Tag Archives: Atriplex

Atriplex hortensis

Botanical Name :Atriplex hortensis
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Chenopodioideae
Genus: Atriplex
Species: A. hortensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Mountain Spinach. Garden Orache

Common Names: Garden Orache, Red Orach, Mountain Spinach, French Spinach, or simply “orache” or arrach

Habitat : Atriplex hortensis is native  to Europe. An occasional garden escape in Britain. It grows on arable land, waste and disturbed ground, shingle etc.

Description:
Atriplex hortensis is a hardy, annual plant, with an erect, branching stem, varying in height from two to six feet, according to the variety and soil. The leaves are variously shaped, but somewhat oblong, comparatively thin in texture, and slightly acidic to the taste. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. The flowers are small and obscure, greenish or reddish, corresponding in a degree with the color of the foliage of the plant; the seeds are small, black, and surrounded with a thin, pale-yellow membrane. They retain their vitality for three years…..CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Orach is a very easily grown plant, doing equally well in a wide variety of well-drained soils, though rich, moisture-retentive soils give the quick growth that is necessary for the production of tender leaves[33, 37, 200, 269]. Plants require a position in full sun and are tolerant of saline and very alkaline soils. They thrive in any temperate climate, and are drought resistant. Orach is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 30 to 140cm, an average annual temperature in the range of 6 to 24°C, and a pH of 5.0 to 8.2. Orach was formerly cultivated for its edible leaves, there are some named varieties. It can be grown as a warm weather substitute for spinach. Some forms of this species have bronze or deep red leaves and are occasionally grown as ornamental plants, their leaves taste the same as the green-leafed forms. Plants are fast-growing and usually self-sow quite freely if the surrounding soil is disturbed by hoeing etc. They tolerate hot weather well, but soon go to seed so successive sowings at 4 weekly intervals are required during the growing season if a continuous supply of leaves is required. Leaves can be harvested 40 – 60 days after sowing the seed. This species is a poor companion plant for potatoes, inhibiting their growth when growing close to them.
Propagation: 
Seed – sow March to August in situ, only just covering the seed. Germination is usually good and rapid.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Used like spinach, they have a bland flavour and are traditionally mixed with sorrel leaves in order to modify the acidity of the latter. Another report says that the flavour is stronger than spinach. Seed – cooked. It can be ground into a meal and used in soups etc or be mixed with flour when making bread. The seed is said to be a good source of vitamin A. The seed is also said to contain some saponins. See the notes above on toxicity. The seed is small and fiddly to harvest and us

Medicinal Uses:
Antirheumatic;  Diuretic;  EmeticPurgative.

The leaves are diuretic, emetic and purgative. They are also said to be a stimulant to the metabolism and an infusion is used as a spring tonic and a remedy for tiredness and nervous exhaustion. They have been suggested as a folk remedy for treating plethora and lung ailments. The leaves are said to be efficacious when used externally in the treatment of gout. The seeds, mixed with wine, are said to cure yellow jaundice. They also excite vomiting. The fruits are purgative and emetic. Liniments and emollients prepared from the whole plant, like the juice of the plant, are said to be folk remedies for indurations and tumours, especially of the throat. Heated with vinegar, honey and salt and applied, the Orache was considered efficacious to cure an attack of gout.

Considered diuretic, emetic, and emollient, orache has been suggested as a folk remedy for plethora and lung ailments. Seeds mixed with wine are said to cure yellow jaundice. They also excite vomiting. Heated with vinegar, honey and salt, orache is used for gout. Fruits are purgative and emetic. Liniments and emollients prepared from the whole plant, like the juice of the plant, are said to be folk remedies for indurations and tumors, especially of the throat. Used as a spring tonic and stimulant and in infusions to treat tiredness or exhaustion. A. patula’s seeds are gathered when just ripe and a pound (450 g) of them, bruised, is placed in three quarts (3.4 1) of moderate strength spirit. The whole is left to stand for six weeks, affording a light and not unpleasant tincture. A tablespoonful of the tincture, taken in a cup of water-gruel, has the same effect as a dose of Ipecacuanha, except that its operation is milder and it does not bind the bowels afterwards. After taking the dose, the patient should go to bed. A gentle sweat will follow, carrying off whatever offending matter the motions have dislodged, thus preventing long disease. As some stomachs are harder to move than others, a second tablespoonful may be taken if the first does not perform its office. Native Americans used poultices of the roots, stems and flowers for relieve of insect stings. Europeans used them to treat gout, jaundice and sore throats.

Other Uses:
Biomass;  Dye.

A blue dye is obtained from the seed. The plant is a potential source of biomass. Yields of 14 tonnes per hectare have been achieved in the vicinity of Landskrona and Lund, Sweden. Higher yields might be expected farther south. If the leaf-protein were extracted, this should leave more than 13 tonnes biomass as by-product, for potential conversion to liquid or gaseous fuels.

Known Hazards: No member of this genus contains any toxins, all have more or less edible leaves. However, if grown with artificial fertilizers, they may concentrate harmful amounts of nitrates in their leaves. The seed contains saponins. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/arrac060.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Atriplex+hortensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex_hortensis

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

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Atriplex patula

Botanical Name :Atriplex patula
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Chenopodioideae
Genus: Atriplex
Species: A. patula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonym: Spreading Orache.

Common Names:Spear Saltbush; Common Orache; Spear Orach; Spreading Orach

Habitat :
Atriplex patula is native to  most of Europe, including Britain, south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia. It grows on waste and arable land near the coast, it is usually found on clays and heavy ground.

Description:
Atriplex patula is a ruderal, circumboreal species of annual herbaceous plants in the genus Atriplex naturalized in many temperate regions.
The leaves are triangular in outline, rather narrow, the lower ones in opposite pairs. The very small, green flowers are in dense clusters.
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The whole plant is more or less covered with a powdery meal, often tinged red. It is distinguished from the Goosefoot genus Chenopodium, by the solitary seeds being enclosed between two triangular leaf-like valves.

‘These are to be gathered when just ripe for if suffered to stand longer, they lose part of their virtue. A pound of these bruised, and put into three quarts of spirit, of moderate strength, after standing six weeks, afford a light and not unpleasant tincture; a tablespoonful of which, taken in a cup of water-gruel, has the same effect as a dose of ipecacuanha, only that its operation is milder and does not bind the bowels afterwards…. It cures headaches, wandering pains, and the first attacks of rheumatism.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in full sun in any well-drained but not too fertile soil. Prefers a rich soil. Tolerates saline and very alkaline soils.

Propagation:
Seed – sow April/May in situ. Germination is usually rapid.

Edible uses:
Young leaves – raw or cooked as a spinach substitute. A fairly bland flavour, a few leaves of stronger-flavoured plants can be added to enhance the taste[7]. Seed – ground and mixed with cornmeal or used to thicken soups etc. Small and very fiddly to harvest and use

Medicinal uses:
The seeds, harvested when just ripe, are said to be as efficacious as ipecacuanha as a laxative.

Known Hazards: Most reports say that no member of this genus contains any toxins and that all have more or less edible leaves. However, one report says that if very large quantities are eaten they can cause photosensitivity. If plants are grown with artificial fertilizers they may concentrate harmful amounts of nitrates in their leaves.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/arrac062.html’
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex_patula
http://practicalplants.org/wiki/Atriplex_patula

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Atriplex+patula

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Eriodictyon angustifolium

Botanical Name : Eriodictyon angustifolium
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Hydrophylloideae
Genus: Eriodictyon
Species: E. angustifolium
Kingdom: Plantae

Common Names : Narrow-leaved Yerba Santa,Narrowleaf yerba santa

Habitat :Eriodictyon angustifolium is native to California and is also found outside of California, but is confined to western North America. It is  found  primarily in California, Utah, Nevada, and Baja California.

Description:
Eriodictyon angustifolium is a perennial shrub.This plant has white, five-petalled flowers that bloom in June or July. The toothed leaves, about 10 centimeters in length, are sticky above and hairy below.

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You may click to see more pictures of Eriodictyon angustifolium :

Medicinal Uses:
An important lung and bronchial medicine, most useful when phlegm is loose, milky, and profuse and the lungs, throat, and  sinuses feel weak and boggy.  Often combined with Yerba de buey.  It also is effective for head colds and sinus infections. The cold tea is used as a disinfecting diuretic for bladder and urethra pain.  New research is showing that it also has some anti-microbial properties.

Yerba Santa’s medicinal properties are strongest right after blooming, either in late spring or after a drought-breaking rain has brought out new foliage. Use the leaves either fresh or dried. Gather by breaking off branches full of leaves. Spread out the branches or hang them individually to dry. If you leave the branches clumped together in a bag or box, the resin on the tops of the leaves will glue the leaves together so you will end up with a black, sticky, unusable mass. Once dried, the resin is no longer a problem. When using fresh leaves for tea or tincture, cut them into small pieces with scissors or a knife, then use alcohol to clean the resin build up from the utensil. If dried leaves are being used, simply crumble them into small pieces. For smoking, it is best to use the mature leaves that are starting to dry and turn yellow around the edges and are almost ready to fall off, found near the base of large stems and the main trunk of the bush.

Yerba Santa is a great upper respiratory herb. It has a resinous coating and is aromatic. Use as a tea or tincture for coughs, lung and sinus congestion and infused in oil for muscle and chest rubs. In order to infuse Yerba Santa into oil you must first sprinkle it with alcohol to dissolve the resins. Drink the tea hot to induce sweating to break a fever. Inhale the steam from the hot tea to clear sinus and chest congestion. It thins mucous and is useful as an expectorant, decongestant and bronchial dilator for chest colds, bronchitis, asthma, sinus infections and hay fever. The resin complex and phenols in Yerba Santa make it useful for mild bladder and urethra infections. Since these properties are only partially water soluble, an alcohol tincture is preferable, twenty to thirty drops in water several times per day. Yerba Santa has no specific toxicities in moderate doses and up to an ounce of the leaves can be used to make a tea or infusion to drink in one day. It is safe for children, using one half of the normal adult dose. The leaves can also be used in a vaporizor to relief congestion.

Inhaling smoke from Yerba Santa leaves is useful to calm mild bronchial spasms. Burning a Yerba Santa smudge can be used to warm up trigger points, especially on the hands and feet. This will give relief from headache and muscle spasms. The fresh leaves make a pleasant and tasty chewing gum, bitter and balsamic at first, with a sweet aftertaste which freshens the mouth and breath. In Baja, for skin eruptions, boil leaves with Atriplex and wash the sores. Or grind dry leaves and apply. For malaria, make a tea with Haplopappus and Larrea, and massage with the lotion. For stiff neck, tie the leaves around the throat. For sore throat, make a leaf tea. For aches, bruises, wounds, bruises, wounds, heat leaves, apply to affected area. For coughs, colds, boil leaves and drink.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=3181
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eriodictyon_angustifolium
http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/img_query?rel-taxon=contains&where-taxon=Eriodictyon+angustifolium
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

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Chenopodium ambrosioides

Botanical Name: Chenopodium ambrosioides/ Dysphania ambrosioides
Kingdom: Plantae
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Chenopodioideae
Tribe: Dysphanieae
Genus: Dysphania
Species: D. ambrosioides

Synonyms:
*Ambrina ambrosioides (L.) Spach
*Ambrina parvula Phil.
*Ambrina spathulata Moq.
*Atriplex ambrosioides (L.) Crantz
*Blitum ambrosioides (L.) Beck
*Botrys ambrosioides (L.) Nieuwl.
*Chenopodium ambrosioidesL.
*Chenopodium integrifolium Vorosch.

Other scientific names :Ambrina ambrosioides Linn ,Ambrina parvula ,Ambrina spathulata ,Atriplex ambrosioides ,Blitum ambrosioides ,Chenopodium anthelminticum ,Chenopodium integrifolium ,Chenopodium spathulatum ,Chenopodium,suffruticosum

Common names :Adlabon (Ig.),Alpasote (Tag., Bis., Ilk.),Alpasotis (Tag., Bis., Ilk.),Apazot (Mexican),Aposotis (Tag., Bis., Ilk.),Bulbula (Bon.),Libug (Ig.),T’u Ching-chieh (Chin.) Epazote (Engl).

Wormseed, Jesuit’s tea, Mexican-tea, payqu (paico), epazote, or herba sancti Mariæ

Habitat :In the settled areas throughout the Philippines, cultivated and spontaneous, at medium and higher altitudes.
Now pantropic.Chenopodium ambrosioides originated in Central American, long used as an anthelmintic in many parts of the world. Once referred to as Baltimore Oil for that Maryland city’s large oil extraction facility. Although Chenopodium has been replaced by more effective and less toxic anthelmintics, it is still used in many indigenous traditional systems for the treatment of worm infections in both humans and livestock.

Description:
An erect or ascending, branched, glandular herb, often nearly 1 m high. Stems angled, smooth or glandular-pubescent.
· Leaves: oblong to oblong-lanceolate 3 to 10 cm in length, with a rank aromatic odor when crushed and with lobed margins.
· Flowers: small and spicate, regular, perfect. Sepals 5, sometimes only 3 and enclosing the utricle, which is less than 1 mm long. Petals none, stamens as many as sepals, hypogynous or somewhat perigynous, filaments distinct, anthers interse. Ovary 1-celled, free, usually depressed, styles 2 or 3.
· Fruits: utricles, the seed horizontal, smooth and shining.
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Edible Uses:

• Tender leaves sometimes used as potherb.
• Contains oxalic acid which is reduced by cooking. Should be used with caution in patients with gout, kidney stones, rheumatism.

Constituents and properties:
*Plant yields anthraglycosides, cinnamic acid derivatives, mucins and pectins, saponins, amygdalin, volatile oils ascaridol and geraniol, cymene, terpenine.
*The essential oil in the seed and flowering plant is highly toxic.
*Analgesic, antiasthmatic, antifungal, carminative, stomachic, vermifuge.
*Bruised leaves emit a somewhat foetid odor.
*The characteristic smell of the plant is attributed to ascaridol.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized
:
· Entire plant.
· Collect during the months of May to October.
· Rinse, dry under the sun and compress.

 

You may click to see :Article on Medical Properities of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn.

Folkloric
Hookworm infections and hookworm inflammatory disease: dose for adults – 2.6 to 3 gms of dried powdered material every morning and every night daily for 3 to 6 consecutive days.
• Decoction may be used as wash for various skin diseases of the lower limbs, eczema, ulcers.
• Prepared drug is sharp and bitter tasting.
• Infusion taken as digestive remedy, for colic and stomach pains.
• Used as a wash for hemorrhoids.
• Poultice for snake bites and other poisons.
• Used for wound healing.
• Anectodal reports of cures in use for uterine fibroids and certain cancers.
• In Mexico, used as emmenagogue and vermifuge.
• Used as abortifacient.
• In the Antilles, used as antispasmodic; decoction as internal hemostatic; the bruised plant for ulcers.
• In Africa, infusion used for colds and stomach aches.
• In the Yucatan, indigenous tribes have used epazote for intestinal parasites, asthma, chorea and other nervous afflictions.
• In Peru, plant soaks used topically for arthritis.

Others Uses:
• Dye
• Insecticide
• Used as fumigant against mosquitoes and added to fertilizers to inhibit insect larvae.
• In Latin America, plant is used to treat worms in livestock.


Studies
:-
• Genotoxic: Study on human lymphocyte cell cultures showed a possible genotoxic effect.
• Antitumor: Study on Swiss mice concluded that Chenopoium ambrosioides has potent anti-tumoral effect attributed to its anti-oxidant properties.
Anthelmintic: (1) Although the study did not reduce the number of nematode adults or eggs on short-term treatment, in in-vitro testing, the oil reduced the viability of eggs and suggested a long-term strategy for reduction of parasite loads at a whole farm level. (2) Study suggests the traditional use of CA infusions as vermifuge is safer than use of the herb’s essential oil.
Antimycotic: The essential oil from the leaves exhibited antimycotic activity against dermatophytes Trychophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii. Petroleum jelly oil showed to control established ringworm infection in guinea-pigs in preliminary trials.
• Trypanocidal: Study yielded four monoterpene hydroperoxides and ascaridole and exhibited trypanocidal activity against T cruzi.
• Anti-Leishmaniasis: (1) Study showed the essential oil of CA had potent inhibitory effect against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and presents a potential source of a drug to combat leishmaniasis. (2) Study clearly demonstrated that the essential oil of CA could be an alternative for the development of a new drug against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
• Analgesic / Antipyretic: Moroccan study of fresh leaf aqueous extract exhibited marked analgesic effect. Also, the extract produced a significant inhibition of yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, confirming its traditional use as a remedy for fever.

Toxicity and concerns:
• Oil: Essential oil in the seed and flowering parts is highly toxic. It can cause dizziness, vomiting, salivation, increased heart rate and respirations, convulsions and death. Inhalation is dangerous.
Allergic reactions / Dermatitis: Oil of chenopodium can cause skin reactions.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Alpasotis.html
http://www.thegrowers-exchange.com/Epazote_p/her-epz01.htm?gclid=CIbW4sX0g6YCFQY65QodwXkxsA

http://linnaeus.nrm.se/botany/fbo/c/bilder/cheno/chenamb2.jpg

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