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Viburnum lentago

 

Botanical Name : Viburnum lentago
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:V. lentago
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;

Common Names: Nannyberry, Sheepberry, or Sweet viburnum

Habitat :Viburnum lentago is native to northern N. AmericaNew Brunswick to Saskatchewan, south to Virginia and Nebraska It grows on rich soils along woodland borders, edges of streams etc, it is also found on rocky hillsides etc.

Description:
Viburnum lentago is a large shrub or small tree growing upwards to 30 ft (9 m) tall with a trunk up to ~10 inches (25 cm) diameter and a short trunk, round-topped head, pendulous, flexible branches. The bark is reddish- to grayish-brown, and broken into small scales. The twigs are pale green and covered with rusty down at first, later becoming dark reddish brown, sometimes glaucous, smooth, tough, flexible, and produce an offensive odor when crushed or bruised. The winter buds are light red, covered with pale scurfy down, protected by a pair of opposing scales. Flower-bearing buds are ~3/4 in (2 cm) long, obovate, long pointed; other terminal buds are acute, ~1/3 to 1/2 in (10–15 mm) long, while lateral buds are much smaller. The bud scales enlarge with the growing shoot and often become leaf-like.

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Like all viburnums, the leaves are arranged in opposite pairs on the twigs; they are oval, ~2 – 4 in (5–10 cm) long and ~3/4 in – 2 in (2–5 cm) broad, wedge-shaped, rounded or subcordate at base, with an acuminate apex and a finely serrated margin, and a winged petiole. They open from the bud involute, bronze green and shining, hairy and downy; when full grown are bright green and shining above, pale green and marked with tiny black dots beneath. In autumn they turn a deep red, or red and orange.

The flowers are small, 5–6 mm diameter, with five whitish petals, arranged in large round terminal cymes 5–12 cm diameter; flowering is in late spring. The calyx is tubular, equally five-toothed, persistent; the corolla is equally five-lobed, imbricate in the bud, cream-white, one-quarter of an inch across; lobes acute, and slightly erose. There are five stamens, inserted on the base of the corolla, alternate with its lobes, exserted; filaments slender; anthers bright yellow, oblong, introrse, versatile, two-celled; cells opening longitudinally. The pistil has a one-celled inferior ovary, the style thick, short, light green, and the stigma broad; there is one ovule in each cell. The fruit is a small round blue-black drupe, 8–16 mm long on a reddish stem; it is thick skinned, sweet and rather juicy, and edible. The stone is oblong oval, flattened.

The roots are fibrous, wood is ill-smelling. It grows in wet soil along the borders of the forest, often found in fence corners and along roadsides. The wood is dark orange brown, heavy, hard, close-grained, with a density of 0.7303
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Massing, Screen, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c. A fast-growing but short-lived species in the wild. It readily sprouts from the roots and forms thickets, a habit that is undesirable in small gardens. The plants grow well, but do not usually fruit well in Britain. This is probably because they are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Special Features:North American native, Attracts butterflies, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring[80]. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame[200]. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame[78, 113]. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. It can also be dried for winter use. The fruit is variable in size and quality, the best being about 15mm long, pulpy, very sweet, somewhat juicy and pleasant tasting but with a thick skin and a single large seed. The fruit is said to be best after a frost but it is sometimes dry.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is antispasmodic. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat irregular menstruation and the spitting of blood. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of measles. An infusion of the leaves has been drunk, or a poultice of leaves applied, in the treatment of dysuria.

Other Uses:
Hedge; Hedge; Wood.

The plant is grown as a hedge in N. America. Wood – heavy, hard, close grained, malodorous. Of no commercial value due to the small size of the trees.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_lentago
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+lentago

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Rubus canadensis

 

Botanical Name : Rubus canadensis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rubus
Species:R. canadensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms:
*Rubus amnicola Blanch.
*Rubus argutus var. randii (L.H.Bailey) L.H.Bailey
*Rubus besseyi L.H.Bailey
*Rubus canadensis var. imus L.H.Bailey
*Rubus canadensis var. millspaughii (Britton) Blanch.
*Rubus forestalis L.H.Bailey
*Rubus illustris L.H.Bailey
*Rubus irregularis L.H.Bailey
*Rubus laetabilis L.H.Bailey
*Rubus millspaughii Britton
*Rubus orariu] Blanch.
*Rubus pergratus Blanch.
*Rubus pergratus Edees & A.Newton
*Rubus pergratus var. terrae-novae Fernald
*Rubus randii (L.H.Bailey) Rydb.
*Rubus suberectus Hook.
*Rubus villosus var. randii L.H.Bailey
*Selnorition canadensis (L.) Raf. ex B.D.Jacks.
*Rubus invisus (L.H.Bailey) L.H.Bailey
*Rubus jactus L.H.Bailey
*Rubus macdanielsii L.H.Bailey
*Rubus masseyi L.H.Bailey
*Rubus redundans L.H.Bailey
*Rubus sanfordii L.H.Bailey
*Rubus terraltanus L.H.Bailey
Common Names:American Dewberry, Smooth blackberry, Canadian blackberry, Thornless blackberry and Smooth highbush blackberr

Habitat : Rubus canadensis is native to central and eastern Canada (from Newfoundland to Ontario) and the eastern United States (New England, the Great Lakes region, and the Appalachian Mountains.It grows on thickets, woods and clearings.

Description:
Rubus canadensis is a deciduous rhizomatous shrub forms thickets up to 2 to 3 meters (7-10 feet) tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, each measuring 10 to 20 centimeters (4-8 inches) long. The inflorescence is a cluster of up to 25 flowers. The fruit is an aggregate of many small drupes, each of which contains a tiny nutlet. The plant reproduces by seed, by sprouting up from the rhizome, and by layering. The stems can grow one meter (40 inches) in height in under two months.
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It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Apomictic.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. This species is a blackberry with biennial stems, it produces a number of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit in their second year and then die. The stems are free from prickles. The plant produces apomictic flowers, these produce fruit and viable seed without fertilization, each seedling is a genetic copy of the parent. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked in pies, jams etc. Sweet, juicy and richly flavoured, it is generally preferred to most other species of blackberries. The fruit can be pressed into cakes and then dried for later use. The fruit can be up to 25mm long.
Medicinal Uses:
Astringent.
The stems and the fruit have been used in the treatment of dysentery. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of dysentery.

Other Uses:…Dye…..A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rubus+canadensis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubus_canadensis

Ginger Reduces Pain After Exercise

Ginger may reduce the pain associated with muscle injury after exercising. This could offer athletes a natural pain reliever.

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Both raw and heat-treated ginger reduced pain associated with muscle injury by about 24 percent.

According to NutraIngredients:
“The rhizome of the ginger plant (Zingiber officinale) is a rich source of antioxidants, including gingerols, shogaols, zingerones and other ketone derivatives … ginger’s pain reducing effects are biologically plausible with both in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing an effect of gingerols, shogaols, and zingerones on inflammatory compounds.”

Resources:
NutraIngredients June 3, 2010
The Journal of Pain April 23, 2010; [Epub ahead of print]

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Indian Redwood Cure for Cancer

Scientists in Bangalore have discovered that an extract from Indian redwood kills cancer cells. :-

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A substance found in the roots of Indian redwood (commonly known as Rohan), or soymida febrifuga, may help treat severe forms of blood and bone marrow cancers, researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, have found.

 

IISc biochemists, led by Sathees Raghavan, discovered that the compound — methyl angolensate — found in the roots of the Indian redwood tree (which grows in most parts of the country) was very effective in killing blood and bone marrow cancer cells in a lab experiment.

Cancers like leukaemia and lymphoma, triggered by chromosomal aberrations, are life threatening and very difficult to treat unless diagnosed very early. Moreover, the drugs that are currently in use against these tumours are toxic, and don’t spare normal cells.

The plant extract was found to be very effective and had no side effects, the IISc scientists reported recently, online, in the journal FEBS Letters.

This was first study to explore the anti-cancer properties of the compound. Used in many ayurvedic preparations, the extract is known to be effective against malaria, ulcer and inflammation of different body organs.

According to Raghavan, the study is one of the most sophisticated ones to be conducted, as the researchers have been able to pinpoint the exact mechanisms by which it seeks to kill the tumour cells.

Typically, any drug used for treating cancers does this, either by checking the runaway proliferation of cancer cells, thus helping the body’s immunity effectively counter the problem, or making tumour cells commit suicide, a process called apoptosis.

“We were surprised that methyl angolensate does both,” Raghavan told KnowHow. While they haven’t studied the inhibition of tumour cell proliferation yet, they have worked out in detail the cellular mechanisms that the compound employs to induce the suicide of the cancerous cells.

Raghavan said it was too early to talk about the effectiveness of the compound in humans. They have to conduct a number of tests to confirm the safety and effectiveness. The IISc scientists have proceeded in this direction by launching animal studies using mice.

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Pain Relief Found In Nature

The recent removal of several high profile and popular prescription pain medications of the same pharmaceutical family, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, from the buyer’s market has left many people searching for a safer alternative for powerful, fast and effective pain relief. The most recent removal was Pfizer‘s pulling of Bextra, citing serious skin reactions, sometimes fatal, and two others, Vioxx and Celebrex have been linked to heart related risks.

The dangerous side effects of this particular family of medications is definitely cause for alarm, and has many seeking alternatives that will manage their pain effectively, without the serious risks of several pharmaceutical pain killers.

While there have always been natural and homeopathic pain relief remedies, there has never really been a powerful and viable alternative for people with chronic pain related to ailments ranging from back pain, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia, to rheumatism and hundreds of other joint, muscle, and nerve related ailments.

These individuals are in need of serious pain reduction therapy on an ongoing basis, and the typical natural remedy simply cannot compare to the speed and effectiveness of prescription pain medications and narcotic drugs, which suppresses pain by targeting the central nervous system. That is, until now.

Before we get into that, let’s look at some of the more widely known natural and herbal remedies for pain relief. These include varying dosages and combinations of “Devil’s Claw”, Willow Bark, the ayurvedic compound Boswellia, Camomile, Bromelain, St. John’s Wort, Horsetail, and numerous others too abundant to mention.

As previously mentioned, these herbs and natural compounds can soothe minor pains and aches, but do not work as effectively as their man-made prescription couterparts. There is now a natural pain remedy on the market that is actually highly effective, and has worked very well for many as a natural pain relief alternative by utilizing a specific blend of several high-grade botanicals designed to aggressively manage pain throughout the day.

These people not only are enjoying the benefits of it’s natural pain relief, but also, and perhaps even more importantly, they are enjoying the peace of mind knowing that they are not seriously endangering their health in other ways simply so they can manage their pain.

No one want to be incapacitated and limited by pain, but who wants to endanger their health just to manage it and live a fulfilling life, and why should you have to? Well, now these people have a natural pain relief solution that has literally been harvested from the land, unaltered, and in it’s purest state. Now, doesn’t that sound healthy?

You may visit Strong Natural Pain Reliever for more information on the natural pain reliever mentioned in this article. And see Herbal and Natural Remedy site Herbal- for Therapeutics Effective Herbal Remedies.

Source:EzineArticles.com/?expert=Danna_Schneider