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Allium porrum

Botanical Name : Allium porrum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Names: Leek, Garden leek

Habitat : Allium porrum is said native to Europe & west Asia. It grows on Cultivated Beds.

Description:
Allium porrum is a  bulb growing to 0.9 m (3ft). It  is not frost tender.  The leek is an underrated but magnificent vegetable that grows tall and cylindrical in shape with a spray of grey green strap foliage at the top. It is in flower from Jul to August.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil but succeeds in most soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an open situation. Does best in a soil that was well fed for a previous crop. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.2 to 8.3. The leek is a widely cultivated vegetable, there are many named varieties. Young plants are often planted quite deeply in the soil (8 – 10cm deep) in order to blanch the lower stem, it is also a common practice to earth up the growing plants in order to blanch right the way up the stems. Whilst this does make the stems more tender, it also results in a loss of minerals and vitamins. Although commonly treated as a biennial, this plant is a true perennial, perennating by means of small lateral growths and often developing a roundish bulb at the base of the main growth. A relatively slow-growing plant, it can be interplanted with faster maturing species such as lettuces. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, celery, celariac, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – for an early crop, or for larger plants, sow the seed in early spring in a greenhouse and plant out in May. For smaller or later plants, sow April in an outdoor seedbed and plant out as space permits in July or even August.
Edible Uses:
The leaves and long white blanched stem are eaten cooked. They can also be cut into thin slices and be added to salads. A mild onion flavour with a delightful sweetness. Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is produced in the plants second year of growth (that is, after it is normally harvested). The bulb is somewhat larger if the plant is prevented from flowering. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads, though they are rather on the dry side and less pleasant than many other members of the genus.

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antiasthmatic; Anticholesterolemic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic; Diuretic;  Expectorant; Febrifuge; Stimulant; Stings; Stomachic; Tonic; Vasodilator.

This species has the same medicinal virtues as garlic, but in a much milder and less effective form. These virtues are as follows:- Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit. It is also said to have anticancer activity. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy. The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator. The crushed bulb may be applied as a poultice to ease the pain of bites, stings etc.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible[
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_ampeloprasum
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+porrum

http://www.gardensonline.com.au/GardenShed/PlantFinder/Show_2678.aspx

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Celtis tetrandra

Botanical Name : Celtis tetrandra
Familia: Cannabaceae
Genus: Celtis
Species: Celtis tetrandra

Common Names:

Habitat :.…Celtis tetrandra Along the edges of terraced fields to elevations of 2500 metres in Nepal. Mesophytic mixed forests, valleys and slopes at elevations of 700 – 1500 metres.
Description:
Celtis tetrandra is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in).
The bark is grey, smooth, lenticellate; blaze whitish with purplish speckles.Young branchlets are terete, tawny pubescent.Leaves are simple, alternate, distichous; stipules lateral, caducous and leaving scar; petiole up to 0.8 cm long, canaliculate above, pubescent; lamina 3.5-10 x 1.2-4 cm, ovate -lanceolate, apex acuminate, base asymmetric, margin serrate, membranous, pubescent beneath; 3-nerved at base; midrib flat or slightly raised above; secondary_nerves ca. 4 pairs; tertiary_nerves distantly horizontally percurrent.

Flowers are inflorescence axillary cymes; flowers polygamous; pedicels up to 1 cm long they bloom in April.
Fruits & seeds are drupe with one seed and the fruit ripens in october….CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Edible Uses:.Fruit – raw. A mealy pleasant taste. The fruit is up to 8mm in diameter, containing a single large seed about 5mm in diameter. We have no further information, but the fruit is liable to consist of a thin, sweet, though dry and mealy flesh around a large seed.
Medicinal Uses:…The juice from the seeds is used in the treatment of indigestion.

Other Uses: …Fuel; Wood…..Wood – very tough, pliable, strong, durable. Used for oars, toolhandles etc. An excellent fuel.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Celtis_tetrandra
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Celtis+tetrandra
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/c/celttetr/celttetr_en.html

Artemisia glacialis

Botanical Name: Artemisia glacialis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. glacialis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales
Common Name : Glacier Wormwood

Habitat :Artemisia glacialis is native to C. Europe. It grows on exposed rocky slopes in the Alps. Schistose rocks and screes, 2000 – 3100 metres.

Description:
Artemisia glacialis is a perennial herb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). The foilages are herbiculas and aeromatic and the plant is deer resistant.

The flower color is yellow & blooms during mid summer.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Requires a very well-drained light or medium soil and a sunny position. Very intolerant of winter wet. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Indiscriminate collection of this plant from the wild has made it an endangered species. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse, making sure that the compost does not dry out[200]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Basal cuttings in late spring. Harvest the young shoots when about10 – 15cm long, pot up in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse or cold frame and plant them out when well rooted. Very easy.
Edible Uses: The herb is used as a flavouring in vermouth and liqueurs.
Medicinal Uses:

Digestive; Expectorant; Sedative; Stomachic.

Glacier wormwood has similar medicinal properties to common wormwood, A, absinthum. It is used locally where it grows wild. The whole plant is digestive, expectorant, sedative and stomachic. An infusion of the herb has a marked effect upon mountain sickness. A poultice of the plant is used as a first-aid remedy in the treatment of wounds.

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resours:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_glacialis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+glacialis
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/51554/

Pyrola chlorantha

Botanical Name : Pyrola chlorantha
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Monotropoideae
Genus: Pyrola
Species: P. chlorantha
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms : P. virens. Schreb.

Common Name : Green-Flowered Wintergreen

Habitat:Pyrola chlorantha is native to Western N. America – Labrador to British Columbia, south to Illinois, Nebraska and Arizona. It grows on moist coniferous woods, 2000 – 3000 metres in Texas.

Description:
Pyrola chlorantha is an evergreen Perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).
It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Flower:
A raceme of 3 to 10 hanging flowers on short slender stalks at the top of the stem. Flowers are about ½ inch across with 5 round pale green to greenish white petals, the edges often curled down, and a cluster of yellowish orange stamens under the upper petals. The style is light green, curved down and out below the lower petals like an elephant’s trunk.

Leaves:
Leaves are basal, 1-1½ inches long, mostly round, toothless or with shallow rounded teeth, the blade shorter than or equal to the leaf stalk. The upper surface is dull, dark green with prominent light veins.
Cultivation:
Prefers a moist sandy woodland soil in a cool position with partial shade. Requires a peaty or leafy acid soil that remains moist in the summer[200]. This is a very difficult plant to grow. It requires a mycorrhizal relationship in the soil and therefore needs to be grown initially in soil collected from around an established plant. It is also very difficult from seed as well as being intolerant of root disturbance which makes division difficult. This species is extremely rare and endangered in the wild.

Propagation:
Seed – the only information we have on this species is that it is difficult from seed and germinates infrequently[200]. We would suggest sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe if this is possible. Sow it into soil collected from around an established plant, only just covering the seed, and put the pot in a shady part of a cold frame. Pot up any young seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle, once again using soil from around an established plant. Plant out into their permanent positions when the plants are large enough. You should not need to use soil from around an established plant to do this since the soil in the pot will contain the necessary micorrhiza. Division with great care in the spring Pot up the divisions using some soil from around an established plant, grow on in a lightly shaded part of a greenhouse or frame and do not plant out until the plants are growing away vigorously.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is astringent. It has been used in the treatment of menorrhagia, diarrhoea and haemorrhages. It has also been used to treat bloody diarrhoea in children.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrola_chlorantha
https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/green-flowered-pyrola
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pyrola+chlorantha

Cowslip

Botanical Name : Primula veris
Family: Primulaceae
Genus: Primula
Species: P. veris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Primula officinalis Hill, Paigle. Peggle. Key Flower.  Petty Mulleins.  Buckles. Palsywort. Mayflower. Password. Artetyke. Drelip. Our Lady’s Keys. Arthritica.

Common Names: cowslip, common cowslip,(Anglo-Saxon) Cuy lippe, (Greek) Paralysio

(The common name cowslip may derive from the old English for cow dung, probably because the plant was often found growing amongst the manure in cow pastures. An alternative derivation simply refers to slippery or boggy ground; again, a typical habitat for this plant.

The species name v?ris means “of spring”. However, this is not the first primula to flower, being preceded by the primrose P. vulgaris.

Other folk names include: cuy lippe, herb peter, paigle, peggle, key flower, key of heaven, fairy cups, petty mulleins, crewel, buckles, palsywort, plumrocks, tittypines.)

Habitat : Primula veris is native throughout most of temperate Europe and Asia, and although absent from more northerly areas including much of northwest Scotland, it reappears in northernmost Sutherland and Orkney. It grows on Grassy places, fields and woods with calcareous soils.

Description:
Primula veris is a variable evergreen or semi-evergreen perennial flowering plant  growing to 25 cm (10 in) tall and broad, with a rosette of leaves 5–15 cm long and 2–6 cm broad. The deep yellow flowers are produced in spring, in clusters of 10-30 blooms together on a single stem. Each flower is 9–15 mm broad. Red-flowered plants occur rarely.

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Quite early in the spring, the Primula veris begins to produce its leaves. At first, each is just two tight coils, rolled backwards and lying side by side; these slowly unroll and a leaf similar to that of a Primrose, but shorter and rounder, appears. All the leaves lie nearly flat on the ground in a rosette, from the centre of which rises a long stalk, crowned by the flowers, which spring all from one point, in separate little stalks, and thus form an ‘umbel.’ The number of the flowers in an umbel varies very much in different specimens.

This species frequently hybridizes with other Primulas such as Primula vulgaris to form False Oxslip (Primula x polyantha) which is often confused with true Oxslip (Primula elatior) which is a much rarer plant. Botanists have found no less than twenty-five of these hybrid-forms in the Austrian Alps.

Cultivation :
Prefers a medium to heavy moisture retentive humus rich loam in a cool position with light to medium shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils and on chalk. Prefers full sun and a well-drained alkaline soil if it is to survive well. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. A very ornamental plant, it grows well in the spring meadow. The flowers diffuse a sweet fragrance quite unlike all other flower scents. It has been likened by some to the breath of a cow (cuslippe is the Saxon word for this and thus the origin of the common name), by others to the sweet milky breath of a tiny child.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame. Germination is inhibited by temperatures above 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in autumn. This is best done every other year.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Young leaves – raw or cooked in soups etc. They are not that tasty, but are available in late winter which adds somewhat to their value[K]. The fresh or dried leaves are used as a tea substitute. Flowers – raw, cooked or used in conserves, as a garnish etc. They make an ornamental addition to the salad bowl. This species has become much less common in the past 100 years due to habitat destruction, over-collecting from the wild and farming practices. When it was more abundant, the flowers were harvested in quantity in the spring and used to make a tasty wine with sedative and nervine properties. A related species Primula elatior is listed by the Council of Europe as a natural food flavouring.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used Medicinally: The yellow corolla is alone needed, no stalk or green part whatever is required, only the yellow part, plucked out of the green calyx.

Chemical constituents: The roots and the flowers have somewhat of the odour of Anise, due to their containing some volatile oil identical with Mannite. Their acrid principle is Saponin.

The medicinal roots of Primula veris contain different glycosides of 5-methoxysalicylic methyl ester, such as primeverin and primulaverin. In the dried, crude root drug, their phenolic aglycones are responsible for the typical odor reminiscent of methyl salicylate or anethole, depending on the exact species. The dried roots contain significant amounts of triterpene saponins, such as primula acid I/II, while in the flower drug these constituents are located in the sepals, and the dominating constituents are flavonoids. Rare side effects of the saponins can be nausea or diarrhea while some of the phenolic constituents are possibly responsible for allergic reactions.

The subspecies macrocalyx, growing in Siberia, contains the phenolic compound riccardin C.
Cowslips are an underused but valuable medicinal herb. They have a very long history of medicinal use and have been particularly employed in treating conditions involving spasms, cramps, paralysis and rheumatic pains. The plant contains saponins, which have an expectorant effect, and salicylates which are the main ingredient of aspirin and have anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge effects. This remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women, patients who are sensitive to aspirin, or those taking anti-coagulant drugs such as warfarin. The flowers and the leaves are anodyne, diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant. They are harvested in the spring and can be used fresh or dried. The yellow corolla of the flower is antispasmodic and sedative. They are recommended for treating over-activity and sleeplessness, especially in children. They are potentially valuable in the treatment of asthma and other allergic conditions. At one time an oil was produced by maceration of the flowers, this has an antiecchymotic effect (treats bruising). The root contains 5 – 10% triterpenoid saponins which are strongly expectorant, stimulating a more liquid mucous and so easing the clearance of phlegm . It has been dried and made into a powder then used as a sternutatory. The root is also mildly diuretic, antirheumatic and slows the clotting of blood. It is used in the treatment of chronic coughs (especially those associated with chronic bronchitis and catarrhal congestion), flu and other febrile conditions. The root can be harvested in the spring or autumn and is dried for later use. The leaves have similar medicinal properties to the roots but are weaker in action. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of kidney complaints and catarrh. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Primula veris for cough/bronchitis.

In folk medicine, it was used as a sedative, anti-rheumatic and for gout. In modern phytotherapy, it is mostly employed in form of tinctures or dry extracts for its evidence-based expectorant effects. It was later discovered through pharmacognostic examinations that the active principles (saponins) are mostly occurring in the rhizomes and flowers.

In the Middle-Ages it was also known as St. Peter’s herb or Petrella and was very sought after by Florentine apothecaries. Hildegard von Bingen recommended the medicinal parts only for topical use but the leaves were also consumed as food. Other common names at the time were Herba paralysis, Verbascum, Primrose or Mullein leaves. It was frequently misidentified or confused with similar species from the genus Primula.

Known Hazards : Some people are allergic to the stamens of this plant, though such cases are easily treated. Saponins may cause hypotension. Excessive/prolonged use may interfere with high blood pressure treatments. Possible Gastrointestinal irritation .

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primula_veris
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cowsl112.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Primula+veris