Tag Archives: Arranging Flowers (“Best of Martha Stewart Living” Series

Zanthoxylum coreanum

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum coreanum
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. coreanum
Kingdom:Plantaes
Order: Sapindales

Common Names : Korean lime tree, Zanthoxylum coreanum

Habitat : Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai is distributed only in Korea and China. In Korea, it is found on Jeju Island, it is usually found 700-1100m above the sea level. It is usually near valleys and seashores. It is a rare species that has strong germination growth, meaning that they can germinate in hard climates. It can grow in low altitudes and in well drained soil. It can be introduced to a new area where it has a milder condition and soil that can drain water well.
Description:
Zanthoxylum coreanum is a deciduous Shrub. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

The stems grow erect, and have hairs and thorns. The thorns on the stem can reach a length of 6–12 mm. There are sometimes thorns on the rachis. The leaf is arranged in alternate and is pinnately compound leaf venation. The leaves are shiny and have a strong smell. There are about 7 to 13 leaves on each pinnate venation and the leaves are 1–3 cm wide and 2–5 cm long. Each leaf has ovate or lanceolate shape and serrate marginal shape. It also produces fruits and flowers.

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Flowers of Zanthoxylum coreanum, are only present on old wood. Flowers are in short panicle and diameter of 4–6 cm. The flowers bloom in May and petals are absent from the flower. In a male flower, there are 5–6 calyx and 5 stamens. In female flower, there are 5–8 calyx and 2 carpels. Fruits of Zanthoxylum coreanum are in a capsule and in globular shape. It usually has a length of 5 mm and diameter of 4 mm. The fruit matures in September
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation: Zanthoxylum coreanum could succeed outdoors at least in the milder areas of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Flowers are formed on the old wood.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses: The leaves are eaten raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
In Korea, Zanthoxylum coreanum is used for many medical purposes. The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is powerfully stimulant and tonic.

It is made into crude medicine for many sicknesses. Sicknesses include ozena, rheumatoid, nasal sinusitis, meno-xenia, dysperpsia, toothache, sore throat, pains in the limbs and more. In an experiment, done by Jae-Hyoung Song, Sung Wook Chae and Kyung-Ah Yoon and more, had proved that Zanthoxylum coreanum contains antiviral against PEDV (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus). Further studies are necessary to know what causes the antiviral against PEDV.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+coreanum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_coreanum

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Crataegus altaica

Botanical Name : Crataegus altaica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Section: Sanguineae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonym: Crataegus purpurea altaica. Crataegus wattiana. Crataegus altaica var. villosa is considered to be a synonym of Crataegus maximowiczii.

Common Names: Altai Mountain Thorn
Habitat :Crataegus altaica is native to W. Asia – Altai Mountains. It grows on slopes, forest understories, stream sides; 400–1900 m. C and N Xinjiang [Russia (SE European part, Siberia)]
Description:

Crataegus altaica is a midium sized deciduous tree 3–6 m tall, unarmed, rarely with few 2–4 cm thorns. Branchlets purplish brown or reddish brown when young, grayish brown when old, terete, stout, glabrous; buds purplish brown, suborbicular, glabrous, apex acute. Stipules falcate or cordate, ca. 1 cm, herbaceous, glabrous, margin glandular serrate, apex acute; petiole 2–3.4 cm, glabrous; leaf blade broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 5–9 × 4–7 cm, veins conspicuous, lateral veins extending to apices of lobes, abaxially barbate in vein axils, adaxially sparsely pubescent, base truncate or broadly cuneate, rarely subcordate, margin irregularly and sharply serrate, usually with 2–4 pairs of lobes, often parted near base, apex acute or obtuse. Compound corymb 3–4 cm in diam., many flowered; peduncle glabrous; bracts caducous, lanceolate, membranous. Pedicel 5–7 mm, glabrous. Flowers 1.2–1.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, or triangular-lanceolate, 2–4 mm, both surfaces glabrous, apex caudate-acuminate. Petals white, suborbicular, ca. 5 mm in diam. Stamens 20. Ovary sparsely pubescent apically, 4- or 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 4 or 5. Pome yellow, subglobose, 8–10 mm in diam., glabrous; sepals persistent, reflexed; pyrenes 4 or 5, with concave scars on both inner sides. flower blooms: May–Jun, fruit matures : Aug–Sep.

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It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. This species is closely related to C. wattiana. Hawthorns in general hybridize freely with other members of the genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.
Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. About 8mm in diameter, the fruit is yellow with a fairly dry mealy texture and a pleasantly sweet flesh. The fruit can also be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit ripens in August, making it one of the earliest ripening hawthorns. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses: Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_altaica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+altaica
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200010796