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Scratch Test for Allergies

allergy test 7/22/05

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Definition:
For more than a century, doctors have used skin tests to help diagnose allergies. During these tests, your skin is exposed to allergy-causing substances (allergens) and then is observed for signs of an allergic reaction.

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Along with your medical history, skin tests can confirm whether signs and symptoms, such as sneezing, wheezing and skin rashes, are caused by allergies. They can also identify the specific substances that trigger allergic reactions. Such information can help your doctor develop an allergy treatment plan that may include allergen avoidance, medications or allergy shots (immunotherapy).

This test checks for a skin reaction to common allergy-provoking substances, such as foods, molds, dust, plants, or animal proteins. If your skin reacts to a substance, chances are that you are allergic to it.

Most people with allergy symptoms don’t need testing because they can identify their triggers and control their symptoms with medicine. Your doctor might recommend scratch testing when you have severe allergy symptoms but are not sure what is causing them. Knowing what you are allergic to can help you avoid the substance in the future, and will help your doctor determine whether you might benefit from allergy shots.

Why it’s actually done?
Skin testing is widely used to diagnose allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic asthma and dermatitis (eczema). It’s safe for people of all ages, including infants and older adults.

Sometimes, however, skin tests aren’t recommended. Your doctor may advise against skin testing if you:

*Take medications that interfere with test results. These include antihistamines, many antidepressants and some heartburn medications. Your doctor may determine that it’s better for you to continue taking these medications than to temporarily discontinue them in preparation for a test.

*Have a severe skin disease. If conditions such as eczema or psoriasis affect large areas of skin on your arms and back — the usual testing sites — there may not be enough clear, uninvolved skin to conduct an effective test.

*Are highly sensitive to suspected allergens. You may be so sensitive to certain substances that even the small amounts of them used in skin tests could trigger a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).

Blood tests (technically called in vitro allergen-specific IgE antibody tests) are particularly useful for those who should not undergo skin tests. Although blood tests can be as accurate as skin tests, they’re not performed as often because they may be less sensitive and are more expensive. If you want to start immunotherapy — a series of injections intended to increase your tolerance to allergens — you need either a skin or blood test to identify the specific substances that trigger your allergies.
.What risks are there from the test?
Because the allergen exposure is so small, a serious allergic reaction is extremely unlikely.

The most common side effect of skin testing is itching and redness. This may be most noticeable during the test, when you aren’t allowed to scratch yourself.For a few hours you’ll probably have some redness or irritation on the testing sites, similar to having several mosquito bites. It usually subsides within a few hours, although it can persist until the next day. A mild cortisone cream can be applied to relieve the itching and redness.

Rarely, skin tests can produce a severe, immediate allergic reaction, so it’s important to have skin tests performed at an office where appropriate emergency equipment and medications are available. If you develop a severe allergic reaction in the days after a skin test, call your doctor right away.

Some doctors who practice complementary or alternative medicine may perform provocation-neutralization tests, but these tests aren’t proved and aren’t considered reliable.
.How you prepare for the test ?
Before recommending a skin test, your doctor will ask detailed questions about your medical history, your signs and symptoms, and your usual way of treating them. Your answers can help your doctor determine if allergies run in your family and if you might also have them.

Next, your doctor will perform a physical examination to search for additional clues about the causes of your signs and symptoms.

Your medical history and physical examination may provide enough information for your doctor to discuss your diagnosis and treatment. If so, a skin test may be unnecessary. But if your doctor is uncertain or suspects that you have allergies and needs more information about the possible causes, he or she may recommend that you have a skin test.

Before scheduling a skin test, your doctor will need a list of all your prescription and over-the-counter medications. Some medications can suppress allergic reactions preventing the skin testing from working effectively. Other medications may increase your risk of developing a severe allergic reaction during a test.

Because medications clear out of your system at different rates, your doctor may ask that you stop taking certain medications for up to 10 days. Medications that can interfere with skin tests include:

*Prescription nonsedating antihistamines, such as fexofenadine (Allegra) and cetirizine (Zyrtec)

*Over-the-counter antihistamines (Claritin, Benadryl, Chlor-Trimeton, others)

*Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline and doxepin (Sinequan)

*Heartburn medications, such as cimetidine (Tagamet) and ranitidine (Zantac)

Tell your doctor if you have ever had anaphylaxis, a lifethreatening allergic reaction, or if you have had a serious reaction to a previous allergy test.

What happens when the test is performed?

In adults, the test is done on the forearm; in children it’s done on the upper back. (The child disrobes from the waist up and lies on his or her stomach.)

Your doctor decides what allergies are to be tested for. Some people are tested for as many as a few dozen at one visit. Individual drops of fluid are dripped in rows across the skin. The doctor uses a needle to make small light scratches in the skin under each drop, to help the skin absorb the fluid. The scratches aren’t deep enough to cause bleeding. Each drop contains proteins from a separate allergen (a substance, like ragweed pollen, that triggers allergy symptoms).Your doctor notes where each drop of fluid was placed, either by keeping a chart or by writing a code on the area of skin being tested.

For many people, the most difficult part of this test is next: You need to stay still long enough (usually about 20 minutes) to give the skin time to react. Your skin might tickle or itch during this time, but you won’t be allowed to scratch it. At the end of the waiting time, your doctor will examine each needle scratch for redness or swelling.

What must you do special after the test is over?
Nothing.

What you can expect from the test?
Contrary to what you may have heard, skin tests cause little if any discomfort. Because the needles used in these tests barely penetrate your skin’s surface, you won’t bleed or feel more than mild, momentary discomfort.

Some tests detect immediate allergic reactions, which develop within minutes of exposure to an allergen. Other tests detect delayed allergic reactions, which develop over a period of several days.

Procedure
Skin testing is usually performed in a doctor’s office. Typically, a nurse administers the test and a doctor interprets the results. The three main types of skin tests are:

*Puncture, prick or scratch test (percutaneous). In this test, which is the type of skin test most commonly performed, tiny drops of purified allergen extracts are pricked or scratched into your skin’s surface. This test is usually performed to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites, foods, insect venom and penicillin.

*Intradermal test (intracutaneous). Purified allergen extracts are injected into the skin of your arm. This test is usually performed if your doctor suspects that you’re allergic to insect venom or penicillin.

*Patch test (epicutaneous). An allergen is applied to a patch, which is then placed on your skin. This test is usually performed to identify substances that cause contact dermatitis. These include latex, medications, fragrances, preservatives, hair dyes, metals and resins.

Tests for immediate allergic reactions:
A puncture, prick or scratch test checks for immediate allergic reactions to as many as 40 different substances at one time. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children are usually tested on the upper back.

After cleaning the test site with alcohol, the nurse draws small marks on your skin and applies a drop of allergen extract next to each mark. He or she then uses a sharp instrument (lancet) to introduce the extracts into the skin’s surface. A new lancet is used for each scratch to prevent cross-contamination of allergens. The drops are left on your skin for 15 minutes, and then the nurse observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions.

To see if your skin is reacting the way it’s supposed to, the nurse introduces two additional substances into your skin’s surface:

*Histamine. In almost everyone, this substance causes a skin response, so it’s used as a positive control. If you don’t react to histamine, the skin test may be difficult or impossible to interpret.

*Glycerin or saline. In almost everyone, these substances cause no reaction. So one or the other is used as a negative control. If you react to glycerin or saline, you may have sensitive skin, so your reactions to the allergen extracts will need to be interpreted with caution.

You may need a more sensitive immediate-reaction test — known as an intradermal test — if a puncture, prick or scratch test is inconclusive. During this test, a nurse uses a thin needle and syringe to inject a small amount of allergen extract just below the surface of the skin on your arm. Then he or she inspects the site after 15 minutes for a local skin reaction.

Tests for delayed allergic reactions
Patch tests detect delayed allergic reactions. During a patch test, your skin may be exposed to 20 to 30 extracts of substances that can cause contact dermatitis. Caustic substances — such as industrial solvents — are diluted to prevent skin damage.

Allergen extracts are applied to bandages that you wear on your arm or back for 48 hours. During this time, you should avoid bathing and activities that cause heavy sweating. The bandages are removed when you return to your doctor’s office for an evaluation.

Results:
Before you leave the doctor’s office, you’ll know the results of a puncture, prick or scratch test or an intradermal test. A patch test may take several days or more to produce results.

If an allergen provokes an allergic reaction to a puncture or intradermal skin test, you’ll develop a raised, red, itchy bump (wheal and flare) that may look like a mosquito bite. A nurse will then measure the bump’s size.

After the nurse records the results, he or she will clean your skin with alcohol to remove the marks and allergen droplets. Then you’ll meet with your doctor to discuss the results and possible treatment options.

A positive skin test means that you may be allergic to a particular substance. Bigger bumps usually indicate a greater degree of sensitivity. A negative skin test means that you probably aren’t allergic to that particular allergen.

The accuracy of skin tests can vary. You may react differently to the same test performed at different times. Or you may react positively to a substance during a test but not react to it in everyday life.

In general, skin tests are most reliable for diagnosing allergies to airborne substances, such as pollen, pet dander and dust mites. Because diagnosing food allergies can be complex, you may need additional tests or procedures.


Resources:

https://www.health.harvard.edu/diagnostic-tests/allergies-scratch-test.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/allergy-tests/MY00131/UPDATEAPP=false&FLUSHCACHE=0

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Uterine Fibroids

Definition:
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during your childbearing years. Also called fibromyomas, leiomyomas or myomas, uterine fibroids aren’t associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and almost never develop into cancer.

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As many as three out of four women have uterine fibroids, but most are unaware of them because they often cause no symptoms. Your doctor may discover them incidentally during a pelvic exam or prenatal ultrasound.

In general, uterine fibroids cause no problems and seldom require treatment. Medical therapy and surgical procedures can shrink or remove fibroids if you have discomfort or troublesome symptoms. Rarely, fibroids can require emergency treatment if they cause sudden, sharp pelvic pain.

Uterine fibroids (singular Uterine Fibroma) (leiomyomata, singular leiomyoma) are benign tumors which grow from the muscle layers of the uterus. They are the most common benign neoplasm in females, and may affect about 25% of white and 50% of black women during the reproductive years. Uterine fibroids often do not require treatment, but when they are problematic, they may be treated surgically or with medication — possible interventions include a hysterectomy, hormonal therapy, a myomectomy, or uterine artery embolization. Uterine fibroids shrink dramatically in size after a woman passes through menopause.

Fibroids are named according to where they are found. There are four types: Intramural fibroids are found in the wall of the womb and are the most common type of fibroids. Subserosal fibroids are found growing outside the wall of the womb and can become very large. They can also grow on stalks (called pedunculated fibroids). Submucosal fibroids are found in the muscle beneath the inner lining of the womb wall. Cervical fibroids are found in the wall of the cervix (neck of the womb). In very rare cases, malignant (cancerous) growths on the smooth muscles inside the womb can develop, called leiomyosarcoma of the womb.

Symptoms:

Many women with uterine fibroids have no symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include:

*Heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods
*Feeling “full” in the lower abdomen
*Pain during sex
*Lower back pain
*Reproductive problems, such as infertility, multiple miscarriages or early labor
*Heavy menstrual bleeding
*Prolonged menstrual periods or bleeding between periods
*Pelvic pressure or pain
*Urinary incontinence or frequent urination
*Constipation
*Backache or leg pains

The names of fibroids reflect their orientation to the uterine wall. Intramural fibroids grow within the muscular uterine wall. Submucosal fibroids bulge into the uterine cavity. Subserosal fibroids project to the outside of the uterus, and pedunculated fibroids hang from a stalk inside or outside the uterus.

.Rarely, a fibroid can cause acute pain when it outgrows its blood supply. Deprived of nutrients, the fibroid begins to die. Byproducts from a degenerating fibroid can seep into surrounding tissue, causing pain and fever. A fibroid that hangs by a stalk inside or outside the uterus (pedunculated fibroid) can trigger pain by twisting on its stalk and cutting off its blood supply.

Fibroid location influences your signs and symptoms:

*Submucosal fibroids. Fibroids that grow into the inner cavity of the uterus (submucosal fibroids) are thought to be primarily responsible for prolonged, heavy menstrual bleeding.

*Subserosal fibroids. Fibroids that project to the outside of the uterus (subserosal fibroids) can sometimes press on your bladder, causing you to experience urinary symptoms. If fibroids bulge from the back of your uterus, they occasionally can press either on your rectum, causing constipation, or on your spinal nerves, causing backache.
Causes:
Uterine fibroids develop from the smooth muscular tissue of the uterus (myometrium). A single cell reproduces repeatedly, eventually creating a pale, firm, rubbery mass distinct from neighboring tissue.

Fibroids range in size from seedlings, undetectable by the human eye, to bulky masses that can distort and enlarge the uterus. They can be single or multiple, in extreme cases expanding the uterus so much that it reaches the rib cage.

Doctors don’t know the cause of uterine fibroids, but research and clinical experience point to several factors:

*Genetic alterations. Many fibroids contain alterations in genes that code for uterine muscle cells.

*Hormones. Estrogen and progesterone, two hormones that stimulate development of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy, appear to promote the growth of fibroids. Fibroids contain more estrogen and estrogen receptors than do normal uterine muscle cells.

Other chemicals. Substances that help the body maintain tissues, such as insulin-like growth factor, may affect fibroid growth.

Location
Fibroids may be single or multiple. Most fibroids start in an intramural location, that is the layer of the muscle of the uterus. With further growth, some lesions may develop towards the outside of the uterus (subserosal or pedunculated), some towards the cavity (submucosal or intracavitary). Lesions affecting the cavity tend to bleed more and interfere with pregnancy. Secondary changes that may develop within fibroids are hemorrhage, necrosis, calcification, and cystic changes. Less frequently, leiomyomas may occur at the lower uterine segment, cervix, or uterine ligaments.

Risk factors
There are few known risk factors for uterine fibroids, other than being a woman of reproductive age. Other factors include:

*Heredity. If your mother or sister had fibroids, you’re at increased risk of also developing them.

*Race. Black women are more likely to have fibroids than are women of other racial groups. In addition, black women have fibroids at younger ages, and they’re also likely to have more or larger fibroids.
Inconclusive research

Research examining other potential risk factors has been inconclusive. Although some studies have suggested that obese women are at higher risk of fibroids, other studies have not shown a link.

In addition, limited studies once suggested that women who take oral contraceptives and athletic women may have a lower risk of fibroids, but later research failed to establish this connection. Researchers have also looked at whether pregnancy and giving birth may have a protective effect, but results remain unclear.

Diagnosis:
Uterine fibroids are frequently found incidentally during a routine pelvic exam. Your doctor may feel irregularities in the shape of your uterus through your abdomen, suggesting the presence of fibroids.

Ultrasound
If confirmation is needed, your doctor may obtain an ultrasound — a painless exam that uses sound waves to obtain a picture of your uterus — to confirm the diagnosis and to map and measure fibroids. A doctor or technician moves the ultrasound device (transducer) over your abdomen (transabdominal) or places it inside your vagina (transvaginal) to obtain images of your uterus.

Transvaginal ultrasound provides more detail because the probe is closer to the uterus. Transabdominal ultrasound visualizes a larger anatomic area. Sometimes, fibroids are discovered during an ultrasound conducted for a different purpose, such as during a prenatal ultrasound.

Other imaging tests
If traditional ultrasound doesn’t provide enough information, your doctor may order other imaging studies, such as:

*Hysterosonography. This ultrasound variation uses sterile saline to expand the uterine cavity, making it easier to obtain interior images of the uterus. This test may be useful if you have heavy menstrual bleeding despite normal results from traditional ultrasound….click to see

*Hysterosalpingography. This technique uses a dye to highlight the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes on X-ray images. Your doctor may recommend it if infertility is a concern. In addition to revealing fibroids, it can help your doctor determine if your fallopian tubes are open.  ...click to see

*Hysteroscopy. Your doctor inserts a small, lighted telescope called a hysteroscope through your cervix into your uterus. The tube releases a gas or liquid to expand your uterus, allowing your doctor to examine the walls of your uterus and the openings of your fallopian tubes. A hysteroscopy can be performed in your doctor’s office.
Imaging techniques that may occasionally be necessary include computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Other tests
If you’re experiencing abnormal vaginal bleeding, your doctor may want to conduct other tests to investigate potential causes. He or she may order a complete blood count (CBC) to determine if you have iron deficiency anemia because of chronic blood loss. Your doctor may also order blood tests to rule out bleeding disorders and to determine the levels of reproductive hormones produced by your ovaries.
Complications
Although uterine fibroids usually aren’t dangerous, they can cause discomfort and may lead to complications such as anemia from heavy blood loss. In rare instances, fibroid tumors can grow out of your uterus on a stalk-like projection. If the fibroid twists on this stalk, you may develop a sudden, sharp, severe pain in your lower abdomen. If so, seek medical care right away. You may need surgery.

Malignancy
Very few lesions are or become malignant. Signs that a fibroid may be malignant are rapid growth or growth after menopause. Such lesions are typically a leiomyosarcoma on histology. There is no consensus among pathologists regarding the transformation of Leiomyoma into a sarcoma. Most pathologists believe that a Leiomyosarcoma is a de novo disease.

Pregnancy and fibroids
Because uterine fibroids typically develop during the childbearing years, women with fibroids are often concerned about their chances of a successful pregnancy.

Fibroids usually don’t interfere with conception and pregnancy, but they can occasionally affect fertility. They may distort or block your fallopian tubes, or interfere with the passage of sperm from your cervix to your fallopian tubes. Submucosal fibroids may prevent implantation and growth of an embryo.

Research indicates that pregnant women with fibroids are at slightly increased risk of miscarriage, premature labor and delivery, abnormal fetal position, and separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. But not all studies confirm these associations. Furthermore, complications vary based on the number, size and location of fibroids. Multiple fibroids and large submucosal fibroids that distort the uterine cavity are the type most likely to cause problems. A more common complication of fibroids in pregnancy is localized pain, typically between the first and second trimesters. This is usually easily treated with pain relievers.

In most cases, fibroids don’t interfere with pregnancy and treatment isn’t necessary. It was once believed that fibroids grew faster during pregnancy, but multiple studies suggest otherwise. Most fibroids remain stable in size, although some increase or decrease slightly, usually in the first trimester.

If you have fibroids and you’ve experienced repeated pregnancy losses, your doctor may recommend removing one or more fibroids to improve your chances of carrying a baby to term, especially if no other causes of miscarriage can be found and your fibroids distort the shape of your uterine cavity.

Doctors usually don’t remove fibroids in conjunction with a Caesarean section because of the high risk of excessive bleeding.

Treatment & Modern Drugs
There’s no single best approach to uterine fibroid treatment. Many treatment options exist. In most cases, the best action to take after discovering fibroids is simply to be aware they are there.

Watchful waiting
If you’re like most women with uterine fibroids, you have no signs or symptoms. In your case, watchful waiting (expectant management) could be the best course. Fibroids aren’t cancerous. They rarely interfere with pregnancy. They usually grow slowly and tend to shrink after menopause when levels of reproductive hormones drop. This is the best treatment option for a large majority of women with uterine fibroids.

Medications
Medications for uterine fibroids target hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle, treating symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pressure. They don’t eliminate fibroids, but may shrink them. Medications include:

*Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists. To trigger a new menstrual cycle, a control center in your brain called the hypothalamus manufactures gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH). The substance travels to your pituitary gland, a tiny gland also located at the base of your brain, and sets in motion events that stimulate your ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.

Medications called Gn-RH agonists (Lupron, Synarel, others) act at the same sites that Gn-RH does. But when taken as therapy, a Gn-RH agonist produces the opposite effect to that of your natural hormone. Estrogen and progesterone levels fall, menstruation stops, fibroids shrink and anemia often improves.

*Androgens. Your ovaries and your adrenal glands, located above your kidneys, produce androgens, the so-called male hormones. Given as medical therapy, androgens can relieve fibroid symptoms.

Danazol, a synthetic drug similar to testosterone, has been shown to shrink fibroid tumors, reduce uterine size, stop menstruation and correct anemia. However, occasional unpleasant side effects such as weight gain, dysphoria (feeling depressed, anxious or uneasy), acne, headaches, unwanted hair growth and a deeper voice, make many women reluctant to take this drug.

Other medications. Oral contraceptives or progestins can help control menstrual bleeding, but they don’t reduce fibroid size. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are not hormonal medications, are effective for heavy vaginal bleeding unrelated to fibroids, but they don’t reduce bleeding caused by fibroids.
Hysterectomy
This operation — the removal of the uterus — remains the only proven permanent solution for uterine fibroids. But hysterectomy is major surgery. It ends your ability to bear children, and if you elect to have your ovaries removed also, it brings on menopause and the question of whether you’ll take hormone replacement therapy.

Myomectomy
In this surgical procedure, your surgeon removes the fibroids, leaving the uterus in place. If you want to bear children, you might choose this option. With myomectomy, as opposed to a hysterectomy, there is a risk of fibroid recurrence. There are several ways a myomectomy can be done:

Abdominal myomectomy. If you have multiple fibroids, very large or very deep fibroids, your doctor may use an open abdominal surgical procedure to remove the fibroids.
Laparoscopic myomectomy. If the fibroids are small and few in number, you and your doctor may opt for a laparoscopic procedure, which uses slender instruments inserted through small incisions in your abdomen to remove the fibroids from your uterus. Your doctor views your abdominal area on a remote monitor via a small camera attached to one of the instruments.
Hysteroscopic myomectomy. This procedure may be an option if the fibroids are contained inside the uterus (submucosal). A long, slender scope (hysteroscope) is passed through your vagina and cervix and into your uterus. Your doctor can see and remove the fibroids through the scope. This procedure is best performed by a doctor experienced in this technique.
Variations of myomectomy — in which uterine fibroids are destroyed without actually removing them — include:

*Myolysis. In this laparoscopic procedure, an electric current destroys the fibroids and shrinks the blood vessels that feed them.
*Cryomyolysis. In a procedure similar to myolysis, cryomyolysis uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the fibroids.

The safety, effectiveness and associated risk of fibroid recurrence of myolysis and cryomyolysis have yet to be determined.

*Endometrial ablation. This treatment, performed with a hysteroscope, uses heat to destroy the lining of your uterus, either ending menstruation or reducing your menstrual flow. Endometrial ablation is effective in stopping abnormal bleeding, but doesn’t affect fibroids outside the interior lining of the uterus.
Uterine artery embolization
Small particles injected into the arteries supplying the uterus cut off blood flow to fibroids, causing them to shrink. This technique is proving effective in shrinking fibroids and relieving the symptoms they can cause. Advantages over surgery include:

*No incision
*Shorter recovery time
Complications may occur if the blood supply to your ovaries or other organs is compromised.

Focused ultrasound surgery.>..click to see

 

In focused ultrasound surgery, treatment is conducted within a specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. High-frequency, high-energy sound waves are directed through a source (gel pad) to destroy uterine fibroids.
MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 2004, is a newer treatment option for women with fibroids. Unlike other fibroid treatment options, FUS is noninvasive and preserves your uterus.

This procedure is performed while you’re inside of a specially crafted MRI scanner that allows doctors to visualize your anatomy, and then locate and destroy (ablate) fibroids inside your uterus without making an incision. Focused high-frequency, high-energy sound waves are used to target and destroy the fibroids. A single treatment session is done in an on- and off-again fashion, sometimes spanning several hours. Initial results with this technology are promising, but its long-term effectiveness is not yet known.

Before you decide
Because fibroids aren’t cancerous and usually grow slowly, you have time to gather information before making a decision about if and how to proceed with treatment. The option that’s right for you depends on a number of factors, including the severity of your signs and symptoms, your plans for childbearing, how close you are to menopause, and your feelings about surgery.

Before making a decision, consider the pros and cons of all available treatment options in relation to your particular situation. Remember, most women don’t need any treatment for uterine fibroids.
Alternative medicine:
You may have seen on the Internet, or in books focusing on women’s health, alternative treatments, such as certain dietary recommendations or homeopathy, which combines stress reduction techniques and herbal preparations.

More research is necessary to determine whether dietary practices or other methods can help prevent or treat fibroids. So far, there’s no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these techniques.

Herbal Treatment:
YOU can fight benign lumps With these herbs:

Evening primrose, kelp, mullein, pau d’arco, echinacea, red clover.

You may click to see Homeopathic medications for Uterine fibroids>..(1)….(2)….(3)

Prevention
Although researchers continue to study the causes of fibroid tumors, little scientific advice is available on how to prevent them. Preventing uterine fibroids may not be possible, but you can take comfort in the fact that only a small percentage of these tumors require treatment.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/uterine-fibroids/DS00078
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uterine_fibroids
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/uterinefibroids.html

 

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Tips for Protecting Your Child from Dog Bites

Nearly half of all U.S. Children have been bitten by a dog, and boys 5 to 9 years old appear to be at greatest risk. In addition, all children are more likely than adults to receive dangerous bites to the head, face, and neck.

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Still, many bites are preventable if families follow basic safety tips and demonstrate responsible dog ownership. Parents can reduce the risk of your child suffering a potentially dangerous dog bite by following these guidelines:

* Choose a good breed for children. Some dogs are naturally more aggressive than others. Consider a good natured breed like a golden retriever, collie, old English sheepdog, or basset hound.

*Socialize your pet. Expose a puppy to a variety of situations and people, and continue that exposure as it grows older. But do not leave it unsupervised with your children. Many bites occur during playful roughhousing when a child does not realize that the animal is overexcited.

   #Train your dog. It should be willing to respond to commands consistently.
#Teach children never to disturb a dog that is sleeping, eating, or caring for puppies.
#Warn children never to approach a strange dog. Teach them to ask permission from a dog’s owner before petting it.
#Tell children not to run past dogs. Canines naturally like to chase things, and this gives them a reason to become excited and aggressive.
# Tell children never to stare a dog in the eye. The animal interprets it as a challenge and a sign of aggression.
# If a dog threatens your child, tell him or her to remain calm. Children should not turn and run. Tell them to avoid eye contact and stay still until the dog leaves. If they fall or a re knocked to the ground, tell them to curl into a ball with their hands over their heads and necks.

 Education, supervision can prevent dog bites:-   According to a study recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), an estimated 4.5 million people are bitten by dogs in the United States each year. Fortunately, only about 20% of these require medical attention. With more than 52 million dogs kept as pets in the United States, bites will continue to pose a serious health threat to children.

Most of the 52 million dogs in this country kept as pets will never bite or kill anyone. Yet parents should remember that domesticated dogs retain their wild instincts and pose a health threat to their children.

Canine injuries range from simple puncture wounds to severe lacerations. Children are most likely to be bit on the head, face, or neck, while adults generally suffer wounds to the hands and upper arms. Over half are permanently scarred. The highest incidents of dog bite wounds occur in children five to fourteen years of age. Boys suffer dog bites twice as frequently as girls. Many parents falsely assume that their youngsters will be bitten by a strange or wild animal. More than 80% of bites are inflicted by the family pet or an animal known to the child.

Contrary to myth, few dog attacks can be traced to teasing and tormenting. Other human behaviors and characteristics, however, do make dogs more likely to attack them. One is being very young. Infants make up most of the fatal attack victims. It is suspected that these attacks occur because dogs mistake tiny babies for prey, and any breed of dog can make this tragic mistake. Therefore, never, ever leave any dog alone with an infant.

When the circumstances surrounding a bite are known, most dog attacks are provoked. Therefore, children should be educated on behaviors that will lessen their risk for an injury. Here are some guidelines:

· Immediately report stray dogs or dogs displaying unusual behavior.

· Teach children not to approach an unfamiliar dog or run away from a dog that is chasing them. A dog’s natural instinct is to chase and catch someone who is running. Instruct the child to stand still with their hands at their sides. The dog will most likely stop, sniff the youngster, and leave them alone when they realize that the child is not a threat.

· Instruct children not to approach an injured dog (or any other animal). Instead, tell an adult about the animal.

· Do not pet or approach a dog while he or she is eating, sleeping, or guarding something. Pets naturally guard their food, their new puppies, and their toys. Dogs also protect their owners, and the property that belongs to their owners–such as an owner’s home, yard, or car. Toddlers frequently are bitten because they get right in the dog’s face, moving quickly and making high-pitched, unpredictable noises.

· Do not pet a dog without letting it see and sniff you first. Before petting someone elses dog, ask the owner for permission.

·Keep fingers away from a dog’s mouth. ·

·Teach children when it is okay to play with a dog and when to leave the dog alone.

·Most important, parents need to realize that young children need constant supervision when they’re with dogs.

· St. Petersburg veterinarian Dr. Steve Bryan believes early intervention is the best way to avoid bites from the family dog. “All puppies should receive obedience training with the family, “stated Dr. Bryan. “At the first sign of aggressive behavior the owners must act and seek help from the veterinarian, since the first bite is often devastating and leaves no recourse for the pet.”

· Dr. Bryan also commented that the likelihood of a bite inflicted by the family pet can be reduced by choosing more docile breeds. Which bites most? Research usually points to German shepherds, pit bulls, chows, Dobermans, rottweilers, Siberian huskies, malamutes, wolf-hybrids, Akitas, Labradors, cocker spaniels and golden retrievers. Remember, there is a danger in believing that the family is safe because parents have not picked a breed from the “dangerous” list. Remember, any dog can bite.

· If a dog bites once, it is apt to bite again. If parents get a warning, they better act on it. Time for that dog to stay with an uncle on the farm.

The intent of this article is not to scare parents into not owning a dog. Remember, the vast majority of dog – child interactions are wonderful. When parents choose their dog wisely, show them lots of love and take proper precautions, the family pooch will be a welcome addition to the household.

 These dog bite prevention tips are provided courtesy of the American Academy of Pediatrics.