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Lactuca ludoviciana

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Botanical Name: Lactuca ludoviciana
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. ludoviciana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Galathenium ludovicianum (Nutt.) Nutt.
*Lactuca campestris Greene
*Sonchus ludovicianus Nutt.

Common Names: Western Wild Lettuce, Biannual lettuce(Biennials are herbaceous plants that live two years, flowering the second)

Habitat: Lactuca ludoviciana is native to Eastern N. America – Manitoba to Wisconsin and southwards. IT grows on prairies, low ground and roadsides. Usually found in calcareous soils.
Description:
Lactuca ludoviciana is an biennial herb in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family growing from a taproot a height of up to 150 cm (5 feet). The top of the stem bears a multibranched inflorescence with many flower heads. Each head contains 20-50 yellow ray florets but no disc florets. Leaves on proximal 1/2–3/4 of each stem; blades of undivided cauline leaves obovate or oblanceolate to spatulate, margins denticulate (piloso-ciliate), midribs usually piloso-setose. Heads in paniculiform arrays. Involucres 12–15+ mm. Phyllaries usually reflexed in fruit. Florets 20–50+; corollas usually yellow, sometimes bluish, usually deliquescent. Cypselae: bodies brown to blackish (usually mottled), ± flattened, elliptic, 4.5–5+ mm, beaks ± filiform, 2.5–4.5 mm, faces 1(–3)-nerved; pappi white, 5–7(–11) mm. 2n = 34.

Flowering time is Jun–Sep. Flower color is yellow.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : 

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
The plant grows well in light sandy loam. Hybridizes in the wild with L. canadensis and the two species can sometimes be difficult to separate.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.

Edible Uses: The leaves are eatet raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Most if not all members of the genus have a milky sap that contains the substance ‘lactucarium’ and can probably be used as the report below details. The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium’, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_ludoviciana
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242416716
http://www.kansasnativeplants.com/guide/plant_detail.php?plnt_id=725
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+ludoviciana

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Plumbago zeylanica

Botanical Name : Plumbago zeylanica
Family: Plumbaginaceae
Genus: Plumbago
Species: P. zeylanica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonymous.:   Plumbago zeylanica is a species of plumbago with a pantropical distribution. Carl Linnaeus described the paleotropical P. zeylanica and neotropical P. scandens as separate species, but they are currently considered synonymous.

Common Names: Ceylon leadwort, Doctorbush or Wild leadwort
Vernacular Name:
Hindi……..Cheeta, Telugu……Chitramulamu, English……..Leadwort, Bengali…….Chita, Marathi……Chitramul, Gujrati……Chitro, Tamil……Chittiri,Chittira, Arabian…..Sheetaraj, Farsi…..Sheetar

Sanskrit Synonyms: Anala, Dahana, Pithi, Vahnisajnaka, Agni, Agnika, Jyothi, Nirdahana, Vahni, Sikhi, Vyala, Hutasana……..all these synonyms names suggest towards fire. As because it helps the digestion strength. While collecting the herb, usually the palms get burning sensation due to hotness of this herb.

Habitat : Plumbago zeylanica is native to India. Now it is cultivated in several places in the world.

Description:
Plumbago zeylanica is a herbaceous plant with glabrous stems that are climbing, prostrate, or erect. The leaves are petiolate or sessile and have ovate, lance-elliptic, or spatulate to oblanceolate blades that measure 5-9 × 2.5–4 cm in length. Bases are attenuate while apexes are acute, acuminate, or obtuse. Inflorescences are 3–15 cm in length and have glandular, viscid rachises. Bracts are lanceolate and 3-7 × 1–2 mm long. The heterostylous flowers have white corollas 17–33 mm in diameter and tubes 12.5–28 mm in length. Capsules are 7.5–8 mm long and contain are reddish brown to dark brown seeds……...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Cultivation:  Plumbago requires full sunlight to partial shade with warm temperatures. This plant thrives in well drained with slightly acidic soil. The plants require frequent fertilizers and after flowering the plants should be cut back to let them grow vigorously. It is cultivated extensively in throughout the India.
Main Chemical Constituents: Chitranone, Plumbagin, 3-Chloroplumbagin, droserone, Elliptinone, Zeylanone and Zeylinone, Maritone,
Plumbagicacid, Dihydrosterone, B-Sitosterol etc. etc.

Medicinal Uses:
Ceylon leadwort root is acrid and stimulates sweating. In Nigeria, the leaves are used in soup as a remedy against intestinal worms and fever. In Ghana the root is administered as an enema to treat piles. In the Ivory coast and Upper Volta, the root is used to treat leprosy. In Nepal, a decoction of the root is used to treat baldness. In Indian herbal medicine, the leaves and root are used to treat infections and digestive problems such as dysentery. The root is used as a vesicant, appetizer, used in skin diseases, diarrhea, dyspepsia, piles and anasarca. A paste of the root made in vinegar, milk or salt and water is an external application in leprosy and other skin ailments. It is also used in influenza and black-water fever. The root bark used as a tincture is a sudorific and antiperiodic. The milky juice of the plant is used in scabies and ulcers. The plumbago root is an emmenagogue and is used to procure abortion by a piece of the root being introduced to Cervex Uteri. Externally, a paste of the leaves and root is applied to painful rheumatic areas or to chronic and itchy skin problems. The paste acts as a counterirritant. By raising blisters and increasing circulation, it speeds the clearing of toxins from the affected area. It is stimulant and strengthens the stomach and aids its action. It increases digestive powders and stimulate appetite

Other Uses:
Plant extracts have shown potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti while showing no toxicity to fish.

Hexane extracts of Plumbago zeylanica have shown activity against canine distemper virus.

Hexane extract of plumbago zeylanicaPlumbagin shows Antimicrobial activity.

Methanol extract of plumbago zeylanicaPositive inotropic activity.

Enzymatic spectrum of herbal Plants Plumbago Linn.

Bioactive spectra of Plumbagin.

methanol extract of plumbago zeylanica shows effect on root- knot nematode Meloidogyne spp

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbago_zeylanica

Chitrak – Plumbago zeylanica – Benefits, Usage, Dose, Side Effects


http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.spicesmedicinalherbs.com/plumbago-zeylanica.html

Euonymus americanus

Botanical Name : Euonymus americanus
Family: Celastraceae
Genus: Euonymus
Species: E. americanus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Celastrales

Common Names: Strawberry bush, American strawberry bush,700 Series, Bursting-heart, and hearts-bustin’-with-love
Habitat : Euonymus americanus is native to the eastern United States, its distribution extending as far west as Texas. It has also been recorded in Ontario. It grows in the Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge.

Description:
Euonymus americanus is a deciduous Shrub growing up to 2 meters tall. The oppositely arranged leaves are leathery or papery in texture and measure up to 10 centimeters long. Flowers are borne in the leaf axils on peduncles up to 2.2 centimeters long. The yellow-green sepals are 1 or 2 centimeters long and the greenish or reddish petals above are smaller. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The fruit capsule is about 1.5 centimeters wide with a red warty or spiny covering. The capsule splits into five sections, revealing seeds covered in bright red arils.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Thrives in almost any soil, including chalk, it is particularly suited to dry shaded areas. Prefers a well-drained loamy soil. Requires shade from the midday sun.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 8 – 12 weeks warm followed by 8 – 16 weeks cold stratification and can then be sown in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8cm long taken at a node or with a heel, July/August in a frame. Very easy

Medicinal Uses:
Cathartic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Expectorant; Laxative; Tonic.

The seed is strongly laxative. A tea made from the roots is used in cases of uterine prolapse, vomiting of blood, painful urination and stomach aches. The bark is diuretic, expectorant, laxative and tonic. It was used as a tea in the treatment of malaria, liver congestion, constipation etc. The powdered bark, applied to the scalp, was believed to eliminate dandruff. An infusion of the plant has been used to stimulate menstruation and so should not be used by pregnant women.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euonymus_americanus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Euonymus+americanus

Senecio erucifolius

Botanical Name : Senecio erucifolius
Family:Asteraceae or Compositae
Tribe: Senecioneae
Genus: Jacobaea
Species: J. erucifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Syn: Jacobaea erucifolia

Common Names: Hoary Groundsel, Hoary ragwort

Habitat: Senecio erucifolius occurs in Central and southern Europe, including Britain, north to Denmark and Lithuania, east to W. Asia. It grows in dry banks, field borders, grassy slopes and roadsides, in limestone and chalky districts and especially on heavy soils.
Description:
Senecio erucifolius is a perennial herb, growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).Medium to tall, grey downy plant, with a shortly creeping stock bearing terminal leaf rosettes. Stems erect, branched above the middle. Leaves pinnately lobed, the lower stalked and usually present at flowering time. Upper leaves with narrower lobes; all leaves with somewhat down rolled margins and woolly, especially beneath. Flowerheads bright yellow 12 to 15 mm with 12 to 15 rays, borne in a narrow flat topped cluster.It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on the cultivation needs of this plant but, judging by its native habitats, it is likely to require a sunny position and to succeed in most moderate to heavy soils, including those of an alkaline nature.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. Division in spring
Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antiscorbutic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Poultice; Purgative.

The plant is used in plasters, ointments and poultices. This species is related to groundsel, S. vulgaris, and is said to have similar properties. These are:- The whole herb is anthelmintic, antiscorbutic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue and purgative. It is often used as a poultice and is said to be useful in treating sickness of the stomach, whilst a weak infusion is used as a simple and easy purgative. The plant can be harvested in May and dried for later use, or the fresh juice can be extracted and used as required. Use with caution, see notes above on toxicity.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous to many mammals, including humans. The toxin affects the liver and has a cumulative affect. Some mammals, such as rabbits, do not seem to be harmed by the plant, and will often seek it out. Various birds also eat the leaves and seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobaea_erucifolia
http://www.naturespot.org.uk/species/hoary-ragwort
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+erucifolius

 

Echium vulgare

Botanical Name: Echium vulgare
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Echium
Species: E. vulgare
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Boraginales

Synonym: Blueweed.

Common Names : Viper’s Bugloss or Blueweed, Common viper’s bugloss

Habitat: Echium vulgare is native to southern and western Europe and Western Asia. It has been introduced to North America and is naturalised in parts of the continent, being listed as an invasive species in Washington. It grows in calcareous and light dry soils, especially on cliffs near the sea is also found on walls, old quarries and gravel pits.
Description:
Echium vulgare is a biennial or monocarpic perennial plant growing to 30–80 cm (12–31 in) tall, with rough, hairy, lanceolate leaves. The flowers start pink and turn vivid blue and are 15–20 mm (0.59–0.79 in) in a branched spike, with all the stamens protruding. The pollen is blue but the filaments of the stamens remain red, contrasting against the blue flowers. It flo wers between May and September. It is found in dry, bare and waste places…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation: Succeeds in any good garden soil but flowers best when the soil is not too rich. Requires a sunny position. The plant is very deep rooted. A good bee plant.

Propagation: : Seed sow February-May or August-November in situ. Germination usually takes place within 2 – 3 weeks at 15°c. If the seed is in short supply then it can be sown in pots in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Edible Uses: Young leaves – raw or cooked. They can be used as a spinach substitute. Mild and mucilaginous. Although somewhat hairy, when chopped up finely they are an acceptable part of a mixed salad. Eating the leaves is said to stimulate sexual desire. Use with caution, there is an unconfirmed report of toxicity.

Part Used in medicine: The whole Herb.

Medicinal Uses:
Antitussive; Aphrodisiac; Demulcent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emollient; Pectoral; Vulnerary.

Viper’s bugloss was once considered to be a preventative and remedy for viper bites. It is related to borage, Borago officinalis, and has many similar actions, especially in its sweat-inducing and diuretic effects. In recent times, however, it has fallen out of use, partly due to lack of interest in its medicinal potential and partly to its content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are toxic in isolation. The leaves and flowering stems are antitussive, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral and vulnerary. An infusion of the plant is taken internally as a diuretic and in the treatment of fevers, headaches, chest conditions etc. The juice of the plant is an effective emollient for reddened and delicate skins, it is used as a poultice or plaster to treat boils and carbuncles. The leaves are harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use. The roots contain the healing agent allantoin. The plant is said to be efficacious in the treatment of snake bites. When chopped up finely, the fresh flowering heads can be made into a poultice for treating whitlows and boils.
Known Hazards: The leaves are poisonous. No cases of poisoning have ever been recorded for this plant. The bristly hairs on the leaves and stems can cause severe dermatitis.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echium_vulgare
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/bugvip85.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Echium+vulgare