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Rhus punjabensis

Botanical Name:Rhus punjabensis
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Rhus
Species: R. coriaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms :Rhus sinica.
Habitat :Rhus punjabensis is native to E. Asia – Himalayas and is distributed in NW India. It grows in moist situations in valleys and ravines. It grows in the thickets and forests at elevations of 460 – 3000 metres in Tibet and western China.

Description:
Rhus punjabensis sinica is a deciduous tree, 5-15 m tall; branchlets pubescent to minutely pubescent. Leaf blade imparipinnately compound; rachis narrowly winged or wingless distally; leaflets sessile or subsessile, 7-13; leaflet blade oblong-ovate or oblong, 5-12 × 2-4.5 cm, both sides glabrous to minutely pubescent along midrib or lower side pubescent, base rounded or subcordate, margin entire, apex acuminate or long acuminate, lateral veins ca. 20 pairs, prominent abaxially. Inflorescence 15-20 cm, densely minutely pubescent; floral subtending bracts 1-2 mm, subulate, minutely pubescent. Pedicel ca. 1 mm; flowers white. Calyx minutely pubescent, lobes narrowly triangular, ca. 1 mm, margins ciliate. Petals oblong, ca. 2 × 1 mm, minutely pubescent on both sides, margins ciliate, revolute at anthesis. Stamen filaments ca. 2 mm in male flowers, minutely pubescent proximally; anthers ovate; staminode filaments ca. 1 mm in female flowers. Disk purplish red. Ovary globose, ca. 1 mm in diam., white pubescent; male flower with sterile ovary. Drupe subglobose, ca. 4 mm in diam., purplish red at maturity, mixed pilose and glandular-pubescent.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. This species is closely allied to R. potaninii. This is the form of R. punjabensis that is most commonly grown in Britain. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds. Plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 – 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers in late autumn to winter
Edible Uses:   Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is small with very little flesh, but it is produced in fairly large panicles and so is easily harvested. When soaked for 10 – 30 minutes in hot or cold water it makes a very refreshing lemonade-like drink (without any fizz of course). The mixture should not be boiled since this will release tannic acids and make the drink astringent.
Medicinal Uses:   An excrescence produced on the leaf by an insect Melaphis chinensis or M. paitan is antiseptic, astringent and haemostatic. It is used in the treatment of persistent cough with blood, chronic diarrhoea, spontaneous sweating, night sweats, bloody stool, urorrhoea and bloody sputum. It is used applied externally to burns, bleeding due to traumatic injuries, haemorrhoids and ulcers in the mouth.

Other Uses:  An oil is extracted from the seeds. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke. The leaves are rich in tannin. They can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant

Known Hazards: There are some suggestions that the sap of this species can cause a skin rash in susceptible people, but this has not been substantiated.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhus_coriaria
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200012710
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhus+punjabensis+sinica

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Rhus coriaria

Botanical Name : Rhus coriaria
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Rhus
Species:R. coriaria
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Names: Sicilian sumac, Tanner’s sumach, or Elm-leaved sumach

Habitat :Rhus coriaria is native to southern Europe. It grows on rocky places and waysides, mainly on limestone.

Description:
Rhus coriaria is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).
It is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil……...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun. This species is not very hardy in Britain and is unlikely to succeed outdoors in any but the mildest parts of the countr. Another report says that the plant is quite hardy and is often grown in British gardens. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. Unlike most members of this genus, this species is hermaphrodite. The form ‘Humilior’ from Italy is smaller growing. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds. Plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Many of the species in this genus, including this one, are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 – 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers in late autumn to winter

Edible Uses:
The immature fruits are used as caper substitutes. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. The crushed fruit, mixed with Origanum syriacum, is a principal ingredient of ‘Zatar‘, a popular spice mixture used in the Middle East. The seed is used as an appetizer in a similar manner to mustard.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves and the seeds are astringent, diuretic, styptic and tonic. They are used in the treatment of dysentery, haemoptysis and conjunctivitis. The seeds are eaten before a meal in order to provoke an appetite. Some caution is advised in the use of the leaves and stems of this plant, see the notes below on toxicity.

Other Uses:
The leaves and bark are rich in tannin. The leaves can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant. The fruit and bark are also used. The leaves contain 20 – 35% tannin and yield a yellow dye. The finely ground leaves and stems provide the dyeing and tanning agent ‘sumac’. The shoots are cut down annually, near to the root, for this purpose. A fawn colour, bordering on green, is obtained and this can be improved with the judicious use of mordants. The cultivar ‘Mesculino’ is very rich in tannin, containing up to 35%. An oil is extracted from the seeds. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke. A black dye is obtained from the fruit. A yellow and a red dye are obtained from the bark.

Known Hazards : The plant contains toxic substances which can cause severe irritation to some people. Both the sap and the fruit are poisonous

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhus_coriaria
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhus+coriaria

Viburnum dentatum

Botanical Name : Viburnum dentatum
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:.V dentatum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade.

Common Names: Southern arrowwood or Arrowwood viburnum or Roughish arrowwood,Arrow Wood, Southern Arrowwood Viburnum

Habitat : Viburnum dentatum is native to the Eastern United States and Canada from Maine south to Northern Florida and Eastern Texas.It grows well on Moist soils.

Description:
Viburnum dentatum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in) at a fast rate.Like most Viburnum, it has opposite, simple leaves and fruit in berry-like drupes. Foliage turns yellow to red in late fall. Localized variations of the species are common over its entire geographic range. Common differences include leaf size and shape and placement of pubescence on leaf undersides and petioles.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURE

It is in flower from Jul to August.The flowers are white and are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Subspecies:
*Viburnum dentatum dentatum
*Viburnum dentatum lucidum – smooth arrowwood
Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. The fruits are a food source for songbirds. Berries contain 41.3% fat.

The fruits appear blue. The major pigments are cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside and cyanidin 3-vicianoside, but the total mixture is very complex.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Massing, Screen, Seashore, Specimen, Woodland garden. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months

Edible Uses: ...Fruit raw or cooked. A pleasantly sweet flavour, but there is very little edible flesh surrounding a relatively large seed. The fruit is up to 9.5mm in diameter. Berries contain 41.3% fat.
Medicinal Uses:

Birthing aid; Contraceptive.

A decoction of the twigs has been taken by women to prevent conception. A poultice of the plant has been applied to the swollen legs of a woman after she has given birth. Both of the above uses are for the sub-species V. dentatum lucidum. Ait.

Other Uses: Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. The fruits are a food source for songbirds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_dentatum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+dentatum

Safflower

 

Botanical Name:Carthamus tinctorius L.
Family:    Asteraceae
Tribe:    Cynareae
Genus:    Carthamus
Species:C. tinctorius
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Asterales

Common Names:   Beni, Chimichanga, or Carthamus tinctorius and in Pash

to it is called Kareza
Habitat   :Safflower is native to the Mediterranean countries and cultivated in Europe and the United States. Now it grows in countries worldwide. India, United States, and Mexico are the leading s, with  growers, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, China,and the Arab World.
It is found

Description:
Safflower is  is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.
It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers.
Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain.
It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments…….CLICK & SEE

Parts Used : Flower

Biochemical Information:Carthamin, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachic acid, oleic acid, linoleic and linolenic acids, safflower yellow

Medicinal Uses: It is Diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, analgesic, carminative
Taken hot, safflower tea produces strong perspiration and has thus been used for fevers, colds, and related ailments.
It has also been used at times for its soothing effect in cases of hysteria, such as that associated with chlorosis.
Used for delayed menses, poor blood circulation, bruises, injuries (used in liniments), and measles.

The defunct pharmaceutical company SemBioSys Genetics tried to use transgenic safflower plants to produce human insulin as the global demand for the hormone grows.
Safflower-derived human insulin was in the PI/II trials on human test subjects

Other Uses:
The flowers can be dried and powdered to make a saffron substitute; mixed with finely powdered talc, they make a rouge. Fresh flower petals yield dye colors ranging from yellows to reds.
Flowers are used as a scent in potpourris and look nice dried in flower arrangements.

Seeds are used mainly in cosmetics and as a cooking oil, in salad dressing, and for the production of margarine. It may also be taken as a nutritional supplement. INCI nomenclature is Carthamus tinctorius.

Safflower seed is also used quite commonly as an alternative to sunflower seed in birdfeeders, as squirrels do not like the taste of it.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://medicinalherbinfo.org/herbs/Safflower.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safflower

Operculina turpethum

Botanical Name :Operculina turpethum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Solanales
Family:    Convolvulaceae
Genus:    Operculina
Species :Operculina turpethum

Synonyms:Ipomoea turpethum,  Turpeth Root. Indian Jalap. Trivrit. Nisoth. Operculina Turpethum.

Common Names: Turpeth, Fue vao, and St. Thomas lidpod.

Vernacular Names: Indian Jalap, St. Thomas lidpod, transparent wood rose, turpeth root, white day glory • Hindi: nisoth, panila, pitohri • Kannada: aluthi gida, bangada balli, bilitigade, devadanti, nagadanti • Malayalam: tigade • Marathi: or  nisottar • Sanskrit: nishotra,triputa,trivrutt, trivrutha • Tamil: adimbu, caralam, civatai, kumpncan, paganrai • Telugu: tegada, trivrut tellatega • Bengali: tevudi • Arabic: turbuth.

Parts Used: Dried root, stem.

Habitat:  India. Ceylon, Pacific Islands, China, Australia

Description:
:Operculina turpethum is perennial herbaceous, hairy vines growing 4 to 5 meter in length, endemic to India. It is commonly found in North Circars and Deccan region up to 3000 ft. The leaves are alternate, very variable in shape, ovate, oblong and truncate or cordate at the base. The flowers are large, axillary and solitary. Fruit is a capsule with conspicuous enlarged sepals and thickened pedicles….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Constituents:
Resin, a fatty substance, volatile oil, albumen, starch, a yellow colouring matter, lignin, salts, and ferric oxide. The root contains 10 per cent of resin, which is a glucoside, Turpethin, insoluble in ether, but soluble in alcohol, to which it gives a brown colour not removable by animal charcoal. To obtain pure, the alcoholic solution is concentrated; the resin is precipitated by, and afterwards boiled with, water, then dried, reduced to powder, digested with ether, and finally redissolved by absolute alcohol and deposited by ether. After being treated several times in this way, it is obtained in the state of a brownish resin, yielding on pulverization a grey powder, which irritates the mucous membrane of the nostrils and mouth. It is inflammable, burning with a smoky flame and emitting irritant vapours. With strong bases it acts like jalapin, takes up water, and is transferred into a soluble acid, while with dilute acids it is decomposed into turpetholic acid, and glucose.

Medicinal  Uses: Cathartic and purgative. It is rather slow in its action, less powerful and less unpleasant than jalap.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operculina_turpethum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/t/turpet31.html