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Lactuca debilis

 

Botanical Name: Lactuca debilis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca/Ixeris
Class :Magnoliopsida
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Chondrilla debilis (Thunb.) Poir.
*Prenanthes debilis Thunb. ex Murray
*Youngia debilis (Thunb.) DC.

Common Names: ShaTanKuMaiCai (Chinese)

Habitat:Lactuca debilis is native to E. Asia – Japan, Korea.(Distribution: Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Fujian, Henan, Guangdong) It grows in the cultivated fields and waste ground in lowlands all over Japan.

Description:
Lactuca debilis is a perennial herb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

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Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in this country, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. We suggest growing it in a sunny position and a well-drained soil.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame in spring and only just covering the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division can be tried in spring or autumn.

Edible Uses: Young plant – cooked

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/species/id/7cf42c4435ead3c7f10126700ea8fbbf/synonym/4c5e1ce197569dd01df2de2365c372cc
http://base.sp2000.cn/colchina_e15/show_species_details.php?name_code=d42d47c8-8b3d-4898-bc07-ca1d6ac74bf4
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+debilis

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Lactuca biennis

Botanical Name: Lactuca biennis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. biennis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonymy:
*Sonchus biennis Moench 1794
*Agathyrsus floridanus D.Don
*Agathyrsus leucophaeus Beck
*Cicerbita leucophaea Wallr.
*Cicerbita spicata (Lam.) Beauverd
*Galathenium multiflorum (DC.) Nutt.
*Lactuca leucophaea A.Gray
*Lactuca spicata (Lam.) Kuntze
*Lactuca spicata Hitchc.
*Lactuca terrae-novae Fernald
*Mulgedium leucophaeum DC.
*Mulgedium spicatum (Lam.) Small
*Sonchus leucophaeus Willd.
*Sonchus spicatus Lam.

Common Names: Tall blue lettuce and Blue wood lettuce.

Habitat:Lactuca biennis is native to Eastern N. America. It is widespread across much of the United States and Canada from Alaska and Yukon south as far as California, New Mexico, and Georgia. It grows on damp thickets.

Description:
Lactuca biennis is a biennial herb in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family growing from a taproot to heights anywhere from one half to four meters (20 inches to over 13 feet). There are deeply lobed, toothed leaves all along the stem. The top of the stem bears a multibranched inflorescence with many flower heads. Each head is just over a centimeter (0.4 inches) wide and has many whitish to light blue ray florets but no disc florets. The fruit is a mottled achene about half a centimeter (0.2 inches) long with a brownish pappus.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Medicinal Uses:
The root is analgesic, antiemetic and haemostatic. A decoction has been used in the treatment of body pain, but not pain in the limbs. The decoction has also been used in the treatment of haemorrhages, heart troubles, diarrhoea and vomiting.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_biennis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+biennis

Elaeagnus multiflora ovata

Botanical Name : Elaeagnus multiflora ovata
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. multiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms : Elaeagnus longipes

Common Names : Goumi, Gumi, Natsugumi, or Cherry silverberry

Habitat : Elaeagnus multiflora ovata is native to E. Asia – China and Japan. It grows on the thickets and thin woods in hills and on lowland, at elevations of 600 – 1800 metres.

Description:
Elaeagnus multiflora ovata is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 2-8 m tall, with a trunk up to 30 cm diameter with dark brown bark.
The shoots are densely covered in minute red-brown scales. The leaves are ovate to elliptic, 3-10 cm long and 2-5 cm broad, green above, and silvery to orange-brown below with dense small scales.The flowers are solitary or in pairs in the leaf axils, fragrant, with a four-lobed pale yellowish-white corolla 1.5 cm long; flowering is in mid-spring and the seeds ripen in July.

The fruit is round to oval drupe 1 cm long, silvery-scaled orange, ripening red dotted with silver or brown, pendulous on a 2-3 cm peduncle. When ripe in mid- to late summer, the fruit is juicy and edible, with a sweet but astringent taste somewhat similar to that of rhubarb. The skin of the fruit is thin and fragile, making it difficult to transport, thus reducing its viability as a food crop.

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It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.
Cultivation :
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and in dry soils. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position but succeeds in light shade. Very drought and wind resistant. Tolerates atmospheric pollution. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, but the roots are hardy to -30°c (although top growth will be killed at this temperature). Cultivated for its edible fruit in Japan, there are some named varieties. Plants can crop in 4 years from cuttings. They bear heavily in Britain. The fruit is well hidden in the shrub and is quite difficult to harvest without damaging the plant. This sub-species produces brown fruits on long stalks, would this be any easier to harvest? This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Birds love the fruits. There is some confusion over the correct name for this species. In the on-line version of the Flora of Japan it is referred to as Elaeagnus montana ovata. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. The small flowers are deliciously scented, their aroma pervading the garden on calm days.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help[98]. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. Pleasantly acid when ripe, they are usually made into pies, preserves etc. Quite fiddly and difficult to pick without breaking the young shoots, this sub-species carries the fruit on longer stalks than the species and might therefore be easier to pick. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit is about 10mm long and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.
Medicinal Uses:

Cancer.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
Other Uses: ……Hedge; Rootstock..….Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. A hedge in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall was 3.5 metres tall in 1989[K]. Often used as a rootstock for evergreen species that are hard to grow from cuttings. It frequently sprouts from the base and can out-compete the scion.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_multiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+multiflora+ovata

Solidago gigantea

Botanical Name : Solidago gigantea
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. gigantea
Kingdom: Plantae

Synonyms : Solidago pitcheri.

Common Names : Tall goldenrod and Giant goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago gigantea is native to N. America – New Brunswick to British Columbia, south to Georgia, Texas and Utah. It grows on the low wet areas, roadsides, pond margins and the sides of streams, generally in mesic areas. It is the state flower of Kentucky and Nebraska.

Description:
Solidago gigantea is a perennial wildflower plant, growing to 1.2 m (4ft), sometimes spreading by means of underground rhizomes. They often grow in clumps, with no leaves as the base but numerous leaves on the stem. At the top, each stem produces a sizable array of many small flower heads, sometimes several hundred. Each head is yellow, containing both disc florets and ray florets.
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The central stem is light green or pale purple, terete, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. The alternate leaves are 3-5″ long and 1/3–2/3″ (8-17 mm.) across, becoming only slightly shorter while ascending the central stem. Sometimes there are leafy lateral stems that develop from the leaf axils of the central stem, but they are very short and insignificant. The alternate leaves are narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, slightly to sharply toothed along their margins, and sessile; each leaf tapers gradually towards its tip and base. The upper surfaces of the leaves are medium to dark green and glabrous, while their lower surfaces are a slightly lighter shade of green and glabrous or nearly so (sometimes there are fine hairs along the major veins below). Each leaf has 3 veins (a central vein and 2 lateral veins) that are nearly parallel to each other.

The central stem terminates in a panicle of flowerheads up to 1′ long and 1′ across. There is some variability in the shape and size of the panicle across different populations of plants. Individual branches of the panicle are light green, slightly to moderately pubescent, and recurved. There are usually some leafy bracts along the branches of the panicle; these leafy bracts are similar to the leaves, except they are smaller in size. Individual flowerheads are a little less than ¼” across, consisting of about 7-15 yellow ray florets and 5-11 yellow disk florets. At the base of each flowerhead, there are appressed floral bracts in 2-5 overlapping series; individual floral bracts are linear-lanceolate in shape. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early fall for about a month. Both ray and disk florets produce small achenes with sessile tufts of hair. The achenes are bullet-shaped, flat-topped, and finely pubescent. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous. Colonies of plants are often formed from the rhizomes.

It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. This species has become a weed in its native range, increasing freely by seed and at the root. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.
Medicinal Uses:
The leaves and blossoms are astringent, cathartic and styptic. They are a valuable remedy in the treatment of all kinds of haemorrhages. An infusion of the blossoms has been used to treat various fevers. An oil obtained from the plant (is this an essential oil?) is diuretic.
Other Uses:.…Basketry…….The stems can be made into rough basket

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidago_gigantea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+gigantea
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/wetland/plants/gt_goldenrod.htm

Gentiana crassicaulis

Botanical Name: Gentiana crassicaulis
Family: Gentianaceae
Tribes: Gentianeae
Subtribes: Gentianinae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: Gentiana crassicaulis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Habitat : Gentiana crassicaulis is native to E. Asia – W. China. It grows on damp patches in mountainous regions. Wastelands, grasslands, roadside slopes, alpine meadows, scrub, forest margins and forests at elevations of 2100 – 4500 metres
Description:
Gentiana crassicaulis is a perennial herb, growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). Roots to 30 × 2 cm. Stems ascending, stout, simple, glabrous. Basal leaves petiole 5-8 cm, membranous; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 12-20 × 4-6.5 cm, base narrowed, margin scabrous, apex acute, veins 5-7. Stem leaves 3-5 pairs, distinctly larger toward apex, sessile, spreading, and surrounding flower cluster; petiole to 3 cm, membranous, completely connate; leaf blade ovate-elliptic to ovate-triangular, 6-16 × 3-4.5(-7) cm, base obtuse to truncate, margin scabrous, apex acute to obtuse, veins 3-5. Inflorescences crowded, many-flowered terminal clusters, rarely also few-flowered axillary whorls. Flowers sessile. Calyx tube spathelike, 4-6 mm, membranous, split on 1 side, apex truncate; lobes 1-5, dentiform, 0.5-1 mm. Corolla blue-purple, base pale yellow base or sometimes white or dark green, urceolate, 2-2.2 cm; lobes ovate-triangular, 2.5-3.5 mm, margin entire, apex acute; plicae triangular, 1-1.5 mm, oblique, margin denticulate, apex acute. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube; filaments 6-8 mm; anthers narrowly ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 mm. Style 2-2.5 mm; stigma lobes oblong. Capsules sessile, ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.8-2 cm. Seeds light brown, ellipsoid, 1.2-1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Nov

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Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is easily grown in most soils and usually produces an abundance of fertile seed. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. This species is not very hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Closely related to G. tibetica. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Medicinal Uses:
The roots of gentian species contain some of the most bitter compounds known and make an excellent tonic for the whole digestive system, working especially on the stomach, liver and gall bladder. The root is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antirheumatic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic and hypotensive. The root is used internally in the treatment of arthritis, allergic inflammations, low-grade fever in chronic diseases, jaundice and hepatitis. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_crassicaulis
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200017920
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+crassicaulis