Tag Archives: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

Some Medical Questions And Answers By Dr.Gita Mathai

How much can I drink?


Q: I like my drink in the evening and I don’t think it does any harm to me or anyone else. However, I do not want to wind up an alcoholic. What are the safe limits? Some guidelines say one drink, some two. The exact quantity (small or large pegs) is not specified.

A:
Current guidelines state that men should consume no more than three or four units of alcohol a day; women should consume no more than two or three units. The limits for women are less than for men because their body composition is different with more fat and less muscle. Some physicians feel that these limits are too high. They think it should be reduced to three units a day for men and two units a day for women. Two days a week should be drink free.

A unit is not the same as a drink. Most alcoholic drinks contain more than one unit. A premium pint of lager, bitter or cider (5 per cent alcohol), contains 3 units. A large 250 ml glass of wine (12 per cent) contains 3 units, a large double measure of spirits (2 x 35ml at 40 per cent) contains 3 units.

The long-term effects of uncontrolled drinking include cirrhosis and mouth, esophageal, liver and breast cancer. The risks are increased if drinking is combined with smoking.

Also, even controlled drinking takes its toll on the wallet. Your family may not be happy with the money you spend on your “social drinking”. Always remember, no matter how sober you feel, drinking and driving can be a fatal combination.

Itchy vagina

Q: I have repeated attacks of itching in my vagina. I am 27 years old. Please advise.

A: You probably have an infection caused by an yeast called Candida. It tends to occur in overweight people, in pregnancy, or if you or your partner have diabetes or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. It occurs if the normal bacterial flora of the vagina changes. This can take place after treatment with certain antibiotics, corticosteroids or hormones. It occurs in some women when they take oral contraceptive pills.

Correction of any underlying precipitating factor will reduce the recurrences. Treatment of the infection is simple. Oral antifungal agents (usually single dose therapy) can be used. Vaginal tablets or pesssaries can deliver the medication directly to the source of infection.

Giddiness



Q: I feel giddy and dizzy and sometimes I feel I am going to vomit or lose my balance and fall down. I am very worried.

A: I think you are describing vertigo, a sense that the room is spinning around you. It can occur normally if you suddenly change the position of your head relative to your body. If it is frequent and recurrent you need to have it evaluated by an ENT (ear nose and throat) physician. You also need to have an X-ray of your neck bones. A physician can also do relevant blood tests to rule out anaemia.

There are several possibilities like benign positional vertigo, inner or middle ear infections or Meniere’s disease. Some of these require medication. Others need positional exercises.

Treatment of the disease will remove the precipitating factor and cure you.

You may click to see also:->An article on Giddiness

Dry, itchy skin

Q: I have very dry skin that is also very itchy. If I scratch, it sometimes bleeds and becomes infected. The dermatologist says I have icthyosis and that I must apply oil. If I stop, my skin becomes dry and itchy all over again.

A: Icthyosis is a hereditary condition of the skin. It can be mild or severe. You need to apply oil regularly as your skin requires a lot more oil than those of other people. A small quantity of a mixture of 500 ml of coconut oil, 500 ml of sesame oil and 100 ml of olive oil can be applied half an hour before bathing. A tablespoon of coconut oil can also be put in the bath water. A non-drying emollient soap like Dove or a glycerine-based soap like Pears will help to keep the skin moist. Baby oil or Vaseline can be applied at night. Both these will not stain the bed clothes.

You may also click to see:->

Winterizing Dry Itchy Skin

8 Home Remedies for Dry Skin

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Vertigo

The vestibulo-ocular reflex. A rotation of the...Image via Wikipedia

 

Vertigo, a specific type of dizziness, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. It is the sensation of spinning or swaying while the body is stationary with respect to the earth or surroundings. There are two types of vertigo: subjective and objective. A person experiencing subjective vertigo feels a false sensation of movement. When a person experiences objective vertigo, the surroundings will appear to move past his or her field of vision.

The effects of vertigo may be slight. It can cause nausea and vomiting and, if severe, may give rise to difficulty with standing and walking.

The word “vertigo” comes from the Latin “vertere”, to turn + the suffix “-igo”, a condition = a condition of turning about

Causes of vertigo
Vertigo is usually associated with a problem in the inner ear balance mechanisms (vestibular system), in the brain, or with the nerve connections between these two organs.

The most common cause of vertigo is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. Vertigo can be a symptom of an underlying harmless cause, such as in BPPV or it can suggest more serious problems. These include drug toxicities (specifically gentamicin), strokes or tumors (though these are much less common than BPPV).

Vertigo can also be brought on suddenly through various actions or incidents, such as skull fractures or brain trauma, sudden changes of blood pressure, or as a symptom of motion sickness while sailing, riding amusement rides, airplanes or in a vehicle.

Vertigo-like symptoms may also appear as paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) in the form of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome. A multi-faceted neurological disorder associated with many forms of incipient cancer lesions or virus. If conventional therapies fail, consult with a neuro-oncologist familiar with PNS.

Vertigo is typically classified into one of two categories depending on the location of the damaged vestibular pathway. These are peripheral or central vertigo. Each category has a distinct set of characteristics and associated findings.

Peripheral vertigo
The lesions, or the damaged areas, affect the inner ear or the vestibular division of the auditory nerve or (Cranial VIII nerve). Vertigo that is peripheral in origin tends to be felt as more severe than central vertigo, intermittent in timing, always associated with nystagmus in the horizontal plane and occasionally hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing of the ears).

Peripheral vertigo can be caused by BPPV, labyrinthitis, Ménière’s disease, perilymphatic fistula or acute vestibular neuronitis. Peripheral vertigo, compared to the central type, though subjectively felt as more severe, is usually from a less serious cause.

Central vertigo
The lesions in central vertigo involve the brainstem vestibulocochlear nerve nuclei. Central vertigo is typically described as constant in timing, less severe in nature and occasionally with nystagmus that can be multi-directional. Associated symptoms include motor or sensory deficits, dysarthria (slurred speech) or ataxia.

Causes include things such as migraines, multiple sclerosis, posterior fossa tumors, and Arnold-Chiari malformation. Less commonly, strokes (specifically posterior circulation stroke), seizures, trauma (such as concussion) or infections can also cause central vertigo.

Vertigo in context with the cervical spine
According to chiropractors, ligamental injuries of the upper cervical spine can result in head-neck-joint instabilities which can cause vertigo.[citation needed] In this view, instabilities of the head neck joint are affected by rupture or overstretching of the alar ligaments and/or capsule structures mostly caused by whiplash or similar biomechanical movements.

Symptoms during damaged alar ligaments besides vertigo often are

dizziness

reduced vigilance, such as somnolence

seeing problems, such as seeing “stars”, tunnel views or double contures.

Some patients tell about unreal feelings that stands in correlation with:

depersonalization and attentual alterations

Medical doctors (MDs) do not endorse this explanation to vertigo due to a lack of any data to support it, from an anatomical or physiological standpoint. Often the patients are having an odyssey of medical consultations without any clear diagnosis and are then sent to psychiatrist because doctors think about depression or hypochondria. Standard imaging technologies such as CT Scan or MRI are not capable of finding instabilities without taking functional poses.

Neurochemistry of vertigo
The neurochemistry of vertigo includes 6 primary neurotransmitters that have been identified between the 3-neuron arc that drives the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Many others play more minor roles.

Three neurotransmitters that work peripherally and centrally include glutamate, acetylcholine, and GABA.

Glutamate maintains the resting discharge of the central vestibular neurons, and may modulate synaptic transmission in all 3 neurons of the VOR arc. Acetylcholine appears to function as an excitatory neurotransmitter in both the peripheral and central synapses. GABA is thought to be inhibitory for the commissures of the medial vestibular nucleus, the connections between the cerebellar Purkinje cells and the lateral vestibular nucleus, and the vertical VOR.

Three other neurotransmitters work centrally. Dopamine may accelerate vestibular compensation. Norepinephrine modulates the intensity of central reactions to vestibular stimulation and facilitates compensation. Histamine is present only centrally, but its role is unclear. It is known that centrally acting antihistamines modulate the symptoms of motion sickness.

The neurochemistry of emesis overlaps with the neurochemistry of motion sickness and vertigo. Acetylcholinc, histamine, and dopamine are excitatory neurotransmitters, working centrally on the control of emesis. GABA inhibits central emesis reflexes. Serotonin is involved in central and peripheral control of emesis but has little influence on vertigo and motion sickness.

Diagnostic testing
Tests of vestibular system (balance) function include electronystagmography (ENG), rotation tests, Caloric reflex test,[2] and Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP).

Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic-reflex, electrocochleography (ECoG), otoacoustic emissions (OAE), and auditory brainstem response test (ABR; also known as BER, BSER, or BAER).

Other diagnostic tests include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized axial tomography (CAT, or CT).

Treatment:

Treatment is specific for underlying disorder of vertigo.
Vestibular rehabilitation
anticholinergics
antihistamines
benzodiazepines
calcium channel antagonists, Specific Verapamil and Nimodipine
GABA modulators, specifically gabapentin and baclofen
Neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors such as SSRI’s, SNRI’s and Tricyclics

Click to read : Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

Vertigo: Its Causes and Treatment

Herbal Treatment:

THE HERBS listed below can help ease impaired sense of balance often described as “light-headedness” or “dizziness,” either of which can be symptoms of serious conditions, such as heart attack or stroke.

Butcher’s broom, cayenne 40,000 Scoville heat units, ginkgo biloba, coral calcium with trace minerals, kelp.

Quik Tip: Diminished blood flow to the brain can cause dizziness and lightheadedness, making circulatory stimulants like cayenne good choices for relief.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertigo_%28medical%29    http://www.herbnews.org/vertigodone.htm

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Vertigo

Vertigo, a specific type of dizziness, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. It is the sensation of spinning or swaying while the body is stationary with respect to the earth or surroundings. With the eyes shut, there will be a sensation that the body is in movement, called subjective vertigo; if the eyes are open, the surroundings will appear to move past the field of vision, called objective vertigo.

The effects of vertigo may be slight. It can cause nausea and vomiting or, if severe, may give rise to difficulty with standing and walking.

The word “vertigo” comes from the Latin “vertere”, to turn + the suffix “-igo”, a condition = a condition of turning about.

When your whole world is spinning, it’s hard to convince yourself everything’s going to be okay. You feel weak, helpless, and scared – and it’s downright dangerous to suffer a vertigo spell in public, particularly in the midst of a crowd. It’s also extremely embarrassing, knowing other people are staring at you like you’re some sort of carnival attraction.

It might surprise you to learn that vertigo is one of the most frequent health disorders reported by adults. The National Institute of Health reports that as many as 40 percent of adults in the United States alone experience vertigo at least once during their lifetimes.

Vertigo is not a disease; it is a condition involving equilibrium or balance disorders caused by malfunctions in the inner ear or central nervous system. Common vertigo symptoms include:

Dizziness
Lightheadedness
Feeling faint
Unsteadiness

Click For more detail pictures

Causes of vertigo:

Vertigo is usually caused by problems in the nerves and structures of the inner ear, called the vestibular system. This system senses the position of your head and body in space as they move.

Vertigo can occur with the following conditions:

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) –tiny particles naturally present in the canals of the inner ear, dislodge, and move abnormally when the head is tilted, pushing ear fluid against hair-like sensors in the ear. BPPV may result from:

Head injury
Viral infection
Disorders of the inner ear
Age-related breakdown of the vestibular system
Labyrinthitisin (Vestibular Neuritis)–inflammation of the inner ear. This often follows an upper respiratory infection.
Vertigo is usually associated with a problem in the inner ear balance mechanisms (vestibular system), in the brain, or with the nerve connections between these two organs.

The most common cause of vertigo is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. Vertigo can be a symptom of an underlying harmless cause, such as in BPPV or it can suggest more serious problems. These include drug toxicities (specifically gentamicin), strokes or tumors (though these are much less common than BPPV).

Vertigo can also be brought on suddenly through various actions or incidents, such as skull fractures or brain trauma, sudden changes of blood pressure, or as a symptom of motion sickness while sailing, riding amusement rides, airplanes or in a vehicle.

Vertigo is typically classified into one of two categories depending on the location of the damaged vestibular pathway. These are peripheral or central vertigo. Each category has a distinct set of characteristics and associated findings.

There are two major types of Vertigo:

Subjective Vertigo (when the person feels that they are spinning) or Peripheral vertigo
Objective Vertigo (when the person feels that objects around them are spinning) or Central vertigo
Head movement causes electronic impulses to be transmitted to the labyrinth, a part of the inner ear consisting of three semicircular canals surrounded by fluid. The labyrinth, in turn, transmits the movement information to the vestibular nerve.

The vestibular nerve then carries the signal to the brainstem and the cerebellum which are responsible for coordinating balance, movement, blood pressure, and consciousness.

When the nerves responsible for transmitting the signals don’t transmit them correctly (or when the nerves in the brain stem or the inner ear wrongly interpret these signals), the dizziness, disequilibrium, and lightheadedness related to vertigo occur.

Peripheral vertigo
The lesions, or the damaged areas, affect the inner ear or the vestibular division of the auditory nerve or (Cranial VIII nerve). Vertigo that is peripheral in origin tends to be felt as more severe than central vertigo, intermittent in timing, always associated with nystagmus in the horizontal plane and occasionally hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing of the ears).

Peripheral vertigo can be caused by BPPV , labyrinthitis, Ménière’s disease, perilymphatic fistula or acute vestibular neuronitis. Peripheral vertigo, compared to the central type, though subjectively felt as more severe, is usually from a less serious cause.

Central vertigo
The lesions in central vertigo involve the brainstem vestibulocochlear nerve nuclei. Central vertigo is typically described as constant in timing, less severe in nature and occasionally with nystagmus that can be multi-directional. Associated symptoms include motor or sensory deficits, dysarthria (slurred speech) or ataxia.

Causes include things such as migraines, multiple sclerosis, posterior fossa tumors, and Arnold-Chiari malf formation. Less commonly, strokes (specifically posterior circulation stroke), seizures, trauma (such as concussion) or infections can cause also central vertigo.
Vertigo in context with the cervical spine:
According to chiropractors, ligamental injuries of the upper cervical spine can result in head-neck-joint instabilities which can cause vertigo.[citation needed] In this view, instabilities of the head neck joint are affected by rupture or overstretching of the alar ligaments and/or capsule structures mostly caused by whiplash or similar biomechanical movements.

Symptoms during damaged alar ligaments besides vertigo often are

dizziness
reduced vigilance, such as somnolence
seeing problems, such as seeing “stars”, tunnel views or double contures.
Some patients tell about unreal feelings that stands in correlation with:
depersonalization and attentual alterations
Medical doctors (MDs) do not endorse this explanation to vertigo due to a lack of any data to support it, from an anatomical or physiological standpoint. Often the patients are having an odyssey of medical consultations without any clear diagnosis and are then sent to psychiatrist because doctors think about depression or hypochondria. Standard imaging technologies such as CT Scan or MRI are not capable of finding instabilities without taking functional poses

Neurochemistry of vertigo
The neurochemistry of vertigo includes 6 primary neurotransmitters that have been identified between the 3-neuron arc that drives the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Many others play more minor roles.

Three neurotransmitters that work peripherally and centrally include glutamate, acetylcholine, and GABA.

Glutamate maintains the resting discharge of the central vestibular neurons, and may modulate synaptic transmission in all 3 neurons of the VOR arc. Acetylcholine appears to function as an excitatory neurotransmitter in both the peripheral and central synapses. GABA is thought to be inhibitory for the commissures of the medial vestibular nucleus, the connections between the cerebellar Purkinje cells and the lateral vestibular nucleus, and the vertical VOR.

Three other neurotransmitters work centrally. Dopamine may accelerate vestibular compensation. Norepinephrine modulates the intensity of central reactions to vestibular stimulation and facilitates compensation. Histamine is present only centrally, but its role is unclear. It is known that centrally acting antihistamines modulate the symptoms of motion sickness.

The neurochemistry of emesis overlaps with the neurochemistry of motion sickness and vertigo. Acetylcholinc, histamine, and dopamine are excitatory neurotransmitters, working centrally on the control of emesis. GABA inhibits central emesis reflexes. Serotonin is involved in central and peripheral control of emesis but has little influence on vertigo and motion sickness.

Modern Diagnostic testing
Tests of vestibular system (balance) function include electronystagmography (ENG), rotation tests, Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP), and Caloric reflex test.

Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic-reflex, electrocochleography (ECoG), otoacoustic emissions (OAE), and auditory brainstem response test (ABR; also known as BER, BSER, or BAER).

Other diagnostic tests include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized axial tomography (CAT, or CT).

Modern Treatment
Treatment is specific for underlying disorder of vertigo.

Vestibular rehabilitation
anticholinergics
antihistamines
benzodiazepines
calcium channel antagonists, specifically Verapamil and Nimodipine
GABA modulators, specifically gabapentin and baclofen
Neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors such as SSRI’s, SNRI’s and Tricyclics

Ayurvedic definition of Vertigo causes and treatment

Homeopathic vs conventional treatment of vertigo

Click for more knowledge on herbal & homeopathic remedy of vertigo

Vertigo Acupuncture

Herbal Treatment:THE HERBS listed below can help ease impaired sense of balance often described as “light-headedness” or “dizziness,” either of which can be symptoms of serious conditions, such as heart attack or stroke.

Butcher’s broom, cayenne 40,000 Scoville heat units, ginkgo biloba, coral calcium with trace minerals, kelp.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Sources:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertigo_(medical) and http://www.herbnews.org/vertigodone.htm

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Dizziness

Feeling light-headed? A bit woozy or off-balance? If you’re traveling in a car, boat, or plane, it’s probably motion sickness. But sometimes dizziness, also commonly called vertigo, becomes a lingering or recurrent problem. Regardless of the cause, natural remedies can bring relief. ………... click & see

Symptoms
Unsteadiness or faintness.
A feeling that the room is spinning or that you’re whirling in space, sometimes accompanied by ringing in the ears.
Nausea.

When to Call Your Doctor
If dizziness is accompanied by numbness, rapid heartbeat, fainting or a feeling of faintness, or blurred vision; if it affects your ability to speak.
If dizziness comes on suddenly, especially if accompanied by nausea or vomiting.
If dizzy spells increase in frequency or persist.
Reminder: If you have a medical condition, talk to your doctor before taking supplements.

What It Is
The terms “dizziness” and vertigo are often used interchangeably, but they are not synonymous. Dizziness simply refers to a feeling of unsteadiness or faintness, whereas vertigo usually involves a more serious disorientation, as if the world were spinning around you. (If you’ve ever been in a high place and felt as if you were falling, you’ve experienced vertigo.) Unfortunately, for some people, dizziness can persist and become disabling.

What Causes It
Ordinary motion sickness — the queasy, light-headed feeling that comes while traveling — is by far the most common cause of dizziness. The problem arises when the eyes, which try to focus on constantly moving scenery, and the inner ear, which helps orient the body to movement, send conflicting signals to the brain. The result is a confusing, whirling sensation, often accompanied by nausea.

How Supplements Can Help
A centuries-old remedy for delicate stomachs,ginger can act relatively quickly — even within minutes — to combat the dizziness and nausea associated with motion sickness or mild vertigo. In some tests, the herb has proved more effective — and longer lasting — than over-the-counter remedies. Moreover, ginger produces few of the side effects of conventional medications, such as drowsiness or blurred vision.

What Else You Can Do
Stop reading or staring at a computer screen if you begin to feel sick while in a moving car, train, or boat. Instead, face forward and focus on a fixed point, such as the distant scenery or the horizon, to keep your body and eyes simultaneously oriented to the movement.
Opt for the front seat when riding in a car; at sea, stay amidship; and when flying, sit above the wing, where there is the least amount of motion.
Motion sickness is best treated before symptoms start. If you are prone to it, take ginger at least two hours before your departure — and every four hours thereafter.

Supplement Recommendations
Ginger
Ginkgo Biloba
Vitamin B6


Ginger

Dosage: 100 mg standardized extract every 4 hours as needed.
Comments: Or try fresh gingerroot (1/4- to 1/2-inch slice), ginger tea (1/2 tsp. gingerroot per cup of hot water), or powdered ginger (1 gram)-all taken 3 times a day. Ginger ale (8-ounce glass 3 times a day) can be equally effective if made with real ginger.

Ginkgo Biloba
Dosage: 80 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Standardized to have at least 24% flavone glycosides.

Vitamin B6

Dosage: 50 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: 200 mg daily over long term can cause nerve damage.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose. 

Source:Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs(Reader’s Digest)

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