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Juglans major

Botanical Name: Juglans major
Family: Juglandaceae
Subfamily: Juglandoideae
Tribe: Juglandeae
Subtribe: Juglandinae
Genus: Juglans
Section: Rhysocaryon
Species: J. major
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Fagales

Synonyms : J. microcarpa major. J. rupestris major. J. torreyi.

Common Names: Arizona walnut, Arizona black walnut

Habitat : Juglans major is native to Southern N. America – New Mexico to Arizona. It grows on dry rocky ravines and stream beds, 700 – 2300 metres.

Description:
Juglans major is a deciduous Tree growing to 15 m (49ft 3in) at a fast rate.
In moister areas, the tree features a single, stout trunk; there are usually several slender trunks in drier situations. The 8–14 in long pinnately compound leaves bear 9–15 lanceolate leaflets, 3/8–11/4 in wide by 2–4 in long. The small nut has a thick shell with deep grooves enclosing an oily, edible seed.

It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is self-fertile.
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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a deep well-drained loam and a sunny position sheltered from strong winds. Prefers a slightly alkaline soil[200]. Plants are fast-growing when young. This species is closely related to and sometimes considered to be no more than a sub-species of J. microcarpa. It hybridizes with that species where their ranges overlap. If it is a distinct species then perhaps its correct name should be J. torreyi. Trees produce good crops of seeds every 2 – 3 years in the wild. Natural regeneration is very low because most seeds are consumed by wildlife. Plants are fairly long-lived (to about 400 years) and produce a deep taproot, they are intolerant of root disturbance. Seedlings should be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and given some protection for their first winter or two since they are somewhat tender when young. Flower initiation depends upon suitable conditions in the previous summer. The flowers and young growths can be destroyed by even short periods down to -2°c, but fortunately plants are usually late coming into leaf. Any pruning should only be carried out in late summer to early autumn or when the plant is fully dormant otherwise wounds will bleed profusely and this will severely weaken the tree. Trees have a dense canopy which tends to reduce plant growth below them. We have no specific information for this species, but the roots of several members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.). The leaves of many species also secrete substances that have an inhibitory affect on plants growing underneath them. All in all this is not a very good companion plant.

Propagation:
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame[80]. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two. The seed can also be stored in cool moist conditions (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring but it may then require a period of cold stratification before it will germinate. Germination rates are usually less than 50%

Edible Uses: Oil.
Seed – raw or cooked. The seed is rather small, but it is sometimes eaten. Of little value. The seed is large and sweet with a thick shell. There are about 45 seeds to the pound. The seeds are 25 – 40mm in diameter. An edible oil is obtained from the seed, it tends to go rancid quickly.

Medicinal Uses: A tea of the dried leaves is used for irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, and chronic colon disorders; it also is used to treat dysentery. For arthritis, the leaves and bark are boiled into a strong tea, taken internally, and applied to arthritic legs and back.

Other Uses:
This species is sometimes used as a rootstock. A golden brown dye can be obtained from the seed husks. A light brown dye is obtained from the young twigs. Plants produce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree. The roots of many members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.). Wood – this very attractive wood rivals that of J. nigra, the black walnut, in quality. However, the limited range and smaller size of the tree have restricted its use.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juglans_major
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juglans+major

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Juglans mandschurica

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Botanical Name: Juglans mandschurica

Family: Juglandaceae
Genus: Juglans
Species: J. mandshurica
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Fagales

Common Name: Manchurian walnut

Habitat :Juglans mandschurica is native to E. Asia – Manchuria. It grows in the mixed woods in rich soils, also by mountain streams. Mixed forests on mountain slopes or in valleys at elevations of 500 – 2800 metres.
Description:
Juglans mandschurica is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in). The leaves are alternate, 40–90 cm long, odd-pinnate, with 7–19 leaflets, 6–17 cm long and 2–7.5 cm broad (margin serrate or serrulate, apex acuminate). The male flowers are in drooping catkins 9–40 cm long, the wind-pollinated female flowers (April–May) are terminal, in spikes of 4 to 10, ripening in August–October into nuts, 3-7.5 × 3–5 cm, with densely glandular pubescent green husk and very thick shell.

The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is self-fertile.
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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a deep well-drained loam and a sunny position sheltered from strong winds. Prefers a slightly alkaline soil. A very hardy and ornamental tree, it is recommended for cultivation in severe cold climates. Plants produce a deep taproot and they are intolerant of root disturbance. Seedlings should be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and given some protection for their first winter or two since they are somewhat tender when young. Flower initiation depends upon suitable conditions in the previous summer. The flowers and young growths can be destroyed by even short periods down to -2°c, but fortunately plants are usually late coming into leaf. Any pruning should only be carried out in late summer to early autumn or when the plant is fully dormant otherwise wounds will bleed profusely and this will severely weaken the tree. Trees have a dense canopy which tends to reduce plant growth below them. We have no specific information for this species, but the roots of several members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.). The leaves of many species also secrete substances that have an inhibitory affect on plants growing underneath them. All in all this is not a very good companion plant. Closely allied to J. cathayensis.

Propagation :
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two. The seed can also be stored in cool moist conditions (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring but it may then require a period of cold stratification before it will germinate.

Edible Uses: Oil; Oil.
Seed – raw or roasted. The kernels are well filled but difficult to extract because the shell is thick. An edible oil is obtained from the seed, it tends to go rancid quickly.
Medicinal Uses :

Cancer; Miscellany.

The cotyledons are said to be a cure for cancer.

Other Uses:
Herbicide; Miscellany; Oil; Oil; Rootstock; String; Wood.

The seed contains up to 52% oil and, as well as being edible, it has industrial uses. A rope is made from the bark of young trees. Plants produce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree. The roots of many members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.). The inner bark is used to make heel pieces for straw shoes. Sometimes used as a rootstock to confer greater cold resistance. Wood – hard, durable. Used for veneer, furniture etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juglans_mandshurica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juglans+mandschurica

Juglans ailanthifolia

Botanical Name: Juglans ailanthifolia
Family: Juglandaceae
Genus: Juglans
Species: J. ailantifolia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Fagales

Synonyms: J. cordiformis and J. sieboldiana and J. mandshurica var. sachalinensis

Common Name: Heartseed Walnut

Habitat: Juglans ailanthifolia is native to Japan and Sakhalin. It grows in the forest.
Description:
Juglans ailanthifolia is a deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall, rarely 30 m, and 40–80 cm stem diameter, with light grey bark. The leaves are pinnate, 50–90 cm long, with 11-17 leaflets, each leaflet 7–16 cm long and 3–5 cm broad. The whole leaf is downy-pubescent, and a somewhat brighter, yellower green than many other tree leaves. It is in flower in June. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
The male flowers are inconspicuous yellow-green catkins produced in spring at the same time as the new leaves appear. The female flowers have pink/ red pistils. The fruit is a nut, produced in bunches of 4-10 together; the nut is spherical, 3–5 cm long and broad, surrounded by a green husk before maturity in mid autumn.
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The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a deep well-drained loam and a sunny position sheltered from strong winds. Prefers a slightly alkaline soil. This is the hardiest member of the genus, it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. It is also resistant to most insects. The young growth in spring, however, can be damaged by late frosts. This is a form of C. ailanthifolia with a thinner shell and a better tasting nut. It is cultivated for its edible seed in Japan and has the potential for producing very superior nuts, especially if hybridized with J. cinerea. There are some named varieties. Plants can come into bearing in 3 – 4 years from seed. Even when grown on a very windy site in Cornwall, the plants flowered in their eighth year from seed (by which time they were more sheltered from the wind) Plants produce a deep taproot and they are intolerant of root disturbance. Seedlings should be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and then given some protection since they are somewhat tender when young. Flower initiation depends upon suitable conditions in the previous summer. The flowers and young growths can be destroyed by even short periods down to -2°c, but fortunately plants are usually late coming into leaf. Any pruning should only be carried out in late summer to early autumn or when the plant is fully dormant otherwise wounds will bleed profusely and this will severely weaken the tree. Trees have a dense canopy which tends to reduce plant growth below them. We have no specific information for this species, but the roots of several members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.). The leaves of many species also secrete substances that have an inhibitory affect on plants growing underneath them. All in all this is not a very good companion plant.

Propagation:
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two. The seed can also be stored in cool moist conditions (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring but it may then require a period of cold stratification before it will germinate
Edible Uses: Oil.
Seed – raw or cooked. They are also used in sweets, pies etc. A mild and pleasant flavour, they can be eaten in quantity for dessert. The shell is thin and easily cracked. It is considered to be superior in taste to C. ailanthifolia. An edible oil is obtained from the seed, though it tends to go rancid quickly. Young buds (leaf?) and peduncles – cooked.

Medicinal Uses: The bark is anthelmintic, astringent, diuretic, lithontripic, pectoral, skin, tonic (kidneys).

Other Uses:
Dye; Herbicide; Oil; Tannin; Wood.

A brown dye is obtained from the seed husks and the bark. Rich in tannin, it does not require a mordant. The bark is rich in tannin. It is used as a dye and also medicinally. Plants produce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree. The roots of many members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.). Wood – soft, light, not easily cracked, of good quality. Used for cabinet making etc.

The very bold, decorative leaves and the attractive catkins produced in spring make it an excellent ornamental tree for planting in parks and large gardens.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juglans_ailantifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juglans+ailanthifolia+cordiformis

Hymenoxys richardsonii

Botanical Name : Hymenoxys richardsonii
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Hymenoxys
Species:H. richardsonii
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Picradenia richardsonii Hook. 1833
*Actinea richardsonii (Hook.) Kuntze
*Actinella richardsonii (Hook.) Nutt.
*Hymenoxys floribunda (A.Gray) Cockerell
*Hymenoxys olivacea Cockerell

Common Names: Pingue Hymenoxys, Pingue rubberweed, Colorado rubberweed

Habitat :Hymenoxys richardsonii is native to Western N. America – Colorado to Saskatchewan and Alberta. It grows on dry, open often rocky hillsides and plains.
Description:
Hymenoxys richardsonii is a polycarpic, perennial sub-shrub or herbaceous perennial plant, usually 7-40 cm tall, with a multi-branched woody base. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Stem is distally branched or multi-stemmed at the woody caudices, normally about 20+cm, either smooth or hairy with uniform coloring.
Leaves are sually divided into 3 linear lobes, rarely simple, smooth or hairy, with an even scattering of small resin glands. Leaves concentrated around the base of the stems.

Inflorescence/flowers are several or many radiate yellow heads, involucres in series of 2 or more with stiff phyllaries with the outer phyllaries united at base; yellow ray flowers, papery yellow disc flowers.

Fruits are 2-3 mm achene topped with white translucent aristate pappus scales.
Varieties:
*Hymenoxys richardsonii var. floribunda (A.Gray) K.F.Parker – Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah
*Hymenoxys richardsonii var. richardsonii – Alberta, Saskatchewan, Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, Wyoming
Cultivation:
We have almost no information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. It is likely to require a sunny position in a dry to moist well-drained soil.
Propagation:
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in late winter or early spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division.
Edible Uses: Gum…..A latex obtained from the root is used as a chewing gum. The skin of the root is used, the gum is obtained by pounding the roots.
Medicinal Uses: Poultice; Stomachic.

An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of stomach aches. A poultice of the chewed root has been applied as a dressing on sores and rashes. Among the Zuni people of New Mexico, a poultice of the chewed root applied to sores and rashes, and an infusion of the root is used for stomachache.

Other Uses: …Dye; Gum; Latex…..The latex obtained from the root is a potential commercial source of rubber. A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hymenoxys_richardsonii
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/plants-c/bio414/species%20pages/Hymenoxys%20richardsonii%20.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hymenoxys+richardsonii

Fragaria ovalis

Botanical Name: Fragaria ovalis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Fragaria
Species: F. virginiana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name : Rocky Mountain Strawberry

Habitat: Fragaria ovalis is native to South-western N. America. It grows in the coniferous forests in Arizona. Found at 2100 – 3300 metres in the Rockies.

Description:
Fragaria ovalis is a perennial plant, growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced. Used in breeding programmes with F. x ananassa in order to convey winter hardiness and for producing ever-bearing and day-neutral varieties.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer. Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow the plants to become established for the following years crop. They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners can be planted out direct into their permanent positions

Edible Uses:Fruits & leaves…..The fruit is eaten raw, cooked or used in preserves etc. Small but tasty. The fruit can also be dried for later use. The dried leaves are a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses: Not Known

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_strawberry
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fragaria+ovalis