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Helianthemum nummularium

Botanical Name: Helianthemum nummularium
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Helianthemum
Species:  Helianthemum   nummularium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms: Helianthemum chamaecistus. Mill. Helianthemum vulgare. Gaertn.

Common Names: Common Rockrose, Sun Rose, Rock Rose

Habitat: Helianthemum nummularium is native to most of Europe. It grows on the basic grassland and scrub, to 600 metres.

Description:
Helianthemum nummularium is an evergreen tralling Shrub growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate.
It is plant with loose terminal clusters of bright yellow, saucer-shaped flowers. In the flower centre is a tight cluster of orange stamens, which are sensitive to the touch, and spread outwards to reveal the tall stigma in the middle. The plant is common on chalk downs, and occasional in other grasslands, always on dry, base-rich soil. The wild species has yellow flowers, but garden varieties range from white through yellow to deep red.

Though the individual blooms are short-lived, the plant produces a mass of flowers through the summer. It needs a dry, sunny place, like a south-facing rockery or meadow. As the Latin name Helianthemum suggests, these are sun-flowers. This is a good nectar source for bees and there are several species of small beetle that feed on the foliage. Common rock-rose is also the food plant for the larvae of several species of moth and butterfly.

It flowers from May until July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Alpine garden, Border, Ground cover, Rock garden, Specimen. Requires an open sunny position in a light well-drained soil with a pH between 5.5 and 8. Plants are hardy to at least -10°c. A vigorous plant suitable for the rock garden, crevices in walls or gravel beds. Plants are short-lived, though, soon becoming leggy or sparse, and require fairly frequent replacement. The flowers only open in bright sunshine. Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their permanent positions as soon as possible. A polymorphic species, there are some named forms that have been selected for their ornamental value. Plants are generally pest and disease-free. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Attracts butterflies.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 6 – 8cm with a heel, late summer in a sandy soil in a frame.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Terror’, ‘Panic’ and ‘Extreme fright’. It is also one of the five ingredients in the ‘Rescue remedy’.

Other Uses:
A prostrate growing plant, it can be used as a ground cover.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthemum_nummularium
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helianthemum+nummularium

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Taraxacum japonicum

Botanical Name : Taraxacum japonicum
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Taraxacum
Species: T. japonicum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Habitat : Taraxacum japonicum is native to E. Asia – C. and S. Japan. Sunny ruderal habitats such as roadsides and edges of paddy fields at elevations below 500 metres.

Description:
Taraxacum japonicum is a  perennial plant ,  growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is in flower from Mar to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a well-drained humus-rich soil in full sun or light shade. Many species in this genus produce their seed apomictically. This is an asexual method of seed production where each seed is genetically identical to the parent plant. Occasionally seed is produced sexually, the resulting seedlings are somewhat different to the parent plants and if these plants are sufficiently distinct from the parents and then produce apomictic seedlings these seedlings are, in theory at least, a new species.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame and either surface-sow or only just cover the seed. Make sure the compost does not dry out. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, choosing relatively deep pots to accommodate the tap root. Plant them out in early summer. Division in early spring as the plant comes into growth.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Leaves – raw or cooked. The roasted root is a coffee substitute. The following uses are also probably applicable to this species, though we have no records for them Root – cooked. Flowers – raw or cooked. The unopened flower buds can be used in fritters. The whole plant is dried and used as a tea. A pleasant tea is made from the flowers. The leaves and the roots can also be used to make tea.
Medicinal Uses: Cholagogue, diuretic, galactogogue, skin, stomachic, tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taraxacum_japonicum
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Taraxacum+japonicum

Taraxacum heterolepis

Botanical Name ; Taraxacum heterolepis
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Subtribe: Crepidinae
Genus: Taraxacum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Habitat : Taraxacum heterolepis is native to E. Asia – Northeastern China. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Description:
Taraxacum heterolepis is a perennial plant. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a well-drained humus-rich soil in full sun or light shade. Many species in this genus produce their seed apomictically. This is an asexual method of seed production where each seed is genetically identical to the parent plant. Occasionally seed is produced sexually, the resulting seedlings are somewhat different to the parent plants and if these plants are sufficiently distinct from the parents and then produce apomictic seedlings these seedlings are, in theory at least, a new species.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame and either surface-sow or only just cover the seed. Make sure the compost does not dry out. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, choosing relatively deep pots to accommodate the tap root. Plant them out in early summer. Division in early spring as the plant comes into growth.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Coffee; Tea.

Leaves – raw or cooked. The roasted root is a coffee substitute. The following uses are also probably applicable to this species, though we have no records for them Root – cooked. Flowers – raw or cooked. The unopened flower buds can be used in fritters. The whole plant is dried and used as a tea. A pleasant tea is made from the flowers. The leaves and the roots can also be used to make tea.

Medicinal Uses:
Cancer; Galactogogue; Hepatic.

The stem has been used in the treatment of cancer. A decoction of the whole plant is used in treating abscesses, appendicitis, boils, liver problems, stomach disorders etc. It has been used for over 1,000 years by the Chinese in treating breast cancer and other disorders of the breasts including poor milk flow.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taraxacum
http://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Taraxacum+heterolepis

Prunus capsica

Botanical Name: Prunus capsica
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Prunoideae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Cerasus
Section: Cerasus
Species :P. capsica
Kingdom : Plantae
Phylum/Division : Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales

Common Name: Siberian Apricot

Habitat : Prunus capsica is native to W. Asia – N. Iran. It grows on the woodland Garden Sunny Edge. Dry sunny slopes amongst shrubs. Forests, thickets, hill grasslands, river valleys and dry sunny slopes at elevations of 400 – 2500 metres.

Description:
Prunus capsica is a deciduous Tree. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

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Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know how hardy it will be in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of this country. This species is possibly no more than a cultivated form of P. cerasifera divaricata. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.
Edible Uses:

Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.

Other Uses:.…Dye…..A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

Prunus canescens


http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+capsica

Adiantum Capillus-veneris

Botanical Name: Adiantum Capillus-veneris
Family: Pteridaceae
Subfamily: Vittarioideae
Genus: Adiantum
Species: A. capillus-veneris
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Pteridopsida
Order: Polypodiales

Synonyms: Capillaire commun, or de Montpellier. Hair of Venus.

Common Names: True Maidenhair, Southern maidenhair fern’, Black maidenhair fern, Maidenhair fern and Venus hair fern
Habitat: Adiantum capillus-veneris is native to the southern half of the United States from California to the Atlantic coast, through Mexico and Central America, to South America. It is also native to Eurasia, the Levant in Western Asia, and Australasia. There are two disjunct occurrences in the northern part of North America: at Cascade Springs in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia. In both instances, the warm microclimate created by hot mineral springs permits the growth of the plant far north of its normal range.

It is found in temperate climates from warm-temperate to tropical, where the moisture content is high but not saturating, in the moist, well-drained sand, loam or limestone many habitats, including rainforests, shrub and woodlands, broadleaf and coniferous forests, and desert cliff seeps, and springs. It often may be seen growing on moist, sheltered and shaded sandstone or limestone formations, generally south-facing in the southern hemisphere, north-facing in the north, or in gorges. It occurs throughout Africa in moist places by streams. On moist sandstone cliffs it grows in full or partial shade, even when unprotected.

Description:
Adiantum capillus-veneris grows from 6 to 12 in (15 to 30 cm) in height; its fronds arising in clusters from creeping rhizomes 8 to 27.5 in (20 to 70 cm) tall, with very delicate, light green fronds much subdivided into pinnae 0.2 to 0.4 in (5 to 10 mm) long and broad; the frond rachis is black and wiry.

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The rootstock is tufted and creeping. The fern grows in masses, the fronds, however, separating and arching apart, giving the appearance of a perfect miniature tree. The stems are slender, of a shining, brownish black, the fronds themselves usually twice or three times pinnate, 6 inches to a foot long, the delicate pinnules fan-shaped, indented and notched. The sori are conspicuous, occupying the extremities of most of the lobes of the pinnules, in oval spots on the inner surface of the indusium, which is formed of the reflexed edge of the pinnule. The pinnules are very smooth: ‘in vain,’ said Pliny, ‘do you plunge the Adiantum into water, it always remains dry.’

Cultivation:
Adiantum capillus-veneris is cultivated and widely available around the world for planting in natural landscape native plants and traditional shade gardens, for outdoor container gardens, and commonly as an indoor houseplant.

Part Used in medicines: The herb.

Constituents: Tannin and mucilage. It has not been very fully investigated.

Medicinal Uses:
Adiantum capillus-veneris is used medicinally by Native Americans. The Mahuna people use the plant internally for rheumatism, and the Navajo people of Kayenta, AZ use an infusion of the plant as a lotion for bumblebee and centipede stings. The Navajo people also smoke it or take it internally to treat mental illness.

It is sed by   western herbalists to treat coughs, bronchitis, excess mucus, sore throat, and chronic nasal congestion.  The plant also has a longstanding reputation as a remedy for conditions of the hair and scalp.  It may be used as an infusion.  Native American sometimes chewed the leaves of the plant to stop internal bleeding.  An extract of the plant has diuretic and hypoglycemic activity in animals.  It needs to be used fresh as it’s highly sensitive to time and heat.  Can be used in a poultice (raw and crushed), directly applied to a wound or scalded and infused for several minutes for a topical poultice to treat eczema, suppurating infections and wounds.  In the form of a hair lotion, it stimulates hair growth.  In a tea (1 plant in 1 cup water), it is excellent in treating coughs and chronic skin disorders.  In the case of poor blood circulation, take 3 cups daily.  A tincture is also a good choice as an effective concentrated preparation: 2/3 oz in 1 cup alcohol.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiantum_capillus-veneris
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/f/ferns-08.html#mal

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm