Tag Archives: Antioxidant

Asarum maximum

Botanical Name: Asarum maximum
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Genus: Asarum
Species: A. maximum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

Common Name : Ling Ling Panda Face Ginger

Habitat :Asarum maximum is native to E. Asia – China in Hubei and E. Sichuan. It grows in the forests in humus rich soils at elevations of 600 – 800 metres.

Description:
Asarum maximum is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in).
This clumping species from China has large, 6″, glossy, rounded arrowhead-shaped, green leaves. It is certainly best-known for its stunning flowers (often the subject of fine paintings). It is in flower from May to June. The 2″ flower is velvet-black outside with a stunning white interior. This easy-to-grow species really responds well to rich humus-laden soils and high fertility. A well-grown 10″ tall x 18″ wide clump of Asarum maximum ‘Green Panda’ is simply stunning as well as deer-resistant .

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a rich moist neutral to acid soil in woodland or a shady position in the rock garden[1, 200]. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. The flowers are malodorous and are pollinated by flies. Plants often self-sow when growing in a suitable position.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the summer. Stored seed will require 3 weeks cold stratification and should be sown in late winter. The seed usually germinates in the spring in 1 – 4 or more weeks at 18°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out when large enough in late spring. Division in spring or autumn. Plants are slow to increase. It is best to pot the divisions up and keep them in light shade in the greenhouse until they are growing away strongly.

Medicinal Uses:
The dried plant is used medicinally in Vietnam. The leaves ate used in the treatment of dyspepsia and colic whilst the flowers and roots are used as a reconstituent. Analgesic, expectorant. Used as a gargle for sore throats etc
Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been found for this plant, at least 3 other members of this genus have reports that the leaves are toxic. Some caution is therefore advised in the use of this plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asarum_maximum
http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asarum+maximum
Asarum maximum Ling Ling

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Ferula communis

Botanical Name : Ferula communis
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
Species: F. communis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : F. brevifolia. F. linkii. ,Ferula communis ‘Gigantea’

Common Names: Giant Fennel, Meeting seed

Habitat : Ferula communis is native to Europe – Mediterranean. It grows on dry hills, walls, waste ground and limestone, often in soils that are damp in the spring.
Description:
Ferula communis is a tall herbaceous perennial plant growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is found in Mediterranean and East African woodlands and shrublands. It was known in antiquity as Laser or narthex.It has big, pinnately divided large leaves and compound umbels of small white, yellow or purple flowers; that may die after flowering.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils including dry ones according to one report whilst others say that it requires a deep moist fertile soil in a sunny position. Established plants are drought resistant. This species is hardy to about -10°c, possibly lower if the rootstock is mulched in the winter. A very ornamental plant, though the flowers have a most unpleasant rancid smell. Plants are often monoecious. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance due to their long taproot. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. The sub-species brevifolia is the form used for its gum.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves. & Gums

Medicinal Uses:
One report says that the root yields a gum with medicinal properties but no details are are found in internet.

Other Uses :
Furniture; Gum; Miscellany; Tinder.

A gum ‘Gum Ammoniac‘ is obtained by notching the root. It is used as an incense[4], it also has medicinal value. The stems are used in furniture making. The dried pith is used as a tinder, it burns very slowly inside the stem and can thus be carried from one place to another.

Known Hazards: In Sardinia two different chemotypes of Ferula communis have been identified: poisonous (especially to animals like sheep, goats, cattle, and horses) and not-poisonous. They differ for both secondary metabolites pattern and enzymatic composition.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula_communis#cite_note-4
https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/details?plantid=791
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+communis

Aconitum fischeri

Botanical Name : Aconitum fischeri
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Aconitum
Species: A. fischeri
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Names: Fischer monkshood,Azure Monkshood

Habitat : Aconitum fischeri is native to E. Asia – Northern Japan, Eastern Russia. (Korea and Siberia and cultivated in gardens in temperate zones for its showy flowers.) It grows in riverside forests on alluvium, often in large groups, clearings, occasionally in birch and alder forests and very rarely on herb covered slopes in Kamtschatka.
Description:
Aconitum fischeri is a perennial plant, growing 61 to 66 cm (24 to 26 in) spreads 61 to 76cm (24 to 30 in). It produces upright spikes of lavender blue flowers in September. This species has particularly strong stems that do not require staking. The deeply divided dark green foliage is very attractive. Plants bloom early-late summer. This plant works well in perennial borders and cottage and woodland gardens and provides colour late in the season. It is pollinated by Bees.Colour of flowers are lavender blue. The plant is deer & rabbit registant.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes. Cultivated in China as a medicinal plant, it has been said to have been rendered much less toxic through this cultivation.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.

Medicinal Uses:
The dried root is alterative, anaesthetic, antiarthritic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative, stimulant. It should be harvested in the autumn as soon as the plant has died down. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

Known Hazards: All parts of Aconitum are poisonous. Always wear gloves when working with this plant as simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_fischeri
http://www.whitehouseperennials.com/catalogue/perennials/item/aconitum-fischeri
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+fischeri

Artemisia biennis

Botanical Name : Artemisia biennis
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. biennis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Artemisia armeniaca Willd. ex Ledeb.
*Artemisia australis Ehrh. ex DC.
*Artemisia canescens Willd.
*Artemisia cernua Dufour ex Willk. & Lange
*Artemisia cernuiflora Dufour ex Willk. & Lange
*Artemisia eschscholtziana Besser
*Artemisia hispanica Jacq. 1786 not Lam. 1783 nor Weber ex Stechmann 1775 nor Stechm. ex Besser 1836
*Artemisia inconspicua Spreng.
*Artemisia jacquinii Raeusch.
*Artemisia microcephala Hillebr.
*Artemisia pinnatifida Jacquem. ex DC.
*Artemisia pyromacha Viv.
*Artemisia ramosa Lag. ex Willk. & Lange
*Artemisia seriphium Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange

Common Names: Biennial Wormwood

Habitat :Artemisia biennis is native to N. America – Quebec to British Columbia and south to New England, Indiana etc. It grows on open ground, clearings, burns, roadsides and waste places.

Description:
Artemisia biennis is an annual or biennial herb producing a single erect green to reddish stem up to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) in maximum height. It is generally hairless and unscented. The frilly leaves are up to 13 centimetres (5.1 in) long and divided into thin, lance-shaped segments with long teeth. Leaves are alternate, 1-3 inches long, deeply divided into long, narrow lobes with coarsely toothed edges. Lower leaves can be double divided. Leaves and stems are hairless throughout. Stems can be simple or much branched at the base. Plants typically have a narrow, spire-like profile The inflorescence is a dense rod of clusters of flower heads interspersed with leaves. Flowers are numerous, yellow to green and globe like, 1/8 inch across in densely packed, short columnar clusters in the leaf axils, forming leafy, compound spikes on the upper stems and branches, several feet long on large specimens. The fruit is a tiny achene less than a millimeter wide.

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Cultivation:
The plant can be easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow spring in a greenhouse. Do not allow the compost to dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. The seed can also be sown in situ during late spring.

Medicinal Uses:
Parasiticide; Poultice; Skin.

The plant as been used in the treatment of stomach cramps, colic and painful menstruation. Externally, it has been used for treating sores and wounds. The report does not specify which part of the plant is used. The seeds, mixed with molasses, have been used as a parasiticide in getting rid of worms

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_biennis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+biennis
https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/biennial-wormwood

Gentianella quinquefolia

Botanical Name : Gentianella quinquefolia
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentianella
Species: G. quinquefolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms : Gentiana quinqueflora. L. emend Sm. Gentiana quinquefolia.

Common Names: Agueweed, Ague weed, Five-flowered gentian, Stiff gentian
Habitat :Gentianella quinquefolia is native to Eastern N. America – southern Ontario to Tennessee and Florida. It grows on rich woods and moist fields.
Description:
This wildflower is an annual or biennial plant about ½–2′ tall. Small plants are unbranched or sparingly branched, while large plants form frequent lateral stems in the upper leaf axils. The stems are light green to reddish purple, 4-angular, and slightly winged; the central stem is erect, while the lateral stems curve upward. Pairs of opposite leaves occur along each stem, each pair rotating about 90° from the pair of leaves immediately below. The leaves are up to 2½” long and about half as much across, becoming slightly smaller as they ascend the stems. The leaves are ovate-cordate to ovate, sessile or slightly clasping at their bases, and smooth along their margins. Their upper surfaces are yellowish green, green, or tinted slightly purple; each leaf has 3-5 parallel veins. Both the stems and leaves are hairless.

The central stem and upper lateral stems (if present) terminate in clusters of 3-7 flowers on short pedicels. Frequently, there are additional clusters of 1-5 flowers from the axils of the upper leaves. All of these flowers are held stiffly erect. Each flower is about ¾” long and ¼” across; it has a long tubular corolla and a short green calyx with 5 slender teeth. The apex of each corolla has 5 triangular lobes that fold together to form a point; the corolla is closed or nearly so. There are no interconnecting fringes to join these lobes. The corollas are blue-violet, purple, or nearly white; they have fine purple veins along their sides. Inside each corolla, there are five stamens and a pistil. The erect lobes of the calyx are narrowly oblong-lanceolate in shape. Underneath the clustered flowers, the leaves are reduced to leafy bracts. The blooming period occur from late summer to mid-fall and lasts about 1-2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by a seed capsule that divides into 2 parts to release the numerous tiny seeds. These seeds are distributed by wind and water. The root system consists of a taproot. This wildflower reproduces by reseeding itself; it does not spread vegetatively.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects

Cultivation: Requires a damp humus-rich soil and should be planted in a situation approaching its native habitat..

Propagation : Seed – must be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in the autumn.

Medicinal Uses:
The root is cathartic, febrifuge, haemostatic, stimulant and stomachic. A tea or tincture of the root is a bitter tonic, used to stimulate the digestion and a poor appetite. An infusion has also been used to treat diarrhoea, sore chest, worms and haemorrhages. A homeopathic remedy is made from the root. It is used in the treatment of intermittent fevers and as a stomachic and tonic.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentianella_quinquefolia
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/savanna/plants/stiff_gentian.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentianella+quinquefolia