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Viburnum edule

Botanical Name : Viburnum edule
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species: V. edule
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonym(s): Viburnum pauciflorum,V. opulus edule. V. opulus pauciflorum. V. pauciflorum.

Common Names: Mooseberry, Squashberry,  Pimbina, Highbush cranberry, Lowbush cranberr  Moosomin, Moosewood viburnum, Few-flowered cranberry bush

Habitat :Viburnum edule is native to E. Asia. Eastern N. America. It grows in woods, thickets and cool mountain slopes.

Description:
Viburnum edules is a perennial traggling to erect deciduous Shrub, 2-7 ft. tall, with smooth, leafy branches. Leaves are sometimes 3-lobed and always palmately veined. White flowers occur in dense, broad, flat-topped clusters on short branches. The fruit is yellow, becoming red or orange in late fall. Straggly shrub with opposite, 3-lobed leaves and sour, edible red berries...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Except in fall, when this plant adds a vivid splash of color to northern forests, Moosewood Viburnum is often overlooked, being rather straggly in appearance. There are more than 100 species of viburnum in the world, 15 of which occur in North America, primarily in the northern latitudes.
It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile…..

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a slightly acidic soil. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Plants are possibly self-incompatible and may need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Closely allied to V. opulus, but this species has no sterile flowers in the inflorescence and is a superior fruiting form.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. The fully ripe fruits are mildly acid with a pleasant taste. The ovoid fruit is about 8mm long and contains a single large seed. The fruit can also be dried for winter use. It is highly valued for jam. It is best before a frost and with the skin removed. Another report says that the native Americans would often not harvest the fruit until it had been frosted. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers – used in fritters.

Medicinal Uses:
Antispasmodic; Astringent; Odontalgic; Salve.

The bark is antispasmodic and astringent. An infusion of the crushed inner bark has been used in the treatment of dysentery and has also been used as a purgative. The bark has been chewed and the juice swallowed in the treatment of whooping cough and ‘cold on the lungs’. A decoction of the stems has been used in the treatment of coughs. An infusion of the leaves and stems has been used as a gargle in the treatment of sore throats. The twig tips have been chewed and the juice swallowed in the treatment of sore throats. A poultice of the chewed, unopened flower buds has been applied to lip sores. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat sickness associated with teething.

Other Uses: Basket making…..The stems have been used to reinforce birch bark basket rims.

Known Hazards: Although no records of toxicity have been seen for this species, it is closely related to V. opulus, the raw fruit of which can cause nausea in some people if it is eaten in large quantities, although the cooked fruit is perfectly alright.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_edule
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=VIED
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+edule

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Orchis coriophora

Botanical Name : Orchis coriophora
Family: Orchidaceae
Tribe: Orchideae
Genus: Anacamptis
Species:A. coriophora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Common Name : Bug Orchis

Habitat :Orchis coriophora is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dry or damp pastures and marshes in hills and mountains. Usually found on acid soils.

Description:
Orchis coriophora is a BULB growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
It is in flower from Apr to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Ye sort herbal pequeñu of Tamanu large, terrestrial, which prefer to climate rein. Tien a robustus Tarmu green maciu 4 to 10 Fueyo basal lliniales linear-llanceolaes Fueyo and kaolin it almost Visu‘s Tarmu. Floria in spring and cannula nuna inflorescence cylindrical or oblong 45 to 135 cm Llarga munches with flowers (15 to 25), fragrant color variable.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in full sun in a moist sandy loam. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. Plants can succeed in a lawn in various parts of the country. The lawn should not be mown early in the year before or immediately after flowering. Plant out bulbs whilst the plant is dormant, preferably in the autumn. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Cultivated plants are very susceptible to the predation of slugs and snails. The flowers have an abominable bug-like smell. The flowers of the commoner sub-species, O. coriophora fragrans, however, are sweetly scented.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally.

Edible Uses: Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is a starch-like substance with a sweetish taste and a faint somewhat unpleasant smell. It is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or can be added to cereals and used in making bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day.
Medicinal Uses:
Salep (see above for more details) is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Orchis+coriophora
https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchis_coriophora
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anacamptis_coriophora