Tag Archives: Bilberry

Rubus chamaemorus

Botanical Name : Rubus chamaemorus
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rubus
Species: R. chamaemorus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names : Cloudberry , Cloud Berry, Bakeapple Berry, Ground Mulberry

Bakeapple (in Newfoundland and Labrador), Knotberry and knoutberry (in England), Aqpik or low-bush salmonberry (in Alaska – not to be confused with true salmonberry, Rubus spectabilis), and Averin or Evron (in Scotland).
Habitat : Rubus chamaemorus is native to Northern Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Germany and N. Asia. It grows in cool boggy places, often found amongst bilberries on hills and mountain sides, avoiding shade and calcareous soils.

Description:
Rubus chamaemorus is a perennial plant .It grows to 10–25 cm (4-10 inches) high. The leaves alternate between having 5 and 7 soft, handlike lobes on straight, branchless stalks. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September . After pollination, the white (sometimes reddish-tipped) flowers form raspberry-sized aggregate fruits. Encapsulating between 5 and 25 drupelets, each fruit is initially pale red, ripening into an amber color in early autumn.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is not self-fertile.

Unlike most Rubus species, the cloudberry is dioecious, and fruit production by a female plant requires pollination from a male plant.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Avoids calcareous soils in the wild and is often found in boggy soils. Considered to be a gourmet fruit, it is occasionally sold in speciality stores. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation :
Seed – requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn

Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit.
Edible Uses: Tea.………Fruit – raw or cooked. Sour but delicious, the fruit can be eaten out of hand or stewed, used in preserves, pies etc. Rich in vitamin C. The sweet fruit tastes like baked apples. Flowers – raw. The fresh or dried leaves are used as a tea substitute.

Alcoholic drinks:
In Nordic countries, traditional liqueurs such as Lakkalikööri (Finland) are made of cloudberry, having a strong taste and high sugar content. Cloudberry is used as a spice for making akvavit. In northeastern Quebec, a cloudberry liqueur known as chicoutai (aboriginal name) is made.

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the roots has been used as ‘woman’s medicine’. A decoction of the root and lower stem has been used by barren women to try and become pregnant. The root has been used in the treatment of coughs, fevers and consumption.

Other Uses:...Dye.……A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit.

Cultural references:
The cloudberry appears on the Finnish version of the 2 euro coin.  The name of the hill Beinn nan Oighreag in Breadalbane in the Scottish Highlands means “Hill of the Cloudberries” in Scots Gaelic.

The berry is called Bakeapple in Newfoundland. One explanation for the name suggests it is derived from the French term “Baie Qu’Appelle”, meaning “What is this berry called?

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubus_chamaemorus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rubus+chamaemorus
http://www.plantexplorers.com/vandusen/product_info.php/products_id/1089

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Bilberry

Botanical Name :Vaccinium myrtillus
Family: Vacciniaceae/Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Species: V. myrtillus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales
Synonyms:Whortleberry. Black Whortles. Whinberry. Trackleberry. Huckleberry. Hurts. Bleaberry. Hurtleberry. Airelle. Vaccinium Frondosum. Blueberries.
Common Names:  bilberry, European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry

Parts Used:The ripe fruit. The leaves.

Habitat: Vaccinium myrtillus  is native to   Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain, Macedonia, the Caucasus and N. Asia . It grows in heaths, moors and woods on acid soils to 1250 metres.

Description:

Vaccinium myrtillus is a deciduous Shrub. It  grows abundantly in the heathy and mountainous districts, a small branched shrub, with wiry angular branches, rarely over a foot high, bearing globular wax-like flowers and black berries, which are covered when quite ripe with a delicate grey bloom, hence its name in Scotland, ‘Blea-berry,’ from an old North Countryword, ‘blae,’ meaning livid or bluish. The name Bilberry (by some old writers ‘Bulberry’) is derived from the Danish ‘bollebar,’ meaning dark berry. There is a variety with white fruits.
The leathery leaves (in form somewhat like those of the myrtle, hence its specific name) are at first rosy, then yellowish-green, and in autumn turn red and are very ornamental. They have been utilized to adulterate tea.

click to see the pictures >…….(01)....(1)……..(2)....(3)..(4)..….…………………

Bilberries flourish best on high grounds, being therefore more abundant in the north and west than in the south and east of England: they are absent from the low-lying Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, but on the Surrey hills, where they are called ‘Hurts,’ cover the ground for miles.

The fruit is globular, with a flat top, about the size of a black currant. When eaten raw, they have a slightly acid flavour. When cooked, however, with sugar, they make an excellent preserve. Gerard tells us that ‘the people of Cheshire do eate the black whortles in creame and milke as in these southern parts we eate strawberries.’ On the Continent, they are often employed for colouring wine.

Stewed with a little sugar and lemon peel in an open tart, Bilberries make a very enjoyable dish. Before the War, immense quantities of them were imported annually from Holland, Germany and Scandinavia. They were used mainly by pastrycooks and restaurant-keepers.

Species:
Bilberries include several closely related species of the Vaccinium genus, including:

*Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry)
*Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bog bilberry, bog blueberry, bog whortleberry, bog huckleberry, northern bilberry, ground hurts)
*Vaccinium caespitosum Michx. (dwarf bilberry)
*Vaccinium deliciosum Piper (cascade bilberry)
*Vaccinium membranaceum (mountain bilberry, black mountain huckleberry, black huckleberry, twin-leaved huckleberry)
*Vaccinium ovalifolium (oval-leafed blueberry, oval-leaved bilberry, mountain blueberry, high-bush blueberry).

Edible Uses:
Owing to its rich juice, the Bilberry can be used with the least quantity of sugar in making jam: half a pound of sugar to the pound of berries is sufficient if the preserve is to be eaten soon. The minuteness of the seeds makes them more suitable for jam than currants.

Recipe for Bilberry Jam—
Put 3 lb. of clean, fresh fruit in a preserving pan with 1 1/2 lb. of sugar and about 1 cupful of water and bring to the boil. Then boil rapidly for 40 minutes. Apple juice made from windfalls and peelings, instead of the water, improves this jam. To make apple juice, cover the apples with water, stew down, and strain the juice through thick muslin. Blackberries may also be added to this mixture.

If the jam is to be kept long it must be bottled hot in screw-top jars, or, if tied down in the ordinary way, more sugar must be added.

Bilberry juice yields a clear, dark-blue or purple dye that has been much used in the dyeing of wool and the picking of berries for this purpose, as well as for food, constitutes a summer industry in the ‘Hurts’ districts. Owing to the shortage of the aniline dyestuffs formerly imported from Germany, Bilberries were eagerly bought up at high prices by dye manufacturers during the War, so that in 1917 and 1918 a large proportion of the Bilberry crop was not available for jam-making, as the dyers were scouring the country for the little blue-black berries.

Wild and cultivated harvesting:-
Bilberries are found in very acidic, nutrient-poor soils throughout the temperate and subarctic regions of the world. They are closely related to North American wild and cultivated blueberries and huckleberries in the genus Vaccinium. One characteristic of bilberries is that they produce single or paired berries on the bush instead of clusters, as the blueberry does.

The fruit is smaller than that of the blueberry but with a fuller taste. Bilberries are darker in colour, and usually appear near black with a slight shade of purple. While the blueberry’s fruit pulp is light green, the bilberry’s is red or purple, heavily staining the fingers and lips of consumers eating the raw fruit. The red juice is used by European dentists to show children how to brush their teeth correctly, as any improperly brushed areas will be heavily stained.

Bilberries are extremely difficult to grow and are thus seldom cultivated. Fruits are mostly collected from wild plants growing on publicly accessible lands, notably Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, parts of England, Alpine countries, Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine, Belarus, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland and northern parts of Turkey and Russia. Note that in Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, it is an everyman’s right to collect bilberries, irrespective of land ownership, with the exception of private gardens. Bilberries can be picked by a berry-picking rake like lingonberries, but are more susceptible to damage. Bilberries are softer and juicier than blueberries, making them difficult to transport. Because of these factors, the bilberry is only available fresh in gourmet stores, where they can cost up to 25 Euro per pound. Frozen bilberries however are available all year round in most of Europe.

In Finland, bilberries are collected from forests. They are eaten fresh or can be made in different jams, and dishes. The famous one is Mustikkapiirakka, bilberry pie

In Ireland, the fruit is known as fraughan, from the Irish fraochán, and is traditionally gathered on the last Sunday in July, known as Fraughan Sunday.

Bilberries were also collected at Lughnassadh in August, the first traditional harvest festival of the year, as celebrated by Gaelic people. The crop of bilberries was said to indicate how well the rest of the crops would fare in their harvests later in the year.

The fruits can be eaten fresh or made into jams, fools, juices or pies. In France and in Italy, they are used as a base for liqueurs and are a popular flavoring for sorbets and other desserts. In Brittany, they are often used as a flavoring for crêpes, and in the Vosges and the Massif Central bilberry tart (tarte aux myrtilles) is a traditional dessert.

Constituents:
Quinic acid is found in the leaves, and a little tannin. Triturated with water they yield a liquid which, filtered and assayed with sulphate of iron, becomes a beautiful green, first of all transparent, then giving a green precipitate.

The fruits contain sugar, etc. Bilberries contains approximately 0.5% by volume of the anthocyanosides, they also contain the vitamins B1 and C, pro-vitamin A, at least 7% by volume is composed of tannins, and assorted plant acids are also seen. The tonic effect of the anthocyanosides on the blood vessels is the beneficial to the human body.

Medicinal Uses:
Often associated with improvement of night vision, bilberries are mentioned in a popular story of World War II RAF pilots consuming bilberry jam to sharpen vision for night missions. However, a recent study by the U.S. Navy found no such effect and origins of the RAF story cannot be found.

Although the effect of bilberry on night vision is controversial, laboratory studies have provided preliminary evidence that bilberry consumption may inhibit or reverse eye disorders such as macular degeneration. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 50 patients suffering from senile cataract showed that a combination of bilberry extract and vitamin E administered for 4 months was able to stop lens opacity progress in 97% of the cataracts.

As a deep purple fruit, bilberries contain high levels of anthocyanin pigments, which have been linked experimentally to lowered risk for several diseases, such as those of the heart and cardiovascular system, eyes, diabetes and cancer.

In folk medicine, bilberry leaves were used to treat gastrointestinal ailments, applied topically, or made into infusions. Bilberries are also used as a tonic to prevent some infections and skin diseases.

•Historically, bilberry fruit was used to treat diarrhea, scurvy, and other conditions.

•Today, the fruit is used to treat diarrhea, menstrual cramps, eye problems, varicose veins, venous insufficiency (a condition in which the veins do not efficiently return blood from the legs to the heart), and other circulatory problems.

•Bilberry leaf is used for entirely different conditions, including diabetes.

The leaves can be used in the same way as those of UvaUrsi. The fruits are astringent, and are especially valuable in diarrhoea and dysentery, in the form of syrup. The ancients used them largely, and Dioscorides spoke highly of them. They are also used for discharges, and as antigalactagogues. A decoction of the leaves or bark of the root may be used as a local application to ulcers, and in ulceration of the mouth and throat.

The fruit is helpful in scurvy and urinary complaints, and when bruised with the roots and steeped in gin has diuretic properties valuable in dropsy and gravel. A tea made of the leaves is also a remedy for diabetes if taken for a prolonged period.
You may click to learn more about medical benefit of bilberries :

Other Uses …..Dye; Ink…….A green dye is obtained from the leaves and the fruit and is used to colour fabrics. A blue or black dye is obtained from the fruit. This can be used as an ink.
Known Hazards: High tannin content may cause digestive disorders – avoid prolonged use or high doses. Avoid in pregnancy. Avoid if on anticoagulant therapy (e.g. warfarin)

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_bilberry.htm
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/bilber37.html
http://www.elements4health.com/bilberry-health-benefits.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+myrtillus

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Bilberry

Bilberry fruitImage via Wikipedia

Botanical Name :Vaccinium myrtillus
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Species: V. myrtillus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms:-–Whortleberry. Black Whortles. Whinberry. Trackleberry. Huckleberry. Hurts. Bleaberry. Hurtleberry. Airelle. Vaccinium Frondosum. Blueberries.

Other names: Vaccinium myrtillus, European blueberry, huckleberry, whortleberry, burren myrtle

Parts Used:—The ripe fruit. The leaves.

Habitat:-
–Europe, including Britain, Siberia and Barbary.

Bilberry is a name given to several species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae) that bear tasty fruits. The species most often referred to is Vaccinium myrtillus L., also known as blaeberry, whortleberry, whinberry (or winberry), myrtle blueberry, fraughan, and probably other names regionally. They were called black-hearts in 19th century southern England, according to Thomas Hardy‘s 1878 novel, The Return of the Native, (pg. 311, Oxford World’s Classics edition).
Bilberry fruitThe word bilberry is also sometimes used in the common names of other species of the genus, including Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bog bilberry, bog blueberry, bog whortleberry, bog huckleberry, northern bilberry), Vaccinium caespitosum Michx. (dwarf bilberry), Vaccinium deliciosum Piper (Cascade bilberry), Vaccinium membranaceum (mountain bilberry, black mountain huckleberry, black huckleberry, twin-leaved huckleberry), and Vaccinium ovalifolium (oval-leafed blueberry, oval-leaved bilberry, mountain blueberry, high-bush blueberry).

Bilberries are found in damp, acidic soils throughout the temperate and subarctic regions of the world. They are closely related to North American wild and cultivated blueberries and huckleberries in the genus Vaccinium. The easiest way to distinguish the bilberry is that it produces single or pairs of berries on the bush instead of clusters like the blueberry. Bilberry is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species – see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Vaccinium.

Bilberries are rarely cultivated but fruits are sometimes collected from wild plants growing on publicly accessible lands, notably in Fennoscandia, Scotland, Ireland and Poland. Notice that in Fennoscandia, it is an everyman’s right to collect bilberries, irrespective of land ownership. In Ireland the fruit is known as fraughan in English, from the Irish fraochán, and is traditionally gathered on the last Sunday in July, known as Fraughan Sunday.

click to see the pictures..>..(01)....(1).…...(2)..…...(.3)..….(4)…..

Confusion between bilberries and American blueberries:
Since many people refer to “blueberries”, no matter if they mean the bilberry (European blueberry) Vaccinium myrtillus or the American blueberries, there is a lot of confusion about the two closely similar fruits. One can distinguish bilberries from their American counterpart by the following differences:
*bilberries have dark red, strongly fragrant flesh and red juice that turns blue in basic environments: blueberries have white or translucent, mildly fragrant flesh

*bilberries grow on low bushes with solitary fruits, and are found wild in heathland in the Northern Hemisphere; blueberries grow on large bushes with the fruit in bunches
bilberries are wild plants while blueberries are cultivated and widely available commercially

*cultivated blueberries often come from hybrid cultivars, developed about 100 years ago by agricultural specialists, most prominently by Elizabeth Coleman White, to meet growing consumer demand; since they are bigger, the bushes grow taller, and are easier to harvest

*bilberry fruit will stain hands, teeth and tongue deep blue or purple while eating; it was used as a dye for food and clothes: blueberries have flesh of a less intense colour, thus less staining

*when cooked as a dessert, bilberries have a much stronger, more tart flavour and a rougher texture than blueberries

Adding to the confusion is the fact there are also wild American blueberry varieties, sold in stores mainly in the USA and Canada. These are uncommon outside of Northern America. Even more confusion is due to the huckleberry name, which originates from English dialectal names ‘hurtleberry’ and ‘whortleberry’ for the bilberry.

Edible Uses:   The fruits can be eaten fresh, but are more usually made into jams, fools, juices or pies. In France they are used as a base for liqueurs and are a popular flavouring for sorbets and other desserts. In Brittany they are often used as a flavouring for crêpes, and in the Vosges and the Massif Central bilberry tart (tarte aux myrtilles) is the most traditional dessert.

Constituents:—Quinic acid is found in the leaves, and a little tannin. Triturated with water they yield a liquid which, filtered and assayed with sulphate of iron, becomes a beautiful green, first of all transparent, then giving a green precipitate. The fruits contain sugar, etc.

Mrdicinal Uses:—The leaves can be used in the same way as those of UvaUrsi. The fruits are astringent, and are especially valuable in diarrhoea and dysentery, in the form of syrup. The ancients used them largely, and Dioscorides spoke highly of them. They are also used for discharges, and as antigalactagogues. A decoction of the leaves or bark of the root may be used as a local application to ulcers, and in ulceration of the mouth and throat.

The fruit is helpful in scurvy and urinary complaints, and when bruised with the roots and steeped in gin has diuretic properties valuable in dropsy and gravel. A tea made of the leaves is also a remedy for diabetes if taken for a prolonged period.

Bilberry is often said to improve night vision, and the story is told of RAF pilots in World War II using bilberry for that purpose. A recent study by the U.S. Navy found no effect, however, and the origins of the RAF story are unclear; it does not appear to be well known in the RAF itself.. Studies have shown that bilberry can reduce or reverse effects of degenerative eye disorders such as macular degeneration. The overall therapeutic use of bilberry is still clinically unproven.

Bilberry is primarily used for eye conditions and to strengthen blood vessels. During World War II, British Royal Air Force pilots reportedly found that eating bilberry jam just before a mission improved their night vision which prompted researchers to investigate bilberry’s properties.

Bilberry is also used for glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataracts.

The anthocyanins in bilberry may strengthen the walls of blood vessels, reduce inflammation and stabilize tissues containing collagen, such as cartilage, tendons and ligaments. Grape seed contains similar substances, however, bilberry’s anthocyanins are thought to have particular benefits for the eye.

Because bilberry is thought to strengthen blood vessels, it’s sometimes taken orally for varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
It may have other beneficial effects on capillaries due to the strong antioxidant properties of its anthocyanidin flavonoids.

The leaves have historically been used to treat gastrointestinal ailments, applied topically or made into infusions. The effects claimed have not been reproduced in the laboratory, however.

Bilberries were also collected at Lughnassadh, the first traditional harvest festival of the year, as celebrated by the Gaelic people. The crop of billberries was said to indicate how well the rest of the crops would fare in their harvests later in the year.

Click to learn more about Bilberry

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources   : en.wikipedia.org

botanical.com/botanical

http://altmedicine.about.com/cs/herbsvitaminsa1/a/Bilberry.htm

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Goji Berry

Botanical Name :Lycium barbarum/Wolfberry

Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Lycium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Common Name :Chinese wolfberry, mede berry, barbary matrimony vine, bocksdorn, Duke of Argyll’s tea tree, Murali (in India), red medlar, or matrimony vine.] Unrelated to the plant’s geographic origin, the names Tibetan goji and Himalayan goji are in common use in the health food market for products from this plant.

If you are passionate about maintaining a healthy lifestyle then you are probably already aware of the current worldwide interest in the nutritional power of the Far East‘s best-kept secret – The legendary GOJI Berry!

Habitat :It is native to southeastern Europe and Asia

Description:
Wolfberry species are deciduous woody perennial plants, growing 1–3 m high. L. chinense is grown in the south of China and tends to be somewhat shorter, while L. barbarum is grown in the north, primarily in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and tends to be somewhat taller…... click & see

Now you can grow this amazing plant in your own garden for a continuous supply of this nutritional super-fruit………Click to see the picture

Fruit :These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 1–2-cm deep. The number of seeds in each berry varies widely based on cultivar and fruit size, containing anywhere between 10–60 tiny yellow seeds that are compressed with a curved embryo. The berries ripen from July to October in the northern hemisphere……..click & see

Leaves & Flowers:
Wolfberry leaves form on the shoot either in an alternating arrangement or in bundles of up to three, each having a shape that is either lanceolate (shaped like a spearhead longer than it is wide) or ovate (egg-like). Leaf dimensions are 7-cm wide by 3.5-cm broad with blunted or round tips…...click & see

The flowers grow in groups of one to three in the leaf axils. The calyx (eventually ruptured by the growing berry) consists of bell-shaped or tubular sepals forming short, triangular lobes. The corolla are lavender or light purple, 9–14 mm wide with five or six lobes shorter than the tube. The stamens are structured with filaments longer than the anthers. The anthers are longitudinally dehiscent.

In the northern hemisphere, flowering occurs from June through September and berry maturation from August to October, depending on the latitude, altitude, and climate.

Height:
72 inches
Position: Full Sun
Fruit ready to eat: April

Click to see the picture

Originally cultivated in the tranquil valleys of the Himalayan mountain range, the Goji Berry is one of nature’s best-kept secrets. Although this nutrient-rich superfood has been treasured by the Himalayan people for over 2000 years and praised for its unrivalled nutritional properties, it has remained unknown to the Western world until now.

Click to see the pictur.

How to use
Berries are sweet and tasty – eat anytime as a healthy snack .Add the berries to juices and smoothies . Use dried berries for highest nutritional benefits Brew them into a refreshing tea ,Soak dried berries in water for a tonic .Add to cereals and muesli mixes
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How to grow
As easy to grow as tomatoes! Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun Drought tolerant & self-pollinating . Plants are hardy down to -15C! High yielding plants – 1kg in their second year!
The key to a longer, healthier life just might be a single nutrient-packed berry.

A life expectancy of more than 100 years is not uncommon in some remote areas of the world. Even more interesting is the fact that these centenarians live long lives that are filled with health and vitality. Most of these people do not experience high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, many types of cancer, and the crippling pain of arthritis and degenerative diseases that we do here. Even as they age, their vision is sharp, they have energy and strength, and their minds are clear.

There is a region on the West Elbow Plateau of the Yellow River in Inner Mongolia where people have lived to be more than 120 years old. And the people of West Elbow are not the only ones to enjoy an extremely long life. In a remote region of southwestern China, in the tiny hamlet of Pinghan, which is located deep within a stand of limestone hills, the people there also experience extremely long lives. There are more than 74 centenarians and 237 residents who have reached their 90s in Pinghan and the surrounding area. That’s one of the highest concentrations of elderly people per capita in the world, according to Chen Jinchao, a surgeon who has run the Guangxi Bama Long Life Research Institute for the past 10 years.

Living longer and healthier lives is not exclusive to these two small tribal villages. A small handful of cultures where people live well into their 90s and beyond exist and are scattered across the mountains of Asia. Although the inhabitants of these areas where longevity exists and thrives might not know of the existence of the others, they all have some very important things in common: They live in isolated and sometimes inaccessible places. This isolation keeps them away from the more harmful influences of modern Western civilization. They don’t know what it means to eat processed or fast foods. Their diet consists mainly of fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains; and it is low in animal fats. Most importantly, many of these people that live long and healthy lives consume regular daily helpings of a tiny red fruit that just happens to be the world’s most powerful anti-aging food, the goji berry.

The goji berry may be the most nutritionally dense food ever discovered on the planet. Goji contains the following:

* 19 amino acids, the building blocks of protein, including all eight essential for life;
* 21 trace minerals, including germanium, an anti-cancer mineral rarely found in foods;
* more protein than whole wheat 13 percent;
* a complete spectrum of antioxidant carotenoids, including beta carotene (a better source than even carrots) and zeaxanthin (protects the eyes); goji berries are the richest source of carotenoids of all known foods;
* vitamin C at higher levels than those found in oranges by 500 percent per ounce;
* B-complex vitamins, necessary for converting food into energy;
* vitamin E, which is rarely found in fruits, only in grains and seeds;
* beta sitosterol, an anti-inflammatory agent; beta sitosterol also lowers cholesterol, and has been used to treat sexual impotence and prostate enlargement;
* essential fatty acids, which are required for the body’s production of hormones and the smooth functioning of the brain and nervous system;
* cyperone, a sesquiterpene that benefits the heart and blood pressure, alleviates menstrual discomfort and has been used in treating cervical cancer;
* solavetivone, a powerful anti-fungal and anti-bacterial compound;
* physalin, a natural compound that is active against all major types of leukemia; it has been shown to increase splenic, natural killer-cell activity in normal and tumor-bearing mice, with broad spectrum, anti-cancer effect; it has been used as a treatment for hepatitis B;
* betaine, which is used by the liver to produce choline, a compound that calms nervousness, enhances memory, promotes muscle growth and protects against fatty liver disease; Betaine also provides methyl groups in the body’s energy reactions and can help reduce levels of homocysteine, a prime risk factor in heart disease; it also protects DNA; and
* most importantly, it contains 23 bioactive polysaccharides and four unique bioactive polysaccharides called lyceum barbarum 1, lyceum barbarum 2, lyceum barbarum 3 and lyceum barbarum 4; these four unique bioactive polysaccharides are found only in the goji berry.

You may already know about vitamins, minerals and antioxidants when it comes to nutrition, but have you heard about bioactive polysaccharides, glyconutrients and glycobiology?

This new healing science is changing the way doctors view health, nutrition and longevity. Glyconutrition is the science of saccharides, or sugars, that maintain cellular communication in the body, and is extremely important for good health and longevity. In fact, four of the last eight Nobel Prizes for medicine have been awarded for work in glycobiology and cellular communication and their importance to wellness.

Gylconutrients, also known as bioactive polysaccharides, are a family of complex carbohydrates bound to proteins. They are produced by some plants as an extremely effective defense mechanism against attacks by viruses, bacteria, fungi, soil-borne parasites, cell mutations, toxic pollutants and environmental free radicals. This defense mechanism is passed on to us when we consume the plant or fruit. These glyconutrients help prevent some illnesses and promote recovery from others, including cancer, heart disease, auto-immune disease and recurring infections.

The words glyconutrients and bioactive polysaccharides are often used interchangeably. They are special sugars that help the body distinguish what belongs in it from what does not. So it is clear just how important these special sugars are when it comes to how our cells react to foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. The body does not produce these special sugars. We get them through our diet.

It has also been shown in clinical trials that bioactive polysaccharides reduce the effects of allergies and diminish symptoms of arthritis or diabetes. They also help heal skin conditions like psoriasis, and increase the body’s resistance to viruses, including those causing the common cold and the flu. They help prevent recurrent bacterial ear infections that plague children. A number of people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and other autoimmune disorders have reported improvement in their symptoms when they supplemented their diet with these simple sugars. And the “sweet” thing about these sugars is they won’t cause the body to gain weight or increase insulin levels. The opposite is true. These bioactive polysaccharides have been shown to help patients lose weight, can be taken while on a low-carbohydrate diet and have no contraindications for diabetes.
Nutritional studies tell us that foods we eat play a crucial role in aging. Scientists tell us, when it comes to longevity, our genetic potential is 120 to 140 years.

So why should we need to supplement our diets with additional bioactive polysaccharides? If the body’s natural defense mechanisms are compromised by long-term stress, a sequence of debilitating problems can occur. Note that stress is not just the cause of a bad or difficult experience. It could also be the way you handle daily life, time management issues or concerns about the way people view you. When the body is under stress, it may not be able to manufacture bioactive polysaccharides properly or fast enough.

When this happens, your body begins to shut down and won’t work properly. Faulty communication occurs when the body begins manufacturing imperfect glycoproteins, which are protective substances made from bioactive polysaccharides. Glycoproteins combine sugars and proteins, which cover cells. When these glycoproteins are compromised, disease may eventually result, especially if the body is under prolonged physical, emotional or mental stress.

Supplementing with foods and nutrients rich in bioactive polysaccharides can help prevent this potential breakdown and help the body fend off illness. Glycoproteins can act as receptor sites on cell surfaces. Receptor sites are where the cell controls what enters it. These receptor sites can become blocked by environmental toxins and other substances. For cells to benefit fully from medicinal or nutritional therapies, receptors must be unblocked. Special bioactive polysaccharides, called free glyconutrients, literally clean the cells’ receptor sites so the cell can recognize and absorb the proper substances.

Bioactive polysaccharides are an important part of the body’s cell-to-cell communication process. From the moment life begins, cells communicate with each other using the sugars, or glycoproteins, on the cell’s surface.

Bioactive polysaccharides enable cells to send and receive messages. As mentioned before, glycoproteins are created inside our cells from the bioactive polysaccharides we take into our bodies. These glycoproteins are pushed out of the center of the cell to the cell’s surface, where they stick out, creating a peach fuzz effect. Cells brush up against each other touching these glycoproteins, or peach fuzz, which is how all the most important communication in the body takes place. When a foreign invader comes in contact with the glycoproteins of immune cells, the cells recognize it as an enemy and mount an immune-cell offensive to rush in and destroy it.

As we age, our bodies begin to break down. Our immune systems become less effective, our eyesight and hearing diminish, and osteoporosis sets in. Obviously, if we can figure out how to replace the old, sick cells with new, healthy ones, we can look forward to a much healthier life. Glyconutrition research indicates that bioactive polysaccharides help slow the aging process and, in some cases, even reverses it.

How can we use glyconutrition research to extend our health and longevity? Nutritional studies tell us that foods we eat play a crucial role in aging. Scientists tell us, when it comes to longevity, our genetic potential is 120 to 140 years.

Cells communicate with each other in their own language, which is an important aspect to human health and longevity. If our cells are missing the right amount of bioactive polysaccharides for building the receptors, the receptors wonâ€t form adequately. This leads to incomplete and incorrect communication between those cells, because part of the language used by the cells is missing.

This breakdown in cellular communication leaves us more susceptible to disease. By replenishing bioactive polysaccharides, thereby improving the quality of our cell’s receptor sites, we can give our body greater resistance against disease because our cells can communicate more effectively.

Goji contains the richest source of bioactive polysaccharides in the world, including four unique polysaccharides that are more powerful than any others that have ever been found in any plant on the planet. Research strongly suggests that goji’s unique bioactive polysaccharides, again sometimes referred to as glyconutrients, work in the body by serving as directors and carriers of the instructions the cells use to communicate. These master molecules command and control many of the body’s most important biochemical defense systems and balance the body’s chemistry.

Goji also acts to cause the secretion of GH factor, or growth hormone, from the pituitary gland. This is the youth hormone and can decrease body fat, reduce wrinkles, restore hair loss, increase energy, increase sexual function, improve memory, improve sleep, elevate mood, normalize blood pressure and improve blood sugar and insulin levels.

No one has all the answers for a longer and healthier life, but it is hoped that the information herein will have a profound impact on your health and that of your patients.

Click to learn more about the plant & fruit …..(1)…….(2).

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Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://plants.thompson-morgan.com/product/

And Article by Peter Lazarnick, DC

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfberry