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Solidago gigantea

Botanical Name : Solidago gigantea
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. gigantea
Kingdom: Plantae

Synonyms : Solidago pitcheri.

Common Names : Tall goldenrod and Giant goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago gigantea is native to N. America – New Brunswick to British Columbia, south to Georgia, Texas and Utah. It grows on the low wet areas, roadsides, pond margins and the sides of streams, generally in mesic areas. It is the state flower of Kentucky and Nebraska.

Description:
Solidago gigantea is a perennial wildflower plant, growing to 1.2 m (4ft), sometimes spreading by means of underground rhizomes. They often grow in clumps, with no leaves as the base but numerous leaves on the stem. At the top, each stem produces a sizable array of many small flower heads, sometimes several hundred. Each head is yellow, containing both disc florets and ray florets.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The central stem is light green or pale purple, terete, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. The alternate leaves are 3-5″ long and 1/3–2/3″ (8-17 mm.) across, becoming only slightly shorter while ascending the central stem. Sometimes there are leafy lateral stems that develop from the leaf axils of the central stem, but they are very short and insignificant. The alternate leaves are narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, slightly to sharply toothed along their margins, and sessile; each leaf tapers gradually towards its tip and base. The upper surfaces of the leaves are medium to dark green and glabrous, while their lower surfaces are a slightly lighter shade of green and glabrous or nearly so (sometimes there are fine hairs along the major veins below). Each leaf has 3 veins (a central vein and 2 lateral veins) that are nearly parallel to each other.

The central stem terminates in a panicle of flowerheads up to 1′ long and 1′ across. There is some variability in the shape and size of the panicle across different populations of plants. Individual branches of the panicle are light green, slightly to moderately pubescent, and recurved. There are usually some leafy bracts along the branches of the panicle; these leafy bracts are similar to the leaves, except they are smaller in size. Individual flowerheads are a little less than ¼” across, consisting of about 7-15 yellow ray florets and 5-11 yellow disk florets. At the base of each flowerhead, there are appressed floral bracts in 2-5 overlapping series; individual floral bracts are linear-lanceolate in shape. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early fall for about a month. Both ray and disk florets produce small achenes with sessile tufts of hair. The achenes are bullet-shaped, flat-topped, and finely pubescent. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous. Colonies of plants are often formed from the rhizomes.

It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. This species has become a weed in its native range, increasing freely by seed and at the root. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.
Medicinal Uses:
The leaves and blossoms are astringent, cathartic and styptic. They are a valuable remedy in the treatment of all kinds of haemorrhages. An infusion of the blossoms has been used to treat various fevers. An oil obtained from the plant (is this an essential oil?) is diuretic.
Other Uses:.…Basketry…….The stems can be made into rough basket

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidago_gigantea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+gigantea
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/wetland/plants/gt_goldenrod.htm

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Gentiana saponaria

Botanical Name: Gentiana saponaria
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: G. saponaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Class : Magnoliopsida
Sub Class:  Asteridae
Common Names: Soapwort gentian or Harvestbells, Soap gentian

Habitat: Gentiana saponaria is native to eastern N. America – Ontario to Minnesota, Connecticut, Florida and Louisiana. It grows on wet soils in woodlands.
Description:
Gentiana saponaria is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It has paired, lanceolate leaves on unbranched stalks, blue or purple blooms, and a stout taproot. It is rare in its range, usually found in undisturbed sandy soils. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies…......CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species grows well in the woodland garden, it requires a lime-free soil. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. The compost must be rich in organic matter and should not be allowed to become dry. The seed can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Medicinal Uses:
The root is said to be an antidote to snakebites. This N. American species has medicinal properties practically identical with the European gentians. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_saponaria
http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=6650
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+saponaria

Gentiana punctata

Botanical Name : Gentiana punctata
Family: Gentianaceae
Tribes: Gentianeae
Subtribes: Gentianinae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: Gentiana pannonica
Reinu: Plantae
Subreinu: Tracheobionta
División: Magnoliophyta
Clas: Magnoliopsida
Subclas: Asteridae
Orde: Gentianales

Synonym(s):
*Coilantha campanulata G.Don
*Coilantha punctata G.Don
*Gentiana campanulata Jacq.
*Gentiana immaculata Pers.
*Gentianusa punctata (L.) Pohl

Common Name : Spotted Gentian

Habitat : Gentiana punctata is native to S. Europe. {Albania; Austria; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland)); Montenegro; Poland; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)} It grows on stony pastures, the grassy bottoms of mountain corries, screes and moraines, among rhododendrons and in conifer woods, on both limestone and igneous rocks.

Description:
Gentiana punctata is a perennial semi-evergreen or evergreen, herbaceous plant, clump with lance-shaped glossy mid-green leaves. The flowers are terminal or axillary green spotted purple blooms in late summer. It grows to a height of 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies……CLICK & SEE  THE  PICTURES

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is not particular about soil type, so long as it is deep enough to accommodate the plant’s roots. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark.. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March.. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Medicinal Uses:
A medicinal and aromatic plant, like many other species of Gentiana the plant is rich in bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucosides which are applied in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases. The roots are applied as a decoction, extract or tincture (Skrzypczak et al. 1993, Lipman 2009). It is sold on the Serbian market and not known to be in cultivation (Baricevic et al. 2004).

This species is one of several that are the source of the medicinal gentian root, the thick rootstock can be up to 1 metre long. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_punctata
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/203221/0
https://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/8535-gentiana-punctata#how-to-grow
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+punctata

Gentiana pneumonanthe

Botanical Name: Gentiana pneumonanthe
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: G. pneumonanthe
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Name : Marsh gentian

Habitat : Gentiana pneumonanthe is native to Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Spain, Macedonia, Caucasus and Siberia. It grows on boggy meadows, fens, moist heaths and sandy or peaty clearings in woods. Very local and decreasing in Britain.

Description:
Gentiana pneumonanthe is a perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). Its flowers are having four or five petals are usually united into a trumpet, funnel, or bell shape.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES;

USDA hardiness zone : Coming soon

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is calcifuge and requires a humus-rich lime-free soil. It is not very easy to cultivate and is not very long-lived. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. A very ornamental plant. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and should be placed in their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It requires an acid humus-rich compost and should not be allowed to dry out. The seed can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings usually flower in their second year. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring.
Medicinal Uses:
The root probably contains various bitter compounds and can be used as a general tonic for the digestive system.
Other Uses:….Dye…..A blue dye is obtained from the flowers
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.britannica.com/plant/Gentiana-pneumonanthe
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_pneumonanthe
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+pneumonanthe

Gentiana macrophylla

Botanical Name: Gentiana macrophylla
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: G. macrophylla
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms:  G. staminea, G. crassiaulisor, and G. dahurica

Common Names: Large leaf Gentian, Qin Jiao in Chinese.

Habitat:Gentiana macrophylla is native to E. Asia – China, Siberia. It grows on the steppes and glades in light woods. Stream and river banks, roadsides, grassland slopes, wet meadows, forest margins, forests at elevations of 400 – 2400 metres.

Description:
Gentiana macrophylla is a perennial plant, growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species requires a moist well-drained neutral to acid soil in a sheltered position. It prefers full sun but succeeds in partial shade. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring
Edible Uses:….Leaves – cooked. An emergency food, used when all else fails.
Chemical constituents:It contains gentianine, gentianidine, gentiopicroside, gentianol.

Medicinal Uses:
Gentiana macrophylla   has been used in Chinese herbalism for over 2,000 years and, like other members of this genus, the roots contain some of the most bitter compounds known and make an excellent tonic for the whole digestive system, working especially on the stomach, liver and gall bladder. The root is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antirheumatic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic and hypotensive. The root is used internally in the treatment of digestive problems, arthritis, allergic inflammations, low-grade fever in chronic diseases, jaundice and hepatitis. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_macrophylla
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+macrophylla