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Catla Fish


Botanical Name: Catla catla
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Catla
Valenciennes, 1844
Species: C. catla
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes

Synonyms:
*Gibelion catla
*Cyprinus catla

Common Names: Catla, Bahu, Bhokua, or Baudhekera.

Description:
Catla fish known as the major (Indian) carp, is an economically important South Asian freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae. It is commonly found in rivers and lakes in northern India, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. In Assam.

Catla is a fish with large and broad head, a large protruding lower jaw, and upturned mouth. It has large, greyish scales on its dorsal side and whitish on its belly.

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Catla is a surface and midwater feeder. Adults feed on zooplankton, but young ones on both zooplankton and phytoplankton. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average age of two years and an average weight of 2 kg.
Aquaculture:
It is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater species in South Asia. It is grown in polyculture ponds with other carp-like fishes, particularly with the roho labeo and mrigal carp. The reported production numbers have increased sharply during the 2000s, and were in 2012 about 2.8 million tonnes per year.

Catla is sold and consumed fresh, locally and regionally. It is transported on ice. Fish of 1–2 kg weight are preferred by the consumers.

Food value & Health benefits :

Research has shown that eating fish and shellfish regularly is beneficial to our bodies in many ways; here are ten great reasons to introduce a little more seafood into your diet.

1. Great for your heart:

It’s no coincidence that fish-eating Inuit populations in the Arctic have low levels of heart disease; seafood is low in saturated fat and high in omega-3, (which can both) protect the heart from disease and lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. One study has even suggested that an extra portion of fish every week can cut risk of heart disease in half.

2. Clearing the vessels

Eating fish can improve your circulation and reduce the risk of thrombosis. The EPA and DHA – omega-3 oils – in seafood can save your body from having to produce eicosanoids, a hormone-like substance which can make you more likely to suffer from blood clots and inflammation.

3. Joint benefits:

Eating fish as a regular part of a balanced diet has been shown to ease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, a condition which causes the joins to swell up. Recent research has also found a link between omega-3 fats and osteoarthritis, suggesting that eating more seafood could help to prevent the disease.
4. The eyes have it:

Eating oil-rich fish regularly can help to keep the eyes bright and healthy. A recent study has suggested that omega-3 fatty acids can help to protect the eyesight of those suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition which causes the retina to degenerate and the eyesight to become blurred. Fish and shellfish also contain retinol, a form of vitamin A which boosts night vision.

5. Essential nutrients:

Seafood provides the body with many essential nutrients which keep us running smoothly, including iodine, selenium, zinc and potassium. Iodine is important for the thyroid gland, and selenium makes enzymes which can help to protect us from cancer. Fish and shellfish are also excellent sources of many vitamins, including vitamins A and D.

6. Take a deep breath:

A number of studies have indicated that fish and shellfish may help to protect our lungs. Not only can seafood relieve the symptoms of asthma in children, but it has shown signs of preventing it. Eating a lot of fish can also keep your lungs stronger and healthier as you age in comparison to those who don’t eat a lot of fish.

7. Brighten your outlook:

Seafood may also play a large part in preventing depression; research has highlighted links between low omega-3 levels and a higher risk of depression. Seafood could also help us to avoid Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and post-natal depression.

8. Your skin looks great:

Not only does omega-3 help to protect the skin from the harmful effects of the UV damage, but eating lots of fish can also help with the symptoms of skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Fish is also a great source of protein, which is an essential ingredient of collagen, a substance which keeps the skin firm and flexible.

9. Good for down below:

Evidence suggests that a diet rich in fish oils can help to protect us against serious inflammatory bowel diseases (BD) including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There is also evidence to suggest that omega-3 could help to slow the progression of inflammatory bowel disease in some sufferers.

10. Boost your brainpower:

The human brain is almost 60% fat, with much of this being omega-3 fat. Probably for this reason, research has indicated that people who eat plenty of seafood are less likely to suffer dementia and memory problems in later life. DHA, an omega-3 fat found in seafood, has also been linked to improvements in children’s concentration, reading skills, behaviour, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catla
http://sunsamayal.com/samayal/index.php/en/??????/health-benefits-and-minerals/2069-catla-fish-health-benefits-and-nutrition-facts.html

Tilapia

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Description:
Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. Tilapia are mainly freshwater fish inhabiting shallow streams, ponds, rivers and lakes and less commonly found living in brackish water. Historically, they have been of major importance in artisan fishing in Africa and the Middle East, and they are of increasing importance in aquaculture and aquaponics. Tilapia can become problematic invasive species in new warm-water habitats such as Australia, whether deliberately or accidentally introduced, but generally not in temperate climates due to their inability to survive in cold water.

Tilapia is the fourth most consumed fish in the United States dating back to 2002. The popularity of tilapia came about due to its cheap price, easy preparation, and its mild taste.
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Tilapia typically have laterally compressed, deep bodies. Like other cichlids, their lower pharyngeal bones are fused into a single tooth-bearing structure. A complex set of muscles allows the upper and lower pharyngeal bones to be used as a second set of jaws for processing food (cf. morays), allowing a division of labor between the “true jaws” (mandibles) and the “pharyngeal jaws”. This means they are efficient feeders that can capture and process a wide variety of food items. Their mouths are protrusible, usually bordered with wide and often swollen lips. The jaws have conical teeth. Typically tilapia have a long dorsal fin, and a lateral line which often breaks towards the end of the dorsal fin, and starts again two or three rows of scales below. Some Nile tilapia can grow as long as two feet.

Other than their temperature sensitivity, tilapia exist in or can adapt to a very wide range of conditions. One extreme example is the Salton Sea, where tilapia introduced when the water was brackish now live in saltwater so salty that it kills marine fish.

Tilapias are also known to be a mouth breeding species. Mouth breeding means they carry the fertilized eggs and young fish in their mouths for several days after the yolk sac is absorbed.

Species:
Tilapia as a common name has been applied to various cichlids from three distinct genera: Oreochromis, Sarotherodon and Tilapia. The members of the other two genera used to belong to the genus Tilapia but have since been split off into their own genera. However, particular species within are still commonly called “tilapia” regardless of the change in their actual taxonomic nomenclature.

The delimitation of these genera among each other and to other tilapiines requires more research; mtDNA sequences are confounded because at least among the species of any one genus, there is frequent hybridization. The species remaining in Tilapia in particular still seem to be a paraphyletic assemblage.

As Food:
Whole tilapia fish can be processed into skinless, boneless (Pin-Bone Out, or PBO) fillets: the yield is from 30 percent to 37 percent, depending on fillet size and final trim.

Tilapia is one of several commercially important aquaculture species (including trout, barramundi and channel catfish) susceptible to off-flavors. These ‘muddy’ or ‘musty’ flavors are normally caused by geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, organic products of ubiquitous cyanobacteria that are often present or bloom sporadically in water bodies and soil. These flavours are no indication of freshness or safety of the fish, but they make the product unattractive to consumers. Simple quality control procedures are known to be effective in ensuring the quality of fish entering the market.

In a freshwater soilless pond system the fish will not have these flavors. Fish raised in man-made lakes tend to absorb the flavor of the ground. A concrete pond with plants to clean the water is a much better system. It is also important that the fish only get fed as much food as they can eat. If the food is left over in the tank it will break down in the water leaving a bad odor that leads to an unwanted taste in the fish.[citation needed]

Tilapia have very low levels of mercury, as they are fast-growing, lean and short-lived, with a primarily vegetarian diet, so do not accumulate mercury found in prey. Tilapia are low in saturated fat, calories, carbohydrates and sodium, and are a good protein source. They also contain the micronutrients phosphorus, niacin, selenium, vitamin B12 and potassium.

Multiple studies have evaluated the effects of adding flaxseed derivatives (a vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids) to the feed of farmed tilapia. These studies have found both the more common omega-3 fatty acid found in the flax, ALA and the two types almost unique to animal sources (DHA and EPA), increased in the fish fed this diet. Guided by these findings, tilapia farming techniques could be adjusted to address the nutritional criticisms directed at the fish while retaining its advantage as an omnivore capable of feeding on economically and environmentally inexpensive vegetable protein. Adequate diets for salmon and other carnivorous fish can alternatively be formulated from protein sources such as soybean, although soy-based diets may also change in the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

Nutritional Value Of Tilapia:-
Tilapia is highly valued as a seafood source due to its many beneficial qualities, which are attributed to its wealth of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals, including significant amounts of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, phosphorous, potassium, vitamin B12, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid. Below you will find a more details explanation of the health benefits of tilapia.
Health Benefits Of Tilapia:
One of the most notable health benefits of tilapia is its low calorie count, which is ideal for anyone looking to shed a few pounds. With just 145 calories per serving, you can pair tilapia with a wide range of vegetables for a truly low-calorie and fat burning meal.

Tilapia is also a great source of omega-3 fatty acids, which can help you maintain a healthy blood pressure and keep heart disease at bay. This is important because many of us with too much fat on our bodies are highly susceptible to these illnesses.

In addition to being loaded with protein, tilapia has plenty of potassium to help prevent post-workout muscle cramps. Other nutrients tilapia contains in abundance includes vitamin B12, which helps keep you mentally alert; niacin, which is necessary to keep your body functioning at an optimal level, and selenium a nutrient known to decrease your risk against cancer and heart disease.

So in addition to being quite low in calories, the health benefits of tilapia include fat burning, improved heart health and good cholesterol (HDL), and a decreased risk of weight-related illnesses.
Growth and Development: One of the most important aspects of tilapia is its impressive protein content, making up more than 15% of our daily requirement in a single serving. Protein is an essential part of our diet, particularly animal proteins, because they can be enzymatically broken down into composite amino acids and reassembled into usable proteins in the human body. Protein is directly linked to proper growth and development of organs, membranes, cells, and muscles. It is particularly important that children consume adequate amounts of protein to ensure that they develop properly. They also are necessary for muscle growth, cellular repair, and proper metabolic activity of numerous organ systems.

Weight Loss: Unlike many other animal products, fish like tilapia are high in protein but low in calories and fats. This can be a good way to reduce your caloric intake, while still giving your body all of the necessary nutrients it needs to function properly. Fish is often turned to as a dietary option for people trying to lose weight, without starving themselves with crash diets.

Bone Health: One of the most prominent minerals found in tilapia is phosphorous, which is an essential mineral for human health, as it is a vital part of the development and growth of bone matter. It is also a necessary element in the maintenance of the teeth and nails, keeping them strong and durable well into your old age. Phosphorous can help prevent osteoporosis, which is the degradation of bone mineral density often suffered by people as they age.

Prevents Prostate Cancer: Like many types of fish, tilapia has a very high content of selenium. The health benefits of selenium are impressive, and are antioxidant in nature. Studies have directly linked selenium intake to a reduction in the risk of prostate cancer, as well as various heart conditions. Additional research is being done on the impact of tilapia’s selenium on other types of cancer. Antioxidants like selenium are famed for their ability to reduce free radical activity in the body, thereby lowering the chances of oxidative stress on all the organ systems, and the mutation of healthy cells into cancerous ones.

Heart Health: Tilapia is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been directly linked to lowering cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels in the human cardiovascular system. Omega-3 fatty acids neutralize the impact of omega-6 fatty acids. There is some controversy about fish in general having high levels of dangerous LDL cholesterol, but studies have shown that the beneficial effects of the omega-3 fatty acids outweigh the risks of omega-6 fatty acids also found in tilapia. Omega-3 fatty acids help to prevent atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and strokes. The potassium found in tilapia is also a vasodilator, and reduces blood pressure, which is an additional boost to heart health.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilapia

Tilapia Nutrition Facts and Unique Health Benefits

8 Amazing Benefits of Tilapia

Allium macleanii

Botanical Name: Allium macleanii
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. macleanii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: A. elatum. Regel.

Common Names: Wild Onion

Habitat : Allium macleanii is native to W. Asia – Afghanistan. It is found at high elevations in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tajikistan, and northern India. It grows in gentle slopes at low altitudes to 1200 metres.

Description:
Allium macleanii is a perennial herb up to 100 cm tall, with a spherical umbel up to 7 cm in diameter. The umbel is crowded with many purple flowers. It is in flower from Jun to July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil[1, 90, 203]. Dislikes dry soils. Plants are not very hardy in Britain, succeeding outdoors in the milder areas of the country and probably tolerating temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. This species is closely related to A. giganteum. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. An onion substitute, it can be sliced and added to salads, cooked as a vegetable, or added as a flavouring to cooked foods. The bulbs are 2 – 6 cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses: The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_macleanii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+macleanii

Kickxia elatine

Botanical Name : Kickxia elatine
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Kickxia
Species: K. elatine
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria elatine

Common Names: Sharpleaf cancerwort, Sharp-leaved fluellin, Fluellen

Habitat : Kickxia elatine is native to Europe and Asia, but it is present on other continents as an introduced species, and sometimes a noxious weed. It grows on arable land, usually cornfields in light soils.

Description;
Kickxia elatine is an annual hairy herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It has trailing stem with many branches. It is in flower from Jul to October. It produces oval to arrowhead-shaped fuzzy leaves at wide intervals along the slender stem, and solitary snapdragon-like flowers borne on long, straight pedicels. Each flower is up to 1.5 centimeters long with a narrow, pointed spur extending from the back. The lobes of the mouth are yellow, white, and purple, and the whole flower is fuzzy to hairy. The fruit is a spherical capsule about 4 millimeters long. It is dry and splits open when ripe.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:   Requires a light to medium soil and a sunny position.

Propagation:   Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ[

Medicinal Uses: Haemostatic.
The plant is haemostatic. It is used externally to staunch wounds and bleeding

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickxia_elatine
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Kickxia+elatine
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/kickxia/elatine/

Mazus pumilus

Botanical Name: Mazus pumilus
Family: Mazaceae
Genus: Mazus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: Japanese mazus, Asian mazus • Nepali : Taapre Jhaar, Maalati Jhaar

Habitat : Mazus pumilus is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Kashmir to China, Japan, Korea and eastern Russia. It grows on wet grassland, along streams, trailsides, waste fields, wet places and the edges of forests, grassland on mountain slopes at elevations of 1200 – 3800 metres in China.

Description:
Mazus pumilus is an annual herb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is in flower from May to October, and the seeds ripen from May to October.

Flower petal color: blue to purple & white

Leaf type: the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)

Leaf arrangement:

*alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
*opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem

Leaf blade edges: the edge of the leaf blade has teeth

Flower symmetry: there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)

Number of sepals, petals or tepals: there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower

Fusion of sepals and petals: the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube

Stamen number: 4

Fruit type (general) : the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any moderately fertile well-drained but moisture-retentive loamy soil in a sunny position.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame in the spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring.
Edible Uses: Young leaves – cooked & eaten.
Medicinal Uses:
Aperient; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The plant is aperient, emmenagogue, febrifuge and tonic. The juice of the plant is used in the treatment of typhoid.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazus
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mazus+pumilus
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Asian%20Mazus.html
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/mazus/pumilus/

Gratiola pedunculata

Botanical Name : Gratiola pedunculata
Family :Plantaginaceae
Genus :Gratiola
Species :Gratiola pendunculata
Domain : Eukaryotic
Kingdom : Plantae
Division :Tracheophyta
Class :Magnoliopsida
Order :Lamiales
Habitat : Gratiola pedunculata is native to AustraliaNew South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. It grows on wet or damp sandy to clayey soils on river or lagoon banks, and other damp places.
Description:
Gratiola pedunculata is a perennial herb growing to 13–50 cm high, with golden sessile glands on leaves, bracteoles and sepals, topped on all parts except the corolla by a glabrescent glandular indumentum; branches often rooting at base.

Leaves ovate to lanceolate, 0.8–3 cm long, 3–10 mm wide, base stem-clasping, margins toothed to ± entire.

Flowers single, rarely 2, in bract axils; pedicels 8–26 mm long; bracteoles 1–3.5 mm long. Sepals 4–4.5 mm long. Corolla 5–9 mm long, white to pink with yellow in mouth. Staminodes 2 or 0.

Capsule broad-ovoid, 3.5–5 mm long, caducous style 1.5–2.4 mm long.

Flowering: spring–summer.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation: Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil

Propagation : Seed –

Medicinal uses: Used in the treatment of liver complaints, though it should be used with care.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Gratiola_pedunculata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gratiola+pedunculata
http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Gratiola~pedunculata

Potentilla supina

Botanical Name: Potentilla supina
Family : Rose Family (Rosaceae)
Subfamily :Rosoideae
Category :Finger Herbs ( Potentilla )
Type : Low finger herb
Order : Rosey (Rosales)

Common Name : Lower fingerwort

Habitat : Potentilla supina is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dampish waste ground and ditches, 200 – 2500 metres in Turkey.

Description:
Potentilla supina is a annual/perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is a bald to soft-haired, one- year to short-lived perennial, krautige plant . It usually has several, descending, ascending, 10 to 40 centimeter long, branched and rich-flowered stems . The leaves are unpaired feathered two to six pairs of leaflets . The lateral leaflets are elongated to obedient, egg-shaped, coarse-sawed to spatially split, and the endblade is often deeply split, with a length of 1 to 3 centimeters. The top of the page and bottom is green.

The flowering period is rich from May to September. The leaves are inflated in the inflorescence up to the leaf-like shape of the leaves and surpass the young flowers. The flowers are foliage-shaped or seemingly armpit and sit on 5 to 20 millimeters long, after the anthesis downwards bent bloom stalks. The bipedal flowers are radial symmetric and five-fold in diameter from 6 to 10 millimeters. The five sepals are 3 to 4 millimeters long and triangular. The five free, yellow petals are usually shorter than the sepals.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:     Young leaves – cooked. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails.
Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Febrifuge; Odontalgic; Tonic.

The root is astringent, febrifuge and tonic. Pieces of the root are held in the mouth for 1 – 2 hours to relieve toothache. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of indigestion.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resurces:
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niedriges_Fingerkraut
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+supina

Potentilla simplex

Botanical Name: Potentilla simplex
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. simplex
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names: Common cinquefoil, Old-field five-fingers, Oldfield cinquefoil

Habitat: Potentilla simplex is native to eastern North America from Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador south to Texas, Alabama, and panhandle Florida.It grows in dry open woods, prairie hillsides, roadsides, old fields and waste places.

Description:
otentilla simplex is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is a familiar plant with prostrate stems that root at nodes, with yellow flowers and 5-parted palmately pinnate leaves arising from stolons (runners) on separate stalks. Complete flowers bearing 5 yellow petals (about 4-10 mm long) bloom from March to June. It bears seed from April to July. It is commonly found in woodlands, fields, and disturbed areas.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Pollinators include mason bees, small carpenter bees, cuckoo bees, halictid bees, syrphid flies, tachinid flies, blow flies, and others. Less common pollinators are wasps and butterflies. Rabbits and groundhogs eat the foliage.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade[1]. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Plants grown in rich soils produce more foliage at the expense of flowering. Hardy to about -25°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses: Young shoots and leaves are edible as a salad or pot herb.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is mildly astringent and antiseptic. A decoction is used as a gargle for loose teeth and spongy gums. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of dysentery.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_simplex
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+simplex

Arum dioscoridis

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Botanical Name : Arum dioscoridis
Family: Araceae
Genus: Arum
Species: A. dioscoridis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Alismatales

Synonyms : A. hygrophyllum. Boiss.

Habitat :Arum dioscoridis is native to forests in the east of the Mediterranean in southern Turkey, Cyprus, and the Middle East.It grows in hedges and rocky places, often on calcareous soils.
Description:
Arum dioscoridis is a perennial plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is not frost tender. In winter appear green, arrow-shaped leaves. In spring, the short-stalked inflorescence appears consisting of a black, rod-shaped spadix surrounded by a yellow-green, purple-mottled brown or even purple bract (spathe). The female flowers are located at the bottom of the spadix; above are the male flowers; and the top is a sterile area (appendix). The spadix emits a pungent smell that attracts flies as pollinators.

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It is in leaf 7-Oct It is in flower in May. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Flies.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a humus rich soil and abundant water in the growing season. Grows well in woodland conditions. Succeeds in sun or shade. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Because it comes into growth in the late autumn it is best grown by a warm wall or in a bulb frame A polymorphic species. The inflorescence is pollinated by flies and it smells of dung and carrion in order to attract the flies. It also has the remarkable ability to heat itself above the ambient air temperature to such a degree that it is quite noticeable to the touch. This probably protects the flowers from damage by frost, or allows it to penetrate frozen ground. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse or cold frame as soon as it is ripe. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 6 months at 15°c. Stored seed should be sown in the spring in a greenhouse and can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking a year or more. A period of cold stratification might help to speed up the process. Sow the seed thinly, and allow the seedlings to grow on without disturbance for their first year, giving occasional liquid feeds to ensure that they do not become mineral deficient. When the plants are dormant in the autumn, divide up the small corms, planting 2 – 3 in each pot, and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for a further year, planting out when dormant in the autumn. Division of the corms in summer after flowering. Larger corms can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up the smaller corms and grow them on for a year in a cold frame before planting them out.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Root…..Tuber – cooked and used as a vegetable. It must be thoroughly dried or cooked before being eaten, see the notes above on toxicity.
Medicinal Uses : Abortifacient….The root is abortifacient.
Other Uses:
The plant can be grown as an ornamental plant in rock gardens Mediterranean regions. In the Benelux, the plant can be grown indoors as a pot plant. The plant can be propagated by seeding.

Known Hazards: The plant contains calcium oxylate crystals. These cause an extremely unpleasant sensation similar to needles being stuck into the mouth and tongue if they are eaten, but they are easily neutralized by thoroughly drying or cooking the plant or by steeping it in water.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arum+dioscoridis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arum_dioscoridis