Tag Archives: Arunachal Pradesh

Myricaria squamosa

Botanical Name: Myricaria squamosa
Kingdom : Plants
Division: vascular plants
Class: Dicotyledonous angiosperms
Order: Tamaricales
Family: Tamaricaceae
Genus: Klådrissläktet
Species: Myricaria squamosa
Habitat : Myricaria squamosa is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Afghanistan to central Nepal and eastern Tibet. It grows along the sides of rivers and streams in the lower subalpine to upper alpine zones.

Description:

Myricaria squamosa is a deciduous Shrub. It is erect, 1-5 m tall, much branched in upper part. Old branches purple-brown, red-brown, or gray-brown; branches of current year yellowish green to red-brown. Leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, oblong, or narrowly ovate, 1.5-5(-10) × 0.5-2 mm, base slightly enlarged, margin narrowly membranous, apex obtuse or acute. Racemes lateral on old branches, solitary or several clustered in axils, dense before anthesis, later elongating and lax, with many imbricate scales at base; scales broadly ovate or elliptic, submembranous; bracts elliptic, broadly ovate, or obovate-oblong, 4-6(-8) × 3-4 mm, equaling or exceeding calyx, rarely shorter than calyx, base narrow, acuminate, margin broadly membranous or submembranous, apex obtuse or acute. Pedicels 2-3 mm. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, oblong, or narrowly elliptic, 2-4 × 0.5-1 mm, margin broadly or narrowly membranous, apex acute or obtuse. Petals purple-red or pink, obovate or narrowly elliptic, 4-5 × ca. 2 mm, base narrow, apex obtuse, often incurved. Filaments ca. 2/3 united. Ovary conic, 3-5 mm. Capsule conic, ca. 1 cm. Seeds narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, ca. 1 mm, apex awned; awns more than 1/2 white villous. Fl. and fr. May-Aug. 2n = 24.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a fertile well-drained soil in full sun with shelter from cold drying winds. Tolerates chalk soils.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, November to January in a sandy propagating mix in an open frame.

Medicinal Uses:
The entire plant is used in Tibetan medicine, where it is considered to have an astringent taste and a cooling potency. Antitussive and febrifuge, it localizes poison, ripens pimples and dries up serous fluids. It is used in the treatment of inflammation due to poisoning, the spreading of fever from various infections, pimples that do not ripen, coughing, accumulation of serous fluids in bone joints, and meat poisoning

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myricaria_squamosa
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200014291
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Myricaria+squamosa

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Crataegus azarolus

Botanical Name : Crataegus azarolus
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Series: Orientales
Species:C. azarolus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonym(s):
*Crataegus aronia (L.) DC.
*Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. variety aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC.
*Crataegus azarolus subsp. aronia H. Riedl
*Mespilus azarolus (L.) All

Common Names: Mediterranean Hawthorn, Mediterranian Medler, Azarole, Crete Hawthorn, Mosfilia, Oriental Hawthorn

Habitat : Crataegus azarolus is native to S. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dry hillsides and mountains in woods and hedges.

Description:
Crataegus azarolus is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a medium rate.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.

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It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked in pies, preserves etc. The fruit can be used fresh or dried for later use. A pleasant acid taste. In warm temperate areas the fruit develops more fruit sugars and has a fragrant sugary pulp with a slightly acid flavour. It can be eaten out of hand. In cooler zones, however, the fruit does not develop so well and is best cooked or used in preserves. The fruit is very variable in size and colour, it is up to 25mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses : Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_azarolus
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/33987/0
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+azarolus

Saussurea obvallata

 

Botanical Name : Saussurea obvallata
Family: Asteraceae or Compositae
Tribe: Cynareae
Genus: Saussurea
Species: S. obvallata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names; Local names of this flower are Brahma Kamal, Kon and Kapfu .

Habitat : Saussurea obvallata is native to E. Asia – western Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at elevations of 3,000 – 4,500 metres. It grows on alpine meadows and slopes, rocky slopes
and along the sides of rivers and streams.

Description:
Saussurea obvallata is a perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1 ft). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. Flowers bloom in mid-
monsoon (July– August) amongst the rocks and grasses of the hillside at an altitudinal range of 3000–4800 m. Flower heads are purple,hidden from view in layers of yellowish-green papery
bracts, which provide protection from the cold mountain environment. The flowers can be seen till mid-October, after which the plant perishes, becoming visible again in April. It is the state
flower of Uttarakhand. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist
soil.

In Hindu drawings Brahma is seen sitting on a pink flower that resembles a lotus (Sanskrit: kamal), which is India’s national flower. Hence people claim that the pink flower of Nelumbo
nucifera is the Brahma Kamal. However others claim the flower on which he is sitting, which resembles a lotus is sprouted from the belly button of Lord Vishnu. The flower which Brahma is
holding in one of his four hands, a white flower resembling Saussurea obvallata is the Brahma Kamal. There are people who claim that the flower of Epiphyllum oxypetalum, the orchid
cactus, which blooms at night, is the Brahma Kamal. Some North Indians claim that the flower of Saussurea obvallata is the Brahma Kamal.

Cultivation: 
Succeeds in most soils in a sunny well-drained position.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information for this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame in the spring. Surface sow, or only just cover the seed, and make sure that the compost does not dry   out. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring    after the last expected frosts. Division in spring might be possible.

Medicinal Uses:
Brahma kamal is a medicinal herb. The plant is considered an herb in Tibetan medicine. Its name is Sah-du Goh-ghoo. It has a bitter taste. The entire plant is used. It is found in the region
of the Himalayas. It is also used to cure urogenital disorders. It is used in the treatment of paralysis of the limbs and cerebral ischaemia.

Other Uses:
Uttarakhand formerly Uttaranchal, is a state located in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods – Dev Bhumi due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found      throughout the state which are some of Hinduism’s most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship. The shrines of Yamunotri, Gangotri, Kedarnath and Badrinath make up     the Char Dham Yatra, four highly sacred destinations of the Hindus. Uttarakhand also known for its natural beauty.

Known Hazards: It is endangered because people are cutting it down for their own use.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with     your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thelesperma_megapotamicum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Thelesperma+megapotamicum

Brassica cernua

 

Botanical Name : Brassica cernua
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym :Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. juncea

Common Name : Chinese cabbage, pak choi, pakchoi, Pe-tsai, petsai, wong bok, wongbok, Chinese salad, Chou chinois (Fr), kapisi, kapeti ni jaina (Fiji), kapisi siaina (Tonga, Tuvalu),
Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Jie Cai (in Mandarin) or Kai Choi (in Cantonese), or leaf mustard is a species of mustard plant.

Habitat :Brassica cernua is native to Eastern Asia. Places in India where it grows are  Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Brassica cernua is a  perennial, biennial, often grown as an annual herb.It is a succulent herb forming rosettes, of open or tight vegetative heads followed by flowering stalks reaching 20-50 cm in height. Leaves are succulent and light green.May be harvested after 40-60 or 50-90 days, depending on variety. (Eswaran) 25-45 days for leaves and 100-110 days for seeds.

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Edible Uses:
The leaves are eaten fresh, boiled, fried, or fermented. Some varieties produce seeds that can be pressed for oil.

Cultivation:
It can in the tropics be grown at elevations up to 1500 m, but at elevations below 500 m heading is less likely to occur. A difference of 5-6°C in day and night temperatures appears to increase the vigour of the plant. Temperatures below 16°C promote flowering, particularly in daylengths of 13 hours or more. Drought stress in the heading stage prevents head formation. It is easely damaged by high winds. Leaf yields between 5 and 70 t/ha or 0.5-7 kg/m? may be obtained depending on length of growing period, plant desity, environmental conditions and cultivars. Photosynthesis pathway C3.

Medicinal Uses:
The seeds treat pain in nerves, arthritis, pneumonia

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=547
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.tuinkrant.com/plantengids/groenten/29947.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_juncea

Water pennywort

Botanical Name :Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides
Family :       :Apiaceae/ Umbelliferae
Synonyms:Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.

Other scientific names : Hydrocotyle rotundifolia Roxb. ,Hydrocotyle nitidula A. Rich.  ,Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. ,Hydrocotyle puncticulata Miq.  Water pennywort (Engl.) ,Hydrocotyle latisecta Zoll.

Common names :lawn pennywort,lawn marshpennywort, Kanapa (Ig.), Tomtomon (Bon.), Man-t’ien-hsing (Chin.),Water pennywort (Engl.),

Habitat : Native to Asia and Africa, but introduced elsewhere where it has escaped to become a serious weed that may become invasive in wet areas or along stream banks.

Description:
Water pennywort is a creeping perennial, smooth herb with the stems rooting at the nodes. Leaves are orbicular or subreniform, thin, about 1 cm in diameter with heart-shaped base and margins somewhat lobed, the lobes being short and having 2 or 3 teeth. Umbels are very small, with few flowers. Flowers are small, white, sessile, axillary, sepals lacking, petals and stamens 5. Fruits are few, sometimes only 2 or 3 on a peduncle and less than 1 mm long, ellipsoid, usually with red colored spots.
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plant often found as a weed of gardens, pathways and lawns, but occasionally planted for its attractive, glossy foliage.This plant is a prostrate creeping herb 1 to 2 cm tall with an unlimited spread via the wiry, hollow, green stems that root freely at the nodes.

 

Constituents:
*Roots contain vellarin and vitamin C.
*Plant yielded 7 new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, hydrocotylosides I-VII and one known saponin, udosaponin B.

Ediable Uses:
• Leaves are edible.
• Whole plant can be used as a potherb with its parsley-like aroma.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used
· Entire plant.
· Gathered throughout the year.
· Rinse after collection, sun-dry before use or use in fresh state.

Properties:
Sweet tasting, slightly minty.
Juice is emetic.
Considered depurative, febrifuge, expectorant, antitussive; antifebrile, diuretic.

Folkloric
*Plant juice used for fevers.
*Poultice used for wounds and boils.
*Decoction of plant used for abscesses, colds, coughs, hepatities, infuenza, pruritus, sore throat.
*Used for headaches and urinary problems.
*In Malaya, mixed with sugar and cassia bark for coughs.
*Leaves pounded with alum for poulticing scrotal skin ailments.
*In China, used for hepatoma. Also, an ingredient in Chinese herbal concoctions used for muscular dystrophy.
*In the Arunachal Pradesh district of India, juice of the plant mixed with honey, used for typhoid fever. In the district of India, fresh plants are crushed and the *juice extracted and three tablespoons are taken twice daily for five days.

Studies
Antitumor / Immunomodulatory: Ethanolic extract of HS showed anti-tumor activity with significantly enhanced activitiy on murine hepatic carcinoma, sarcoma 180 crocker, and uterine cervical carcinoma clones. Activity was comparable to that of antitumor agent 5-fluorouracil. The extract also mediate immunomodulatory effects as shown by promotion of thymus and spleen indices and humoral immunity in mice.
Antioxidant / Antriproliferative: H sibthorpioides was one of four Hydrocotyle species studied. The results demonstrated that the phytochemicals might have a significant effect on antioxidant and anticancer activities related to the amount of polyphenols and flavonoids. The four species present a potential source of natural antioxidants. Of the four hydrocotyle specie, HS and H batrachium had the lowest antiproliferative activity and H nepalensis, the highest activity.
Phytochemicals / Saponins: Study of methanolic extract yielded seven new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, hydrocotylosides I-VII and one known saponin, udosaponin B.
• Phytochemicals / Saponins: Study of methanolic

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kanapa.html
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Horticulture/Hydrocotyle_sibthorpioides
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HYSI

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