Tag Archives: Benign tumor

Odontoma

Definition:
Odontoma is a benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth. It may have genetic origins or may result from some sort of trauma to the tooth.
It  is a hamartoma of odontogenic origin.The average age of people found with an odontoma is 14, and the condition is frequently associated with an unerupted tooth…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

There are two types: compound and complex.

A compound odontoma still has the three separate dental tissues (enamel, dentin and cementum), but may present a lobulated appearance where there is no definitive demarcation of separate tissues between the individual “toothlets” (or denticles). It usually appears in the anterior maxilla.

 

The complex Odontoma is unrecognizable as dental tissues, usually presenting as a radioopaque area with varying densities. It usually appears in the posterior maxilla or in the mandible.

In 2011; 66% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas (University of Louisville School of Dentistry). 22% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas.

In July of 2014 in Mumbai, India, surgeons at Mumbai’s JJ Hospital removed 232 tooth-like growths from a complex odontoma growing in the lower jaw of 17 year old Ashik Gavai. This odontoma is proposed as “The World Record” to date.

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms are:Pain,Rash,Diarrea,Headache,Back pain,Constipation,Fever,Caugh,Runing nose,Vision change.

The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Odontoma includes the 6 symptoms listed below:

*Dysphagia ( Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing.There are about 194 causes of Dysphagia, including diseases and drug side effect causes.)
*Lump on gums
*Delayed tooth eruption (It is a condition in which there is a slow or late development of a tooth. There are about  60 causes of Delayed tooth eruption)
*Absent tooth
*Delayed primary tooth loss
*Increased bone size under tooth

Causes:
There are several causes of odontoma, some of them are :

*Dental conditions(Any condition that affects dental organs such as the teeth and gums. Examples of dental conditions include tooth decay, tooth infection, gingivitis, periodontitis, impacted tooth and canker sores)

*Oral conditions(Any condition affecting the mouth. Mouth conditions can affect any structure of the mouth such as teeth, gums, lips, tongue and cheeks. Conditions that can affect the mouth include candidiasis, oral cancer, stuttering, cleft palate, bad breath and gingivitis. )

*Head conditions(Any condition affecting the head. Some head conditions can be serious such as cancers and skull fractures whereas other conditions may be less threatening such as headaches and head lice)

*Benign tumors (A benign tumor is one that does not spread or “metastasize” to other parts of the body; a “malignant tumor” is one that does. A benign tumor is caused by cell overgrowth, and thus is different from a cyst or an abcess,)

Diagnosis:
Odontoma does not usually show external symptoms. These tumors are revealed when the x-rays are examined by the dentist. Although it is true that a delayed tooth or absent tooth may suggest there is a need for further examination.

The presence of an a tumor of dental origin requires further examination to determine what type of tumor it is before further action is taken. In addition, a histological diagnosis of the tissues that were extracted provides valuable information to the dentist.

No one really knows why an odontoma forms. The most likely reasons are trauma and/or infection at the site. Some dentists and researchers believe they are hereditary or they develop because of genetic mutations. One example of an inherited syndrome is known as Gardener Syndrome. It is responsible for a wide range of tumors in the body, including occasional odontoma.  When examined at the cellular level, all of the dental tissues are found, but in an abnormal combination.

Pulp, dentin, enamel and cementum may sometimes resemble a tooth like structure in a compound odontoma. These denticles are found in a surrounding supporting layer of fibrous cells. Since it is decalcified, the enamel looks like spaces around the tiny tooth structures.   Looking closer, you can see the calicified material either as a solid mass or as multiple, small tooth-like bodies visible by x-rays. Because it is easily separated from its bony location it can be distinguished from other possible tumors.

A complex odontoma has no specific sequence for all of the dental tissue. It does not resemble normal tooth structure. At the cellular level it appears as mostly tubular dentin that encloses hollow spaces. These circular spaces are decalcified but they once held enamel. On the edges there may be a thin layer of cementum which forms a capsule like tissue surrounding the mass.

Treatment :
The only real treatment of an these dental tumors is removal by surgery. An early discovery and treatment will be beneficial to the patient. It is a benign tumor made of dental tissue and it is a fairly simple extraction in most cases. A speedy recovery is generally expected.  Some complex tumors can result in complications after extraction. So it is essential to stay in contact with the dental surgeon.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odontoma

Odontoma


http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/o/odontoma/intro.

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Abcess

Definition
An abscess is an enclosed collection of liquefied tissue, known as pus, somewhere in the body. It is the result of the body’s defensive reaction to foreign material.

You may click to see the pictures

An abscess (Latin: abscessus) is a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g. splinters, bullet wounds, or injecting needles). It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to other parts of the body.

The organisms or foreign materials kill the local cells, resulting in the release of toxins. The toxins trigger an inflammatory response, which draws large numbers of white blood cells to the area and increases the regional blood flow.

The final structure of the abscess is an abscess wall, or capsule, that is formed by the adjacent healthy cells in an attempt to keep the pus from infecting neighboring structures. However, such encapsulation tends to prevent immune cells from attacking bacteria in the pus, or from reaching the causative organism or foreign object.

Abscesses must be differentiated from empyemas, which are accumulations of pus in a preexisting rather than a newly formed anatomical cavity.

Description
There are two types of abscesses, septic and sterile. Most abscesses are septic, which means that they are the result of an infection. Septic abscesses can occur anywhere in the body. Only a germ and the body’s immune response are required. In response to the invading germ, white blood cells gather at the infected site and begin producing chemicals called enzymes that attack the germ by digesting it. These enzymes act like acid, killing the germs and breaking them down into small pieces that can be picked up by the circulation and eliminated from the body. Unfortunately, these chemicals also digest body tissues. In most cases, the germ produces similar chemicals. The result is a thick, yellow liquid—pus—containing digested germs, digested tissue, white blood cells, and enzymes.

An abscess is the last stage of a tissue infection that begins with a process called inflammation. Initially, as the invading germ activates the body’s immune system, several events occur:

*Blood flow to the area increases.
*The temperature of the area increases due to the increased blood supply.
*The area swells due to the accumulation of water, blood, and other liquids.
*It turns red.
*It hurts, because of the irritation from the swelling and the chemical activity.

These four signs—heat, swelling, redness, and pain— characterize inflammation.

As the process progresses, the tissue begins to turn to liquid, and an abscess forms. It is the nature of an abscess to spread as the chemical digestion liquefies more and more tissue. Furthermore, the spreading follows the path of least resistance—the tissues most easily digested. A good example is an abscess just beneath the skin. It most easily continues along beneath the skin rather than working its way through the skin where it could drain its toxic contents. The contents of the abscess also leak into the general circulation and produce symptoms just like any other infection. These include chills, fever, aching, and general discomfort.

Sterile abscesses are sometimes a milder form of the same process caused not by germs but by non-living irritants such as drugs. If an injected drug like penicillin is not absorbed, it stays where it was injected and may cause enough irritation to generate a sterile abscess— sterile because there is no infection involved. Sterile abscesses are quite likely to turn into hard, solid lumps as they scar, rather than remaining pockets of pus.

Manifestations
The cardinal symptoms and signs of any kind of inflammatory process are redness, heat, swelling, pain and loss of function. Abscesses may occur in any kind of solid tissue but most frequently on skin surface (where they may be superficial pustules (boils) or deep skin abscesses), in the lungs, brain, teeth, kidneys and tonsils. Major complications are spreading of the abscess material to adjacent or remote tissues and extensive regional tissue death (gangrene). Abscesses in most parts of the body rarely heal themselves, so prompt medical attention is indicated at the first suspicion of an abscess.


Causes and symptoms

Many different agents cause abscesses. The most common are the pus-forming (pyogenic) bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, which is nearly always the cause of abscesses under the skin. Abscesses near the large bowel, particularly around the anus, may be caused by any of the numerous bacteria found within the large bowel. Brain abscesses and liver abscesses can be caused by any organism that can travel there through the circulation. Bacteria, amoeba, and certain fungi can travel in this fashion. Abscesses in other parts of the body are caused by organisms that normally inhabit nearby structures or that infect them. Some common causes of specific abscesses are:

*skin abscesses by normal skin flora….CLICK & SEE
*dental and throat abscesses by mouth flora....CLICK & SEE
*lung abscesses by normal airway flora, pneumonia germs, or tuberculosis ...CLICK & SEE
*abdominal and anal abscesses by normal bowel flora…..…..CLICK & SEE


Specific types of abscesses

Listed below are some of the more common and important abscesses.

*Carbuncles and other boils. Skin oil glands (sebaceous glands) on the back or the back of the neck are the ones usually infected. The most common germ involved is Staphylococcus aureus. Acne is a similar condition of sebaceous glands on the face and back.
*Pilonidal abscess. Many people have as a birth defect a tiny opening in the skin just above the anus. Fecal bacteria can enter this opening, causing an infection and subsequent abscess.

*Retropharyngeal, parapharyngeal, peritonsillar abscess. As a result of throat infections like strep throat and tonsillitis, bacteria can invade the deeper tissues of the throat and cause an abscess. These abscesses can compromise swallowing and even breathing.

*Lung abscess. During or after pneumonia, whether it’s due to bacteria [common pneumonia], tuberculosis, fungi, parasites, or other germs, abscesses can develop as a complication.

*Liver abscess. Bacteria or amoeba from the intestines can spread through the blood to the liver and cause abscesses.

*Psoas abscess. Deep in the back of the abdomen on either side of the lumbar spine lie the psoas muscles. They flex the hips. An abscess can develop in one of these muscles, usually when it spreads from the appendix, the large bowel, or the fallopian tubes.
Tooth abscess
A tooth abscess or root abscess is pus enclosed in the tissues of the jaw bone at the tip of an infected tooth. Usually the abscess originates from a bacterial infection that has accumulated in the soft pulp of the tooth. This is usually, but not always, associated with a dull, throbbing, excruciating ache.

A tooth abscess typically originates from dead pulp tissue, usually caused by untreated tooth decay, cracked teeth or extensive periodontal disease. A failed root canal treatment may also create a similar abscess.

There are two types of denta
Diagnosis:
The common findings of inflammation—heat, redness, swelling, and pain—easily identify superficial abscesses. Abscesses in other places may produce only generalized symptoms such as fever and discomfort. If the patient’s symptoms and physical examination do not help, a physician may have to resort to a battery of tests to locate the site of an abscess, but usually something in the initial evaluation directs the search. Recent or chronic disease in an organ suggests it may be the site of an abscess. Dysfunction of an organ or system—for instance, seizures or altered bowel function—may provide the clue. Pain and tenderness on physical examination are common findings. Sometimes a deep abscess will eat a small channel (sinus) to the surface and begin leaking pus. A sterile abscess may cause only a painful lump deep in the buttock where a shot was given.

Treatment

Since skin is very resistant to the spread of infection, it acts as a barrier, often keeping the toxic chemicals of an abscess from escaping the body on their own. Thus, the pus must be drained from the abscess by a physician. The surgeon determines when the abscess is ready for drainage and opens a path to the outside, allowing the pus to escape. Ordinarily, the body handles the remaining infection, sometimes with the help of antibiotics or other drugs. The surgeon may leave a drain (a piece of cloth or rubber) in the abscess cavity to prevent it from closing before all the pus has drained out.

Alternative treatment

If an abscess is directly beneath the skin, it will be slowly working its way through the skin as it is more rapidly working its way elsewhere. Since chemicals work faster at higher temperatures, applications of hot compresses to the skin over the abscess will hasten the digestion of the skin and eventually result in its breaking down, releasing the pus spontaneously. This treatment is best reserved for smaller abscesses in relatively less dangerous areas of the body—limbs, trunk, back of the neck. It is also useful for all superficial abscesses in their very early stages. It will “ripen” them.

Contrast hydrotherapy, alternating hot and cold compresses, can also help assist the body in resorption of the abscess. There are two homeopathic remedies that work to rebalance the body in relation to abscess formation, Silica and Hepar sulphuris. In cases of septic abscesses, bentonite clay packs (bentonite clay and a small amount of Hydrastis powder) can be used to draw the infection from the area.

Prognosis
Once the abscess is properly drained, the prognosis is excellent for the condition itself. The reason for the abscess (other diseases the patient has) will determine the overall outcome. If, on the other hand, the abscess ruptures into neighboring areas or permits the infectious agent to spill into the bloodstream, serious or fatal consequences are likely. Abscesses in and around the nasal sinuses, face, ears, and scalp may work their way into the brain. Abscesses within an abdominal organ such as the liver may rupture into the abdominal cavity. In either case, the result is life threatening. Blood poisoning is a term commonly used to describe an infection that has spilled into the blood stream and spread throughout the body from a localized origin. Blood poisoning, known to physicians as septicemia, is also life threatening.

Of special note, abscesses in the hand are more serious than they might appear. Due to the intricate structure and the overriding importance of the hand, any hand infection must be treated promptly and competently.

Prevention

Infections that are treated early with heat (if superficial) or antibiotics will often resolve without the formation of an abscess. It is even better to avoid infections altogether by taking prompt care of open injuries, particularly puncture wounds. Bites are the most dangerous of all, even more so because they often occur on the hand.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/abscess-1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tooth_abscess

 

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Angioma

Definition:
Angiomas are benign tumors that are made up of small blood vessels. They usually appear at or near the surface of the skin. Angiomas may appear anywhere on the body, and aren’t considered dangerous depending on their location. However, they may be present as symptoms of another more serious disorder, such as cirrhosis. When they are removed, it is generally for cosmetic reasons.

Types & Treatments:
There are many different types of angiomas. An angioma is a benign growth that consists of small blood vessels. These tumors can be located anywhere on the body. Some of the different types include spider angiomas, cherry angiomas, and angiokeratomas. The cause of most types of angiomas is not known. Cherry angiomas and are due to aging and do not have any known significance. Spider angiomas are more common in childhood and during pregnancy, and a few can appear on anyone.It is an abnormal collection of blood vessels near the surface of the skin. When present in large numbers, the may warn of liver damage. Angiokeratomas are an overgrowth of blood vessels and skin cells. They are not dangerous.

Click to see the pictures….(3).……..(2)…….(1).angioma_cherry_high-1.jpg…..angioma_spider_high.jpg……angiokeratomas.jpg

Angiomas do not need to be treated unless they bleed or are bothering one. They can be treated with electrodessication, liquid nitrogen or laser. All three types of treatment have similar amounts of discomfort and usually give a good cosmetic result. The dermatologist will recommend the most appropriate method if you desired treatment. Electrodessication consists of touching the skin with an electric needle and destroying the blood vessels, Liquid nitrogen is a cold gas that is sprayed on the skin with a spray gun or applied with a cotton swab. Laser uses a beam of concentrated light. Angiomas sometimes recur after treatment.

Herbal Remedy of Angioma

Homeopathic treatment of Angioma

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angioma
http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic_diseases/angiomas.html

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