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Helianthus strumosus

Botanical Name : Helianthus strumosus
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Helianthus
Species:H. hirsutus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Paleleaf Woodland Sunflower

Habitat :Helianthus strumosus is native to N. America – Quebec to N. Dakota, south to Arkansas and Oklahoma It grows on dry woods and banks.

Description:
Helianthus hirsutus is a perennial sometimes as much as 200 cm (almost 7 feet) tall, spreading by means of underground rhizomes. Leaves and stems are covered with stiff hairs. One plant can produce 1-7 flower heads, each with 10–15 yellow ray florets surrounding 40 or more yellow disc florets. It is in flower from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The species grows in sunny locations in open forests or along the edges of forests.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils in a sunny position. Requires a rich soil. Dislikes shade. Prefers a moist soil[200]. The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, plants can be totally destroyed by them. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits[233]. Plants have a running root system and can be invasive.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses: Root. No more details but it is probably used raw or cooked like the Jerusalem artichoke.
Medicinal Uses:A decoction of the roots has been used to get rid of worms in both adults and children. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of lung problems. The sunflower has many common uses.  Indians applied the crushed root to bruises.  The seeds have been used to increase urine flow and to clear phlegm.  A decoction of the roots has been used to get rid of worms in both adults and children. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of lung problems

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthus_hirsutus

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helianthus+strumosus

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Viburnum dentatum

Botanical Name : Viburnum dentatum
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:.V dentatum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade.

Common Names: Southern arrowwood or Arrowwood viburnum or Roughish arrowwood,Arrow Wood, Southern Arrowwood Viburnum

Habitat : Viburnum dentatum is native to the Eastern United States and Canada from Maine south to Northern Florida and Eastern Texas.It grows well on Moist soils.

Description:
Viburnum dentatum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in) at a fast rate.Like most Viburnum, it has opposite, simple leaves and fruit in berry-like drupes. Foliage turns yellow to red in late fall. Localized variations of the species are common over its entire geographic range. Common differences include leaf size and shape and placement of pubescence on leaf undersides and petioles.

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It is in flower from Jul to August.The flowers are white and are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Subspecies:
*Viburnum dentatum dentatum
*Viburnum dentatum lucidum – smooth arrowwood
Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. The fruits are a food source for songbirds. Berries contain 41.3% fat.

The fruits appear blue. The major pigments are cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside and cyanidin 3-vicianoside, but the total mixture is very complex.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Massing, Screen, Seashore, Specimen, Woodland garden. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months

Edible Uses: ...Fruit raw or cooked. A pleasantly sweet flavour, but there is very little edible flesh surrounding a relatively large seed. The fruit is up to 9.5mm in diameter. Berries contain 41.3% fat.
Medicinal Uses:

Birthing aid; Contraceptive.

A decoction of the twigs has been taken by women to prevent conception. A poultice of the plant has been applied to the swollen legs of a woman after she has given birth. Both of the above uses are for the sub-species V. dentatum lucidum. Ait.

Other Uses: Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. The fruits are a food source for songbirds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_dentatum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+dentatum

Amelanchier lamarckii

Botanical Name : Amelanchier lamarckii
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. lamarckii
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms : A. canadensis. non (L.)Medik. A. botryapium. A. grandiflora. Franco. non Rehd. Crataegus racemosa

Common Names: Juneberry, Serviceberry or Shadbush, Snowy mespilus or Snowy mespi

Habitat :Amelanchier lamarckii is native to North America. Naturalized in Britain. It is Possibly no longer found in its original wild habitat, it is naturalized in S. England on sandy heaths and damp acid woods.

Description:
Amelanchier lamarckii is a large erect deciduous shrub or small tree of open habit, growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft).
It is not frost tender. It’s bronze-tinged young leaves turn orange and red in autumn. White flowers in short lax racemes as the leaves unfurl. Fruit a red to dark purple-black berry, soon eaten by birds. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation: Grow in moist, lime free, well-drained soil. The best autumn colour is achieved when grown in full sun

Propagation: Propagate by seed and semi-hardwood cuttings

Edible Uses:
Edible fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and succulent with a flavour of apples, they can also be dried for later use. This is one of the nicest fruits in the genus, they can be eaten and enjoyed in quantity. The fruit is rich in iron and copper. It is up to 10mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_lamarckii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+lamarckii
https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/details?plantid=116

Amelanchier huroensis

Botanical Name : Amelanchier huroensis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. sanguinea
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names:  Not known
Habitat : Amelanchier huroensis is native to North-western N. America – Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. It grows on the open woods, cliffs and shores, chiefly on trap or other basic rocks.
Description:
Amelanchier huroensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe.  Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is rich in iron and copper

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+huroensis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_sanguinea

Amelanchier asiatica

Botanical Name: Amelanchier asiatica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:A. asiatica
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms A. canadensis japonica. Aronia asiatica.

Common Name: Korean Juneberry

Habitat :Amelanchier asiatica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on Hilly and mountainous regions. On slopes by streams, mixed forests at elevations of 1000 – 2000 metres.

Description:
Amelanchier asiatica is a deciduous Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 10 m (32ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. It produces an edible fruit called a pome. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil, including chalk, so long as it is not too dry or water-logged. Plants succeed in quite shady positions but do not flower or fruit well there. Grows well in heavy clay soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. A very ornamental plant, it is closely allied to A. canadensis and A. laevis, and is also very similar to A. arborea. The sub-species A. asiatica sinica C. Schneid. is found in China. It has smaller fruits than the type species. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit, raw or cooked. Of good quality, the fruit is sweet and juicy, contains a few small seeds at the centre and has a hint of apple in the flavour. The fruit is rich in iron and copper. The fruit is up to 15mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_asiatica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+asiatica