Tag Archives: Atmosphere of Earth

Allium triquetrum

Botanical Name: Allium triquetrum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. triquetrum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium medium G.Don
*Allium opizii Wolfner
*Allium triquetrum var. bulbiferum Batt. & Trab.
*Allium triquetrum f. normale (L.) Maire & Weiller
*Allium triquetrum var. typicum (L.) Regel
*Briseis triquetra (L.) Salisb.

Common Names: Three-cornered leek or in New Zealand as onion weed.

Habitat : Allium triquetrum is native to S. Europe. Naturalized in Britain in S.W. England. It grows in hedge banks and waste places on damp soils.

Description:
Allium triquetrum produces stems 17–59 cm (6 3?4–23 1?4 in) tall, which are concavely triangular in cross-section. Each stem produces an umbel inflorescence of 4–19 flowers in January–May in the species’ native environment. The tepals are 10–18 mm (13?32–23?32 in) long and white, but with a “strong green line”. Each plant has 2–3 narrow, linear leaves, each up to 15 cm (6 in) long. The leaves have a distinct onion smell when crushed.It is not frost tender.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a rich moist but well-drained soil. Shade tolerant, it is easily grown in a cool leafy soil and grows well in light moist woodland. Plants are not very hardy outside the milder areas of Britain, they tolerate temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. The seeds have an oil-bearing appendage which is attractive to ants. The ants carry the seed away to eat the oil and then discard the seed, thus aiding dispersal of the plant. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. The flowers are sweetly scented. The picked flowers can remain fresh for several weeks. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame. It germinates quickly and can be grown on in the greenhouse for the first year, planting out the dormant bulbs in the late summer of the following year if they have developed sufficiently, otherwise grow on in pots for a further year. Stored seed can be sown in spring in a greenhouse. Division in summer after the plants have died down. Very easy, the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses:  Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Bulb – raw or cooked. The rather small bulb is up to 20mm in diameter, it has a mild garlic flavour and can be used as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods. It is harvested in early summer when the plant has died down and will store for at least 6 months. Leaves – raw or cooked. A leek substitute. The leaves are available from late autumn until the spring, they are nice in salads when they are young, or cooked as a vegetable or flavouring as they get older. The leaves have a milder and more delicate flavour than onions. Flowers – raw. Juicy with a mild garlic flavour, they make a tasty and decorative garnish on salads.
Medicinal Uses:

Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:....Repellent……The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in very large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_triquetrum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+triquetrum

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Allium scorodoprasum rotundum

Botanical Name : Allium scorodoprasum rotundum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Allium rotundum. L.

Habitat: Allium scorodoprasum rotundum is native to S. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on calcareous and disturbed clay slopes, grassy places, field borders, beaches on sand and loam in Turkey.

Description:
Allium scorodoprasum rotundum is a BULB growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in).
Description:
Allium scorodoprasum rotundum is a  bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is slender  in growth. It is in flower from Jul to August. It has tight oblong knobs of dark wine red-purple flowers. It is not frost tender.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation: Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. This sub-species does not produce bulbils in the inflorescence. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is up to 2cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
Medicinal Uses:

Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_scorodoprasum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+scorodoprasum+rotundum

Aspidium spinulosum

Botanical Name: :Aspidium spinulosum
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Genus:     Dryopteris
Family:  Filices
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class:    Polypodiopsida /
Pteridopsida (disputed)
Order:     Dryopteridales

Common Name : Wood fern, Male fern,Shield fern,Buckler fern

Habitat :Aspidium spinulosum is a genus of about 250 species of ferns with distribution in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with the highest species diversity in eastern Asia. Many of the species have stout, slowly creeping rootstocks that form a crown, with a vase-like ring of fronds. The sori are round, with a peltate indusium. The stipes have prominent scales.

Description:
The Prickly-toothed Shield Fern is allied to the Male Shield Fern, but is not so tall, about 8 to 14 inches, and has very much broader leaves. The rootstock is similar to Male Fern, but there are differences in the number of wood bundles in the stems, also in the hairs on the margins of the leaf-stalk scales. The fronds are more divided – twice or thrice pinnate – and are spinous, the pinnae generally opposite and the lowest pair much shorter than the others. The sori are circular, with kidney-shaped indusium, much smaller than in Filix-mas.
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The Prickly-toothed Shield Fern is moderately erect and firm and grows in masses, being common in sheltered places on moist banks and in open woods.

Medicinal Uses:
Dryopteris filix-mas was throughout much of recent human history widely used as a vermifuge, and was the only fern listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia.
The medicinal uses are as in Male Fern, with the rhizome of which, as imported from the Continent, it has always been much mixed.

Other Uses:
Many Dryopteris species are widely used as garden ornamental plants, especially D. affinis, D. erythrosora and D. filix-mas, with numerous cultivars.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopteris
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/f/ferns-08.html#shi

Zhe Bei Mu (Fritillaria thunbergii )

Botanical Name : Fritillaria thunbergii
Family:
Liliaceae
Genus:
Fritillaria
Species:
F. thunbergii
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Liliales

Synonyms : F. collicola. Hance. F. verticillata thunbergii.

Common Name :Zhe Bei Mu

Habitat :Fritillaria thunbergii is native to China and Japan . It grows in bamboo forests, shady and moist places from near sea level to 600 metres.

Description:
Fritillaria thunbergii is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft).  It has linear leaves that are whorled on the top where there are also tendril-like tips. Flowers are cream-colored, flecked or tessellated green. This species needs to be planted deeply. It is in flower from Mar to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is hardy to zone 8.

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The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Best grown in a moist peaty soil in the open garden[90]. Easily grown in a moderately fertile soil in sun or semi-shade. Succeeds in drier soils and is drought tolerant when established. The dormant bulbs are fairly hardy and will withstand soil temperatures down to at least -5°c. The scaly bulbs are best planted on their sides or surrounded in sand to prevent water collecting in their hollow crowns. This species is cultivated as a medicinal plant in Europe and Asia. Plants take 3 – 5 years to flower from seed.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales

Edible Uses: Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Root.

Bulb – fried or candied. The bulb is up to 3cm in diameter. Young plants and buds – cooked

Medicinal Uses:
Antitussive;  ExpectorantFebrifuge.

The bulbs are antidote, antitussive, astringent, expectorant, galactogogue and purgative. They contain fritimine which diminishes excitability of respiratory centres, paralyses voluntary movement and counters effects of opium. The bulbs are thought to act specifically on tumours and swellings of the throat, neck and chest, and they are taken in the treatment of thyroid gland nodules, scrofula, abscesses and boils and breast cancer. The bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart failure. The bulbs are harvested in the winter whilst they are dormant and are dried for later use.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria_thunbergii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+thunbergii
http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/AsianFritillariaTwo

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Why do we perspire?

: Sweating is a natural phenomenon that occurs so that our body temperature remains constant. When the heat is on and we perspire, we might feel that all that sweat hardly does any good to us. On the contrary, it does help in reducing our body temperature to a great extent.

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The hypothalamus (a small cone-shaped structure in the brain) regulates homeostasis, that is, it regulates the areas for thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance and blood pressure.

Our bodies use approximately 2,500 calories of our daily intake to generate energy through a process called oxidation, commonly termed as burning of food. The process generates a considerable amount of heat, which the body cannot tolerate. The hypothalamus initiates the dilation of the blood vessels (vasodilatation) in the skin to release the excess heat. This prompts the release of sweat from the pores on the skin. There are approximately two million sweat glands in our body. Sweat itself is made up of different elements, the most common of them being water and sodium, otherwise known as salt.

Perspiration emerges on the surface of the skin in the form of tiny, microscopic droplets, which quickly evaporate and cool the body to its normal temperature. Sweat evaporates at a slower rate in humid climate than otherwise. With less sweat evaporating from the body surface, it makes it difficult for us to bear the heat.

Hence, although at times embarrassing, sweating has an important role to play in our survival.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata,India)