Tag Archives: Beta-Sitosterol

Salvia plebeia

Botanical Name : Salvia plebeia R. Brown
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. plebeia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Scientific names :Salvia plebeia R. Brown ,Salvia brachiata Roxb. ,Salvia parviflora Roxb.
Common names:Mizo-kouiju (Japanese), Li zhi cao (Chin.),Sage weed (Engl.)

Habitat :Salvia plebeia is native to a wide region of Asia. It grows on hillsides, streamsides, and wet fields from sea level to 2,800 m (9,200 ft) As a weed in and about towns in various provinces at low altitudes.

Description:
Salvia plebeia is an annual, hairy herb. Stems are stout, erect, hoary, and 15 to 45 cms in height. Leaves are oblong ovate, 2.5 to 7.5 cms long, and narrowed and pointed at both ends. Spikes are panicled, often fastigiate. Flowers are hardly 6 mm long, lilac or nearly white, occurring in small, very numerous whorls in numerous, slender, panicled, glandular racemes. Calyx is stalked, bell-shaped, and 10 to 12 mm long; the upper calyx-lip is entire, and the lower one obtusely 2-toothed. Corolla-tube is very short, and the included upper lip is short, nearly straight, slightly flattened, and concave. Nutlets are very minute and ellipsoid.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
You may click to see pictures of Salvia plebeia plant :
Constituents:
* Study yielded six compounds: hispidulin-glucoronide, hispidulin-7-O-D-glucoside, 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ß-sitosterol, 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A and coniferyl aldehyde.

*Study of whole plant yielded: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin.

Edible Uses:  Flowers and leaves used as condiment.

Properties:-
*Considered astringent, diuretic, vermifuge.
*Antihepatotoxic, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, analgesic.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts used: Seeds, leaves.

Folkloric
*Seeds are used in gonorrhea and menorrhage.
*In Bombay, used to increase sexual powers.
*In China, used as anti-inflammatory and for treating urinary tract infections.

Studies :-
• Antioxidant: Study yielded six compounds. (See:Constituents) Compounds 3, 4 and 5 ( 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ?-sitosterol, 2?-hydroxy-5?-methoxybiochanin A) showed strong antioxidant activities.
Pharmacologic Activities: Study on pharmacologic activities of Compound Salvia Plebeia Granules (CSPG) long used for treating UTIs showed a dose-related diuretic effect, antipyretic, antiblastic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Results support its folkloric use on treating urinary tract infections.
• Chemical Constituents: Study on whole plant of Salvia plebeia yielded nine compounds: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin. 8 and 9 were reported for Salvia genus for the first time and 3-7 from S. plebeia for the first time.
New Phenylfutanone Glucoside: Study yielded a new phenylbutanone glucoside, salviaplebeiaside, along with two known phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside.
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of “Chhit-Chan-Than,” a Taiwan herbal remedy believed to have anti-inflammatory and detoxification activities, and used in the treatment of hepatitis. The crude extracts of the three herbal components – Salvia plebeia, O gratissimum and O basilicum – were studied. Results showed that S. plebeia was the most potent of the three crude extracts, protecting the liver against CCl4-intoxication and D-GaIN-induced hepatotoxicity.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/SageWeed.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_plebeia
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/520091/Salvia
http://www.asianflora.com/Lamiaceae/Salvia-plebeia.htm

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Buddleya asiatica

Botanical Name :Buddleya asiatica Lour
Family:Buddlejaceae

Common Name:White butterfly bush

Other name: Buddleja, buddleia,white butterfly bush, Butterfly bush, Dog tail, winter flowering lilac
Habitat :This plant is he Most attractive plant in butterfly bush family.White butterfly bush is a native to eastern asia.The plan is a perennial that can easily propagated by cutting. the most special characteristic of buddleia (sometimes call buddleja) or commonly known in western as dogtail is the heavenly fragrant white flower.It grows in thickets and recently cleared places at medium altitudes, sometimes at sea level and up to 2,000 meters.

Description:
Buddleya asiatica Lour is an erect, branched perennial shrub growing 1 to 2 meters high . Branches and lowers surfaces of the leaves are densely hairy, soft and smooth to the touch on account of the small, numerous, grayish or brownish hairs. Leaves are lanceolate, 5 to 15 cm long, pointed at the base, tapering to a sharp and pointed tip, and toothed at the margins. Flowers are white, 3.5 to 4 mm long, hairy and borne in large numbers on ample panicles which grow up to 15 cm long. Fruit is a reflexed capsule, oblong, and about as long as the flower.
..click & see the pictures..
Winter Flowering Lilac blooms in late winter and early spring and often looks like it is all flowers with no leaves at all. When the flowers are finished the shrub tends to look dead.  Unlike, the more common Buddleia davidiis, B. asiatica blooms on year old wood so we do not prune until late spring when we can see what branches will make it through the winter.

Soon new bright green leaves with felty white undersides will grow, but the shrub will remain without flowers the rest of the season
The fragrance of this Buddleia more than makes up for the short season of flowers.  While the B. davidiis do have a luscious honey aroma, it doesn’t waft through the air with the heavenly scent of Freesias like Buddleia asiatica.

Native to Asia, this warm weather butterfly bush has naturalized itself, probably spread by wind, on moist lava beds in Hawaii. Amazingly, they grow and thrive, but don’t get as tall as they would in an irrigated garden.

Constituents:
Study yielded free sugars (mannitol and sucrose), steroids (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-O-glucosdie, beta-sitosterol-O-glucoside), iridoid glucosides (methyl catalpol, catalpol, aucubin), phenylpropanoids (isoacteoside and aceoside), a triterpene saponin (mimengoside A), flavonoids (linarin and disomin).

Medicinal Uses:
Folkloric
In the Philippines, plant used to induce abotion.
Also used for various skin diseases.
Used as cure for weight loss.
In Pakistan, used as abortifacient and contraceptive.

Studies
• Buddlin: Study isolated a new compound, buddlin, from the whole plant of B asiatica.
• Asiatisides: Study yielded four new phenylpropanoid esters of rhamnose, asiatisides A-D, with the known compounds, buergeriside C1, p-methoxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and O-methylferulic acid, from the aerial parts of B asiatica.
• Antihepatotoxic: Study isolated a new natural compound, 6-O-(3″,4″-dimethoxycinnamoyl) catalpol, from the defatted alcoholic extract of the flowering parts of B asiatica. The flowering parts and roots showed substantial antihepatotoxic activity comparable to the lignan silymarin.
• Non-Phenolic Antioxidants: Study of methanol extract of leaves of B asiatica showed antioxidant activity towards well known in vitro antioxidant tests. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Malasambung.html
http://www.mountainvalleygrowers.com/budasiatica.htm
http://www.californiagardens.com/Plant_Pages/buddleia_asiatica.htm
http://flowersofmalaysia.blogspot.com/2010/04/butterfly-bush-budleia.html

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Latakasturi

Botanical Name : Abelmoscnus moschatus  Medic
Family :Malvaceae
Genus : Abelmoschus

Species : moschatus

Kingdom: Plantae

Division : Magnolophyta

Class :Magnoliopsida

order : Malvales

Common Names:
•English : Musk mallow, Ambrette seed Plant
•Hindi : Latakasturi, Maskdana
•Kannada : Kadukasturi
•Malayalam : Latakasuri Kattukasturi, Kasturiveta
•Sanskrit : Latakasturika
•Tamil : Vattrilaikkasturi, Kattukkasturi
•Telugu : Kasturibendavittu

Habitat :
This species is native to the old world tropics, globally distributed in the Paleotropics. Within India, it is found throughout Peninsular India and in Himalayan foothills. It is cultivated in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh & Bangladesh.

Description:
An erect hirsute or hispid annual herb, 60 – 180 cm in height; leaves simple, of varying shapes, usually palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes narrow-acute or oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy on both surfaces: flowers large, yellow with purple centre; fruits fulvous-hairy, capsular: seeds many, subreniform, black or grayish brown, scented.

You may click to see the pictures of  Latakasturi

Chemical Constituents:
-D-glucoside, myricetin b-Sitosterol and its b and its glucoside obtained from leaves and petals; dry fruit husk yielded only -sitosterol b

Medicinal Uses:
Used In Ayurveda, Folk and Unani for treating different diseases like the following:.
*Tastelessness
*Mouth related ailments
*Indigestion
*Loss of appetite
*Diarrhea
*Cough, cold and asthma
*Dysurea
*Gonorrhea
*Decreased sperm count
*Erectile dysfunction
*Eyes related ailments

Powder of seeds is being used in ailments related to oral cavity, digestion and diarrhea. It is also used in heart related problems, respiratory troubles and asthma. It is used in urine related problems and diseases like gonorrhea. It works as aphrodisiac agent also. Powder is also being used in eye related troubles

Lata kasturi is kapha and pitta suppressant. It helps in purification of the mouth and improves taste of the mouth. It improves digestive activities in the body. It is effective in diarrhea. It helps in heart muscles toning. Respiration system is also checked by it and helps in expelling out the extra amount of mucus in the tract. It also helps in checking out the urinary tract and its related ailments. It is widely used as aphrodisiac agents it improves sperm counts and erectile dysfunction.

According to ayurveda it contains
•Gunna (properties) – ruksh (dry), tikshan (sharp) and laghu (light)
•Rasa (taste) – tickt (bitter), katu (pungent) and madhur (sweet)
•Virya (potency) – sheet (cold)

You may click to see :
Abelmoschus moschatus (Malvaceae), an aromatic plant, suitable for medical or food uses to improve insulin sensitivity.:

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.ayushveda.com/herbs/abelmoschus-moschatus.htm
http://envis.frlht.org.in/botanical_search.php?txtbtname=&gesp=7%7CAbelmoschus+moschatus+MEDIK.
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.ishanherbotechorganic.com/herbsbybotanical.html
http://plants.jstor.org/visual/pdig00001725

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Chalta (Dillenia)

Botanical Name:Dillenia indica L. (Dilleniaceae)
Family : Dilleniaceae
Syn : Dillenia speciosa Thunb.
English name: Dillenia, Elephant Apple
Common name: Chulta, hondapara tree, elephant apple,Outenga
Sanskrit names: Bhavya, Bharija.
Vernacular names: Asm : Chalita, Qutenga; Ben: Chalta; Guj : Karambel; Hin : Chalta; Kan :Betta kanijala; Mar: Mota karmal; Mal: Chalita, Punna; Man: Heigri; Ori : Qu, Uvu; San: Korbhatta; Tam and Tel: Uva.
Trade name: Chalta.

Habitat :Sub-Himalayan tract from Garhwal to Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Central and South India; Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

Description:
Evergreen, round-headed tree, 9-42.5 m high; branchlets tomentose, bark cinnamomum-like; leaf alternate, simple, fascicled at the apices of branches, petiole 3.7 cm long, lamina 20-25 cm by 5-10 cm, oblong-Ianceolate, closely set parallel veins from midrib, upper surface glabrous, hairs present on the lower surface, especially on veins; flower terminal or leaf-opposed, solitary, white, 15 cm in diameter, sepals thick; fruit globose with accrescent calyx, 12.5-15 cm in diameter, green when young, yellowish and sweet-scented when ripe; seeds many, compressed, embedded in hairy cells.

It is a spreading tree and has beautiful white fragrant flowers, toothed leaves and globose fruits with small brown seeds. The greenish-yellow fruit, which has a thick protective covering, is edible. Unripe fruits are cooked to make pickle and chutney. The juicy pulp is aromatic but very acidic.

You may click to see the pictures

The fruit is a 5-12 cm diameter aggregate of 15 carpels, each carpel containing five seeds embedded in an edible pulp.

According to the reference literatures, botanically, Dillenia indica (Syn. D. elliptica) is an evergreen tree; Leaves oblong, acute or acuminate, margins dentate; Flowers solitary, pendent; Fruits yellowish-green with enclosed sepals; Seeds reniform, black, margin spiny.

Flowering: May-June; Fruiting: July-August. – ripens in November­December.

Uses:
The natives of many parts of Chhattisgarh prepare Shurbut from Chalta fruits. The Shurbut is consumed for its specific delicious taste. The traditional healers of many region are aware of its health benefits. They recommend this Shurbut to the patients having troubles related to respiratory system. It is also considered as promising heart tonic. As its use is limited to few natives, I personally feel that there is a need to popularise this health drink among the common natives. To prepare the Shurbut, the fruit juice is extracted. Separately, sugar is boiled in water to prepare the Chashni (Syrup). The juice is added in Chashni to prepare the Shurbut. Once prepared in bulk, it is used round the year by diluting with water.The fruit pulp is used in Indian Cuisine in curries, jam, and jellies.

The natives consume its fruit with taste and use it in preparation of different dishes. The natives of Ambikapur and Jashpur region confirmed that the Elephants are fond of its fruits. These regions have wild population of Elephants. Although Chalta is a common tree in different parts but it is a matter of surprise that the traditional healers are not much aware of its traditional medicinal uses and properties. Besides fruits, they use its leaves and bark in treatment of common diseases. According to the traditional healers of Bastar region, the bark in combination with other herbs can be used in treatment of all types of internal bleeding. The traditional healers of Narharpur region suggest the patients having the problem of Leucorrhoea to wash the vagina with the decoction of bark. The decoction is diluted with water according to the condition of the patients. The herb collectors use its leaves as styptic but as other promising alternatives are available, the leaves are used less commonly. The healers of Chhattisgarh Plains use the leaves in popular combinations used externally in form of aqueous paste, in treatment of Headache particularly Adhasisi (Migraine). In many parts of Chhattisgarh, the cattle owners use the decoction of leaves to wash the cattle in rainy days and to dress the open wounds. In reference literatures it is mentioned that the syrup of the juice of unripe fruits allays cough, assists expectoration and cures angina and stomatitis. The healers of Chhattisgarh are aware of these reported uses.

Chemical contents: Stem-bark: betulin, betulinaldehyde, betulic acid, flavonoids, dillentin, dihydroisorhamnetin, lupeol, myricetin, glucosides, B-sitosterol; Wood: betulinic acid, lupeol, β-sitosterol; Leaf: betulinic acid, cycloartenone, flavonoids, n-hentriacontanol, B­sitosterol; Fruit: an arabinogalactan, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol.

Medicinal Uses:
Traditional use: MANIPURI : Fruit decoction: for curing dandruff and checking falling of hairs; MIKIR (Assam) : Fruit: eat to combat weakness; TRIBES OFTEJPUR (Assam) : Plant: in fever; TRIBES OF TlRAP (Arunachal Pradesh) : Leaf: in dysentery; SANTAL : (i) Root: as prophylactic at the cholera season, an ingredient of a medicine for burning sensation in the chest; (ii) Stem-bark: component of medicine for sores caused by mercury poisoning, chronic progredient sores and carbuncle, and as a prophylactic at the cholera season; (iii) Mucilage: on wounds of burns; TRIBES OF ABUJH MARH RESERVE AREA (Madhya Pradesh) : Fruit: as tonic; TRIBES OF EAST GODAVARI (Andhra Pradesh) : Fleshy calyx: in stomach disorders.

YAJURVEDA : an important plant; UPAVARHANA SAMHITA : the plant is aphrodisiac and prpmotes virility; CHARAKA SAMHITA : the fruit is sweet, acidic, astringent, removes bile, phlegm, fetid and flatulence; SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : fruit cardiotonic, tasteful, astringent, acidic, removes bile, phlegm, fetid and flatulence; RAJANIGHANTU: green fruit is acidic, pungent, hot, removes wind, phlegm, but the ripe fruit is sweet, sour, appetising and beneficial in colic associated with mucous; MATSYA PURANA : decoction of this plant can be used as universal antidote for poison; AGNI PURANA : spraying water, containing stem extract, on and around the wound caused by spider bite helps in removing the poison.

AYURVEDA: (i) Root (bark extrac_: in food poisoning; (ii) Root-bark(paste): along with leaf­paste applied externally in sprains; (iii) Young bark and Leaf: astringent; (iv) Fruit-juice : mixed with sugar and water serves as a cooling beverage in fever, fit, and as a cough syrup; (v) Ripe fruit-juice: removes flatulence, increases quantity of semen, galactogogue, combats weakness, external application helps supuration of boil, and checks loss of hair.

.Modern use: Leaf (50% EtOH extract) : shows antiamphetamine activity; Seed-extract: antimicrobial; Seed-oil: antifungal, and its unsaponifiable matter antibacterial.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://botanical.com/cgi-bin/search2/search.pl
http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Dillenia%20indica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dillenia_indica
http://www.tropilab.com/elephantapple.html

http://gbpihed.gov.in/envis/HTML/vol13_1/nrai.htm

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