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Fritillaria pallidiflora

Botanical Name : Fritillaria pallidiflora
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Species: F. pallidiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonymys:
*Fritillaria bolensis G.Z.Zhang & Y.M.Liu
*Fritillaria halabulanica X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. halabulanica (X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng) G.J.Liu
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. plena X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. pluriflora Regel
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. uniflora Regel

Common Names: Siberian fritillary, Pale-Flowered Fritillary
Habitat : Fritillaria pallidiflora is native to E. Asia – China to E. Siberia.(Xinjiang, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan) It grows in the Alpine meadows, woods and scrub. Slopes in the sub-alpine zone. Forests, thickets, meadows, grassy slopes, mountain steppes, 1300 – 2500 metres in NW Xinjiang, China.

Description:
Fritillaria pallidiflora is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in) It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are yellow, and nodding (hanging downward).

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
One of the best species in this genus for growing outdoors in Britain, it is easily grown in a moderately fertile well-drained soil so long as it is not allowed to dry out. Prefers a rich peaty soil in semi-shade. Another report says that it succeeds outdoors when grown in a bed of river sand and leafmould about 60cm deep. A very ornamental plant. Cultivated for medicinal use in China.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.
Medicinal Uses:
The bulbs are antitussive, expectorant, febrifuge and pectoral. They contain fritimine which lowers blood pressure, diminishes excitability of respiratory centres, paralyses voluntary movement and counters effects of opium. An infusion of the dried powdered bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart failure. The bulbs are harvested in the winter whilst they are dormant and are dried for later use.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria_pallidiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+pallidiflora

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Zanthoxylum rhetsa

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Botanical name : Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb) DC.
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Toddalioideae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales.

Scientific names :
Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC.
Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum F.-Vill.
Zanthoxylum limonella Alston Kayatena (Tag.)
Fagara budrunga Roxb. Kaytana (Tag.)
Fagara rhetsa Roxb. Kayutana (Tag.)
Fagara piperita Blanco

Common names: Kasabang (Ilk.), Kasalang (Sbl.),Kayatena (Tag.),Indian Ivy Rue; Cape Yellowwood

Sanskrit  synonymes:
Lakhuvalkala, Bidalaghni, Asvaghra
Plant name in different languages :
English  : Indian prickly ash-tree
Hindi  : Badrang
Malayalam : Mullilam, Mulliyllam, Karimurikku, Kattumurikku

Habitat :Altitudinal range from sea level to 200 m. Grows in monsoon forest and drier, more seasonal rain forest. Also occurs in Asia and Malesia.
Throughout Western Ghats, growing wild in semi deciduous forests.

Description:
A moderate sized armed tree grows up to 35 meters in height. Leaves compound, imparipinnate and crowded at the end of branches. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous and scenty. Flowers yellowish green, small, in terminal panicles. Fruits small globose, fragrant berries contain single seed.

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Stem
Corky bumps or squat, conical prickles usually present on the trunk. Dead bark layered, mustard yellow when cut. Blaze finely layered, darkens markedly on exposure.

Leaves
Leaflet blades about 4-9 x 2-3.5 cm, leaflet stalks about 2-3 mm long. Lateral leaflets unequal-sided, particularly towards the base. Oil dots sparsely scattered in the leaflet but always present at the base of each indentation on the margin of the leaflet blade. Midrib depressed on the upper surface. Lateral veins forming definite loops inside the blade margin. Leaf scars on the twigs show three definite bundles of vascular strands.

Flowers

Inflorescence about 8-14 cm long, shorter than the leaves. Sepals about 0.5-1 mm long. Petals 1-2 mm long. Staminal filaments about 2.5-3 mm long, inserted outside the disk, anthers about 1.5 mm long. Disk irregularly lobed, about 0.5 mm high. Ovary about 1 mm long, style eccentric.

Fruit
Fruits globose, about 6-7 mm diam., surface marked by numerous oil glands. Seeds +/- globular, about 6 mm diam.

Seedlings
Cotyledons orbicular to oblong, rather thick, about 5-6 x 5 mm, margins crenate or appearing crenate because of the marginal oil dots. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf compound, with about nine leaflets. Leaflet blades with about 3-6 teeth on each side. Each tooth with a large oil dot at the base of the sinus. Compound leaf rhachis grooved on the upper surface and armed with curved red spines about 1.5 mm long.

Constituents:-
*Fruit with peel yields volatile oil, 5.8 % with 90% terpenene (sabinene).
*Seeds contain 29.7 % volatile oil.

Properities:
*Fruit is considered stimulant, astringent, aromatic, digestive.
*Bark considered aromatic and aphrodisiac.

Medicinal Uses:-
Useful part : Bark, Leaves, Seeds.
Ayurvedic properities:
Rasa    : Tikta, Kashaya
Guna   : Lakhu, Rooksha
Virya   : Ushna

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, asthma, bronchitis, cardiac ailments, stomatitis, pyorrhea, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, arthritis, boils, ulcers, poison, and traumatic eye injury.

Folkloric:
*Bark, pounded and mixed with oil, used externally as remedy for stomach pains.
*Decoction of bark taken internally for chest pains.
*Bark chewed and applied to snake bites.
*Fruit used for urinary complaints and dyspepsia caused by atrabilis (the melancholic “humor”). Also used in some forms of diarrhea.
*Bark is considered a bitter aromatic and aphrodisiac.
*Fruit, mixed with honey, taken for rheumatism.
*In Goa, root bark used as purgative for kidneys.
*Essential oil used for cholera.
*In India, traditionally used in diabetes and inflammation; as antispasmodic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory. Paste prepared by rubbing the hard spines on rock and water is applied to breasts to relieve pain and increase lactation in nursing mothers.

Studies
• Antiparasitism: Study investigated the efficacy of Z. rhetsa leaf extract against experimental Hymenolepsis diminuta infections in albino rats. The efficacy of the extract was moderate against immature and adult stages of parasite. Results suggest the leaves of ZR possess significant anticestodal property and supports its use in folk medicine.
• Bark Constituents: Study of bark spines yielded dodecanoic acid, 9,12,octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid, 2-hydoxyl-1,3-propanediyl ester, and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctylester – phytochemicals that showed various properties: antioxidant, antimicrobial, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://keys.trin.org.au:8080/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-8004-060d07080d04/media/Html/taxon/Zanthoxylum_rhetsa.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kayetana.html
http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/1192.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum

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