externally it is used to treat stiffness in the joints. The root is used fresh in the treatment of dysentery. It is harvested in the autumn and dried for use in treating other complaints. The whole plant is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, rheumatism, diabetes and brain complaints.

The premier herb for women in Ayurveda, shatavari is similar to dong quai in its action and effects, but is not a ?connoisseur herb? like dong quai, so it’s not as expensive. Internally for infertility, loss of libido, threatened miscarriage, menopausal problems, hyperacidity, stomach ulcers, dysentery, and bronchial infections. It increases milk, semen and nurtures the mucous membranes. It both nourishes and cleanses the blood and the female reproductive organs. It is a good food for menopause or for those who have had hysterectomies, as it supplies many female hormones. It nourishes the ovum and increases fertility, yet its quality is sattvic and aids in love and devotion. Three grams of the powder can be taken in one cup of warm milk sweetened with raw sugar. It’s especially good for pitta types. Externally for stiffness in joints and neck. The most important herb in Ayurvedic medicine for women. Used internally by Australian Aborigines for digestive upsets and externally for sores.

Other Uses:….Soap…..The squeezed root is used for washing clothes

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asparagus_racemosus
http://www.mpbd.info/plants/asparagus-racemosus.php
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asparagus+racemosus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Symplocos paniculata

Botanical Name : Symplocos paniculata
Family: Symplocaceae
Genus: Symplocos
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ericales

Common Names: Asiatic Sweetleaf, Sapphire-berry

Habitat :Symplocos paniculata is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Himalayas. It grows in the forests and shrubberies at elevations of 1000 – 2700 metres, Pakistan to S. W. China and Burma. Slopes in mixed forests at elevations of 800 – 2500 metres.

Description:
Symplocos paniculata is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft).

It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile. ...CLICK  & SEE  THE  PICTURES  
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires an acid soil and a sunny position. Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained fertile neutral to acid soil. One report says that plants are hardy to about -10°c, though it is also said that they can survive quite harsh winters outdoors in Britain but that they need a warm, sunny protected position and a hot summer if they are to fruit well. The fruits are sometimes spoiled by frosts. The flowers are sweetly fragrant. Self-sterile, it needs cross-pollination with a different plant in the same species if seed and fruit are to be produced. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires stratification and is best sown in a cold frame in late winter, it can take 12 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in individual pots in a cold frame. Roots are formed in about 4 weeks. Good percentage.
Edible Uses:... Fruit – cooked. Used in jams, jellies and sauce[183]. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is astringent, cooling and tonic. It is useful in the treatment of menorrhagia, bowel complaints, eye diseases and ulcers. It is also used as a gargle for giving firmness to spongy and bleeding gums. The juice of the bark is applied externally to sprains and muscular swellings.
Other Uses: …Dye; Mordant; Wood…..A yellow or red dye is obtained from the leaves and bark. We have no specific information for this species but many species in this genus contain alum and can be used as mordants when dyeing. Wood – white, soft to moderately hard. close grained, liable to twist and split when seasoning. Of possible use in turnery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symplocos
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Symplocos+paniculata