Tag Archives: Arrangement

Allium scorodoprasum rotundum

Botanical Name : Allium scorodoprasum rotundum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Allium rotundum. L.

Habitat: Allium scorodoprasum rotundum is native to S. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on calcareous and disturbed clay slopes, grassy places, field borders, beaches on sand and loam in Turkey.

Description:
Allium scorodoprasum rotundum is a BULB growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in).
Description:
Allium scorodoprasum rotundum is a  bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is slender  in growth. It is in flower from Jul to August. It has tight oblong knobs of dark wine red-purple flowers. It is not frost tender.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation: Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. This sub-species does not produce bulbils in the inflorescence. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is up to 2cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
Medicinal Uses:

Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_scorodoprasum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+scorodoprasum+rotundum

Zanthoxylum coreanum

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum coreanum
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. coreanum
Kingdom:Plantaes
Order: Sapindales

Common Names : Korean lime tree, Zanthoxylum coreanum

Habitat : Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai is distributed only in Korea and China. In Korea, it is found on Jeju Island, it is usually found 700-1100m above the sea level. It is usually near valleys and seashores. It is a rare species that has strong germination growth, meaning that they can germinate in hard climates. It can grow in low altitudes and in well drained soil. It can be introduced to a new area where it has a milder condition and soil that can drain water well.
Description:
Zanthoxylum coreanum is a deciduous Shrub. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

The stems grow erect, and have hairs and thorns. The thorns on the stem can reach a length of 6–12 mm. There are sometimes thorns on the rachis. The leaf is arranged in alternate and is pinnately compound leaf venation. The leaves are shiny and have a strong smell. There are about 7 to 13 leaves on each pinnate venation and the leaves are 1–3 cm wide and 2–5 cm long. Each leaf has ovate or lanceolate shape and serrate marginal shape. It also produces fruits and flowers.

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Flowers of Zanthoxylum coreanum, are only present on old wood. Flowers are in short panicle and diameter of 4–6 cm. The flowers bloom in May and petals are absent from the flower. In a male flower, there are 5–6 calyx and 5 stamens. In female flower, there are 5–8 calyx and 2 carpels. Fruits of Zanthoxylum coreanum are in a capsule and in globular shape. It usually has a length of 5 mm and diameter of 4 mm. The fruit matures in September
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation: Zanthoxylum coreanum could succeed outdoors at least in the milder areas of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Flowers are formed on the old wood.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses: The leaves are eaten raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
In Korea, Zanthoxylum coreanum is used for many medical purposes. The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is powerfully stimulant and tonic.

It is made into crude medicine for many sicknesses. Sicknesses include ozena, rheumatoid, nasal sinusitis, meno-xenia, dysperpsia, toothache, sore throat, pains in the limbs and more. In an experiment, done by Jae-Hyoung Song, Sung Wook Chae and Kyung-Ah Yoon and more, had proved that Zanthoxylum coreanum contains antiviral against PEDV (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus). Further studies are necessary to know what causes the antiviral against PEDV.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+coreanum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_coreanum

Crataegus altaica

Botanical Name : Crataegus altaica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Section: Sanguineae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonym: Crataegus purpurea altaica. Crataegus wattiana. Crataegus altaica var. villosa is considered to be a synonym of Crataegus maximowiczii.

Common Names: Altai Mountain Thorn
Habitat :Crataegus altaica is native to W. Asia – Altai Mountains. It grows on slopes, forest understories, stream sides; 400–1900 m. C and N Xinjiang [Russia (SE European part, Siberia)]
Description:

Crataegus altaica is a midium sized deciduous tree 3–6 m tall, unarmed, rarely with few 2–4 cm thorns. Branchlets purplish brown or reddish brown when young, grayish brown when old, terete, stout, glabrous; buds purplish brown, suborbicular, glabrous, apex acute. Stipules falcate or cordate, ca. 1 cm, herbaceous, glabrous, margin glandular serrate, apex acute; petiole 2–3.4 cm, glabrous; leaf blade broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 5–9 × 4–7 cm, veins conspicuous, lateral veins extending to apices of lobes, abaxially barbate in vein axils, adaxially sparsely pubescent, base truncate or broadly cuneate, rarely subcordate, margin irregularly and sharply serrate, usually with 2–4 pairs of lobes, often parted near base, apex acute or obtuse. Compound corymb 3–4 cm in diam., many flowered; peduncle glabrous; bracts caducous, lanceolate, membranous. Pedicel 5–7 mm, glabrous. Flowers 1.2–1.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, or triangular-lanceolate, 2–4 mm, both surfaces glabrous, apex caudate-acuminate. Petals white, suborbicular, ca. 5 mm in diam. Stamens 20. Ovary sparsely pubescent apically, 4- or 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 4 or 5. Pome yellow, subglobose, 8–10 mm in diam., glabrous; sepals persistent, reflexed; pyrenes 4 or 5, with concave scars on both inner sides. flower blooms: May–Jun, fruit matures : Aug–Sep.

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It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. This species is closely related to C. wattiana. Hawthorns in general hybridize freely with other members of the genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.
Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. About 8mm in diameter, the fruit is yellow with a fairly dry mealy texture and a pleasantly sweet flesh. The fruit can also be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit ripens in August, making it one of the earliest ripening hawthorns. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses: Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_altaica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+altaica
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200010796

Clerodendron inerme

Botanical Name : Clerodendron inerme
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Volkameria
Species: V. inermis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Volkameria inermis

Common Names : Glory bower, Wild Jasmine, Sorcerers Bush, Seaside clerodendrum, Clerodendrum, Scrambling; Scrambling Clerodendrum; Harmless Clerodendron; Clerodendron, Harmless
Habitat : Clerodendron inerme is native to India & Malaysia. It is found in Australia, Asia, Malesia and the Pacific islands. It usually grows in close proximity to the sea and is often found near margins or on the margins of beach forest. Also occurs in Asia, Malesia and the Pacific islands.

Description:
Clerodendron inerme is an evergreen mangrove plant, which has found a place in our gardens, is able to thrive near the ocean at the high tide mark, making it a potential weed in the coastal environment. A hardy, straggling shrub, it reaches a height of 9-12 FT with closely arranged, almost round, shiny, deep green leaves. The plant is always in flower. The flowers are white and very fragrant, with spreading five corolla lobes, 1″ long white tubes and long purple stamens. As the specific name implies, the stems are smooth and are devoid of thorns. The plant is not choosy about the soil and can even withstand droughts. Seaside clerodendrum, as its name suggests, grows well along the beach tolerating the salt spray of the ocean and the harsh rays of the sun. It is a versatile plant and can be grown as a topiary or as a bonsai. It is its hardy nature and the closely held bunches and leaves that promoted it into a garden plant. Clerodendrum inerme is a sun loving plant and a sunny spot should be chosen for it. The plant produces suckers and seeds. For making hedges, a large number of well-developed plants are required and, therefore, it is advisable to produce new plants through cuttings. Trimming the plant keeps the hedges in shape and also promotes production of new branches and leaves to fill up the gaps. As flowers are produced at the ends of branches, trimming robs the plant of its flowers. The plants is salt-, heat- and wind-tolerant.

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Description in detalis:
*Stem: Often grows into a rather untidy vine but frequently flowers and fruits as a shrub about 1-4 m tall. Vine stem diameters to 3 cm recorded.

*Leaves: Twigs, petioles and leaves glabrous or minutely puberulous. Leaf blades about 3-12 x 1-6 cm, punctate or glandular on the lower surface. Petioles about 0.5-1.5 cm long, grooved or channelled on the upper surface. Lateral veins forming loops inside the blade margin. Twigs usually pale-coloured and petioles dark purple.

*Flowers: Pedicels puberulous, about 3-6 mm long. Calyx about 3-6 mm long, glandular, glabrous or puberulous with a few large nectariferous glands on the outer surface, glabrous on the inner surface, lobes minute. Corolla glabrous and glandular outside, tube villous inside, tube cylindrical, about 15-40 mm long, lobes about 3.5-11 mm long. Stamens exserted, filaments about 15-38 mm long, anthers about 2.5-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous, glandular, about 1.5-2 x 1-1.5 mm, style exserted, glabrous, about 25-48 mm long.

*Fruit: Fruit consists of four nutlets which fit together and are borne on a receptacle like an egg in an egg cup. Fruit about 10-20 x 7-15 mm. Calyx persistent at the base forming a cup about 7-12 mm diam. Cotyledons about 5 mm long, much longer and wider than the radicle which is about 0.5-1 mm long.

*Seedlings : Cotyledons thick and fleshy, about 12-20 x 6-9 mm, gradually tapering into the petioles. First pair of leaves opposite, margins entire or with a few teeth. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade lanceolate, margin entire or with a few teeth, stem purple becoming pale, terminal bud clothed in pale prostrate hairs. Petiole and midrib purple.

Medicinal Uses:
Clerodendron inermesed is used as local medicine in both Kosrae and Pohnpei for a variety of ailments. Known to be used in Samoa as a local medicine as well. The root of Clerodendron inerme is of a more decided bitter taste and strong odor, and is regarded as possessing tonic and alterative properties, and as being useful in venereal and scrofulous complaints. A steam bath (srawuk) of kwacwak is used by women during their monthly menstrual cycle. Used to treat fever, skin rash, flu, headache, infected umbilical cord, eye infections, evil spirit prevention. Can also be added to coconut oil and rubbed into skin.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkameria_inermis
http://keys.trin.org.au/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-8004-060d07080d04/media/Html/taxon/Clerodendrum_inerme.htm
http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Clerodendrum_inerme.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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Sinomenium acutum

Botanical Name : Sinomenium acutum
Family : Menispermaceaeamily:
Genus: Sinomenium
Species: Sinomenium acutum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Cycadophyta
Class: Insecta
Type: Ranunculales

Synonyms: S. diversifolium. Cocculus diversifolius. C. heterophyllus. Menispermum acutum.

Common Name: Chinese Moonseed

Habitat : Sinomenium acutum is native to E. AsiaChina, Japan. It grows on the thickets and sparse forests to 1500 metres in western China.

Description:
Sinomenium acutum is a deciduous Climber growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile…...CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES
Cultivation :
Succeeds in most soils in sun or shad. A twining plant. A polymorphic species, the leaves varying considerably in shape and lobing.

Propagation :
Seed – sow late winter in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 10cm taken at a node, July/August in a frame. Good percentage
Edible Uses:…..Roots and leaves are – cooked and eaten.
Medicinal Uses:
Roots contain sinomenine, an alkaloid traditionally used in herbal medicine in these countries.The roots are anodyne and carminative. A decoction is used in the treatment of oedema, moisture-related beriberi, rheumatoid arthritis.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=auto&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fceb.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FSinomenium_acutum
http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/199800155.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sinomenium+acutum

Aristolochia manshuriensis

 

Botanical Name : Aristolochia manshuriensis
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamily: Aristolochioideae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species : Aristolochia manshuriensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

Synonyms:
*Hocquartia Dum.
*Holostylis Duch., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 2: 33, t. 5. 1854.
*Isotrema Raf. (disputed)

Common Names; Manchurian pipevine, Chinese Aristolochia, Guan Mu Tong , Birthwort

Habitat : Aristolochia manshuriensis is native to Manchuria and Korea. It grows on the mixed forests in Korea, eastern Siberia and northeastern China including the area formerly known as Manchuria.
Description:
Aristolochia manshuriensis is a deciduous, woody, twining climber that produces unusual apetulous flowers, each of which features a calyx which resembles a dutchman’s pipe suspended on a thin stalk. . It has simple alternate leaves. This vine will typically grow to as much as 15-20’ long (to 8′ in one growing season). Large, leathery, orbicular, cordate, palmately-veined, light green leaves (to 11″ x 11″) are abaxilly covered with white hairs. Each creamy white flower is densely mottled with yellow-green and features a contrasting 3-lobed bronze-red limb at the apex of the corolla-like calyx. Flowers bloom singly or in pairs from the leaf axils in June-July. Each flower acts as a flytrap for insects (flowers are primarily pollinated by flies) that are lured by potent fragrance into entering the calyx where they are dusted with pollen before leaving. Flowers give way to cylindrical dehiscent seed capsules (to 4″ long) containing winged seeds which ripen in late summer. Capsules open basipetally when ripe, releasing the seed for distribution by wind…….... CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation & Propagation : Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20  Degree C. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5 Degree C. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter.
Medicinal Uses:
The flowers are diuretic. The whole plant is anodyne, antiphlogistic and carminative. A decoction is used in the treatment of rheumatoid aches and pains. The plant contains aristolochic acid, which is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. The stem treats fever, diabetes; increases flow or urine; induces menstruation; stimulates milk flow in women after labor.

Known hazards: Not much specific details for this species are available but most members of this genus have poisonous roots and stems. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia
http://en.hortipedia.com/wiki/Aristolochia_manshuriensis
https://sheffields.com/seeds/Aristolochia/manshuriensis/050892
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=241860
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm
http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/a/aristolochia-molissima.php

Solidago spathulata

Botanical Name : Solidago spathulata
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. spathulata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Aster candollei Kuntze 1891 not Harv. 1865
*Homopappus spathulatus (DC.) Nutt.
*Solidago simplex var. spathulata (DC.) Cronquist
*Solidago spiciformis Torr. & A.Gray

Common Names: Coast Goldenrod, Creeping Goldenrod, Dune goldenrod

Habitat :Solidago spathulata is native to the Pacific Coastal regions of the United States, in the States of Oregon and California. It is found in a wide range of habitats from coastal sand dunes to inland and alpine areas
Description:
Solidago spathulata is perennial herb up to 50 cm (20 inches) tall with a branching underground caudex. One plant can produce as many as 100 small yellow flower heads in a branching array. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is in flower from Jun to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife…....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation :
Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Judging by the plants native habitat, it is likely to be tolerant of maritime exposure. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of Britain, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Invasive, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Extended bloom season in Zones 9A and above.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Leaves and flowering stems – cooked. Seed – used as a thickener in soups etc. The seed is very small and fiddly to harvest. A tea is made from the leaves and flowers.
Medicinal Uses:
Antiseptic; Haemostatic; Salve.
The flowering stems are antiseptic, haemostatic and salve. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used as an antisepti. A poultice of the toasted, powdered leaves has been mixed with oil and used in the treatment of mumps.

Other Uses:
Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant. Landscape Uses:Border, Ground cover, Specimen, Woodland garden.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with  your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidago_spathulata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+spathulata

Gentianella amarella

Botanical Name : Gentianella amarella
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentianella
Species: G. amarella
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms : Gentiana amarella. L.

Common Name :Felwort, Autumn dwarf gentian, Autumn gentian

Habitat : Gentianella amarella is native to Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to France, Hungary and the Caucasus. It grows on basic pastures, usually amongst short grass, and dunes, often on lime-rich soil.
Description:
Gentianella amarella is a short biennial plant with elliptical to lanceolate leaves, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are purplish bells between 12 and 22 mm long. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Detail Characteristics:
*Flower color : blue to purple
:white
*Leaf type: the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
*Leaf arrangement: opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem
*Leaf blade edges: the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes)
*Flower symmetry: there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
*Number of sepals, petals or tepals: there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
:there are four petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower
*Fusion of sepals and petals: the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube
*Stamen number: 5
*Fruit type (general): the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe

Cultivation:
Requires a damp humus-rich soil and should be planted in a situation approaching its native habitat. An aggregate species, individual plants may show unusual features and determinations should be based on small samples of the population.

Propagation: Seed – sow in situ as soon as it is ripe in the autumn

Medicinal Uses:
This species is one of several that can be used as a source of the medicinal gentian root. Gentian has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant and stomachic. It is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties. The root is anodyne, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, pectoral, refrigerant, stomachic. A substitute for G. lutea. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Doubt’, ‘Depression’ and ‘Discouragement”

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentianella_amarella
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentianella+amarella
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/gentianella/amarella/

Gentiana purpurea

 

Botanical Name: Gentiana purpurea
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: G. purpurea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Common Names: Gentiana purpurea

Habitat : Gentiana purpurea is native to C. and N. Europe. It grows on meadows, pastures and the grassy bottoms of mountain corries, sometimes in scrub and thin conifer woodland, usually on lime-free soils.

Description:
Gentiana purpurea is a perennial plant, growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

USDA hardiness zone : 4-8
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

This gentian is the little sister of Gentiana lutea :), growing not as tall but very similar in habit, although the leaves are smaller and the flowers are deep red-wine coloured.

Growing them both together seems like a great idea! Seeds gratefully received from happy plants growing in Norway.

Cultivation :
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is easily grown in a sandy, lime-free soil enriched with organic matter, so long as this is deep enough to accommodate the plant’s roots. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Edible Uses: The root is sometimes used in the manufacture of gentian bitters.

Medicinal Uses:
This species is one of several that are the source of the medicinal gentian root[4], the following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_purpurea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+purpurea
http://botanicallyinclined.org/seeds-shop/gentiana-purpurea-buy-seeds/

Prunus mahaleb

Botanical Name : Prunus mahaleb
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Species: P. mahaleb
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names :Prunus mahaleb, aka mahaleb cherry, aka St Lucie cherry

Habitat :Prunus mahaleb  is native in the Mediterranean region, Iran and parts of central Asia. It is adjudged to be native in northwestern Europe or at  least it is naturalized there.The tree occurs in thickets and open woodland on dry slopes; in central Europe at altitudes up to 1,700 m, and in highlands at  1,200-2,000 m in southern Europe. It has become naturalised in some temperate areas, including Europe north of its native range (north to Great Britain and  Sweden), and locally in Australia and the United States.

Description:
Prunus mahaleb is a deciduous tree or large shrub, growing to 2–10 m (rarely up to 12 m) tall with a trunk up to 40 cm diameter.The tree’s bark is  grey-brown, with conspicuous lenticels on young stems, and shallowly fissured on old trunks. The leaves are 1.5-5 cm long, 1-4 cm. wide, alternate, clustered at the end of alternately arranged twigs, ovate to cordate, pointed, have serrate edges, longitudinal venation and are glabrous and green. The petiole is  5-20 mm, and may or may not have two glands. The flowers are fragrant, pure white, small, 8-20 mm diameter, with an 8-15 mm pedicel; they are arranged 3-10  together on a 3-4 cm long raceme. The flower pollination is mainly by bees. The fruit is a small thin-fleshed cherry-like drupe 8–10 mm in diameter, green at  first, turning red then dark purple to black when mature, with a very bitter flavour; flowering is in mid spring with the fruit ripening in mid to late  summer……....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES.

Cultivation:  
Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil, growing best in a poor soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:       
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring.

Edible Uses:
The fruit might be edible. The fruits of all members of this genus are more or less edible, may not be always of very good quality. However, if the fruit is bitter it should not be eaten in any quantity due to the presence of toxic compounds. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter and contains one large seed. Seeds are eaten  raw or cooked. The dried seed kernels are used as a flavouring in breads, sweet pastries, confectionery etc. They impart an intriguing flavour. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes above on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
The seed is tonic. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.

Known Hazards:      Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is

always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_mahaleb
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+mahaleb