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Microcephaly

Definition:
Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare  neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head is more than two standard deviations smaller than average for the person’s age and sex. Microcephaly may be congenital or it may develop in the first few years of life. The disorder may stem from a wide variety of conditions that cause abnormal growth of the brain, or from syndromes associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Two copies of a loss-of-function mutation in one of the microcephalin genes causes primary microcephaly.

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Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.

Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there’s no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention may help enhance your child’s development and improve quality of life.

Symptoms:
The primary sign of microcephaly is:

*A head size significantly smaller than that of other children of the same age and sex.

Head size is measured as the distance around the top of the child’s head (circumference). Using standardized growth charts, the measurement is compared with other children’s measurements in percentiles. Some children just have small heads, which may measure in the third, second or even first percentiles. In children with microcephaly, head size measures significantly below the first percentile.

These characteristics may accompany severe microcephaly:

*Backward sloping forehead
*Large ears
*Visual impairment


Depending on the severity of the accompanying syndrome, children with microcephaly may have:

*mental retardation,
*delayed motor functions and speech,
*facial distortions,
*dwarfism or short stature,
*hyperactivity,
*seizures,
*difficulties with coordination and balance, and
*other brain or neurological abnormalities.

Some children with microcephaly will have normal intelligence and a head that will grow bigger, but they will track below the normal growth curves for head circumference.


Causes:

It is most often caused by genetic abnormalities that interfere with the growth of the cerebral cortex during the early months of fetal development. It is associated with Down’s syndrome, chromosomal syndromes, and neurometabolic syndromes. :

Babies born with microcephaly will have a smaller than normal head that will fail to grow as they progress through infancy.

Microcephaly usually is the result of abnormal brain development, which can occur in the womb (congenital) or in infancy. Microcephaly may be genetic. Other causes may include:

*Craniosynostosis.
The premature fusing of the joints (sutures) between the bony plates that form an infant’s skull keeps the brain from growing. Treating craniosynostosis usually means your infant needs surgery to separate the fused bones. If there’s no underlying brain abnormality, the surgery allows the brain adequate space to grow and develop.

*Chromosomal abnormalities.
Down syndrome and other conditions may result in microcephaly.

*Decreased oxygen to the fetal brain (cerebral anoxia).
Certain complications of pregnancy or delivery can impair oxygen delivery to the fetal brain.

*Infections of the fetus during pregnancy. These include toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, German measles (rubella) and chickenpox (varicella).

*Exposure to drugs, alcohol or certain toxic chemicals in the womb.
Any of these put your baby at risk of brain abnormalities.

*Severe malnutrition
. Not getting adequate nutrition during pregnancy can affect your baby’s development.

*Uncontrolled phenylketonuria (fen-ul-kee-toe-NU-ree-uh), also known as PKU, in the mother. PKU is a birth defect that hampers the body’s ability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine.

Complecations & Risk Factoirs:

Some children with microcephaly will be of normal intelligence and development, even though their heads will always be small for their age and sex. But depending on the cause and severity of the microcephaly, complications may include:

*Developmental delays, such as in speech and movement
*Difficulties with coordination and balance
*Dwarfism or short stature
*Facial distortions
*Hyperactivity
*Mental retardation
*Seizures

In general, life expectancy for individuals with microcephaly is reduced and the prognosis for normal brain function is poor. The prognosis varies depending on the presence of associated abnormalities.

Diagnosis:
To determine whether your child has microcephaly, your doctor likely will take a thorough prenatal, birth and family history and do a physical exam. He or she will measure the circumference of your child’s head, compare it with a growth chart, and remeasure and plot the growth at subsequent visits. Parents’ head sizes also may be measured to determine whether small heads run in the family.

In some cases, particularly if your child’s development is delayed, your doctor may request tests such as a head CT or MRI and blood tests to help determine the underlying cause of the delay.

Treatment :

Generally, there’s no treatment that will enlarge your child’s head or reverse complications of microcephaly.  Early childhood intervention programs that include speech, physical and occupational therapy may help your child strengthen abilities.

Treatment focuses on ways to decrease the impact of the associated deformities and neurological disabilities. Children with microcephaly and developmental delays are usually evaluated by a pediatric neurologist and followed by a medical management team. Early childhood intervention programs that involve physical, speech, and occupational therapists help to maximize abilities and minimize dysfunction. Medications are often used to control seizures, hyperactivity, and neuromuscular symptoms. Genetic counseling may help families understand the risk for microcephaly in subsequent pregnancies.

Certain complications of microcephaly, such as seizures or hyperactivity, may be treated with medication.

Prognosis:

Some children will only have mild disability. Others, especially if they are otherwise growing and developing normally, will have normal intelligence and continue to develop and meet regular age-appropriate milestones.

When you learn your child has microcephaly, you may experience a range of emotions, including anger, fear, worry, sorrow and guilt. You may not know what to expect, and you may worry about your child’s future. The best antidote for fear and worry is information and support. Prepare yourself:

*Find a team of trusted professionals. You’ll need to make important decisions about your child’s education and treatment. Seek a team of doctors, teachers and therapists you trust. These professionals can help evaluate the resources in your area and help explain state and federal programs for children with disabilities.

*Seek out other families who are dealing with the same issues. Your community may have support groups for parents of children with developmental disabilities. You may also find Internet support groups.

Prevention:
Learning your child has microcephaly may raise questions about future pregnancies. Work with your doctor to determine the cause of the microcephaly. If the cause is genetic, you and your spouse may want to talk to a genetic counselor about risks for future pregnancies.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.medicinenet.com/microcephaly/page2.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/microcephaly/DS01169
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcephaly

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Hyperhidrosis Or Excessive Sweating

Hyperhidrosis – Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition in which a person sweats excessively and unpredictably. People with hyperhidrosis can sweat even when the temperature is cool, and when they are at rest.Hyperhidrosis affects millions of people around the world  nearly 3% of the population, according to some studies.In simple terms, hyperhidrosis is a medical disorder characterized by excessive sweating. This kind of excessive sweating typically occurs either on your palms (palmar hyperhidrosis), in your underarms (axillary hyperhidrosis), on your face (facial hyperhidrosis), or in your feet (plantar hyperhidrosis).
Hyperhidrosis is a physical condition caused by excessive sweating in the body. Hyperhidrosis is caused due to malfunctioning of the sympathetic nervous system or disorders of the sweat glands. Curesweatyplams provides the best excessive perspiration treatment.

Click to see the picture

Sweat Gland – a simple tubular gland of the skin that excretes perspiration, is widely distributed in nearly all parts of the human skin, and consists typically of an epithelial tube extending spirally from a minute pore on the surface of the skin into the dermis or subcutaneous tissues where it ends in a convoluted tuft.

Causes:

Though we in our ignorance often loosely use the term sweat problem for a lot of people who display the symptoms described above, they may actually be suffering from hyperhidrosis, which is a serious medical condition, and which requires proper diagnosis and treatment. Though excessive sweating causes are many the primary causes are still unknown but the secondary causes range from anxiety, obesity and psychological tension. Hyperhidrosis symptoms can be dripping sweat, odor along with sweat, stained clothes due to sweat and inferiority complex due to sweat

Under ordinary conditions, the hypothalamus, which is the part of the brain that regulates sweat-related functions, sends sensory signals to the sweat nerves. These nerves — part of the sympathetic nervous system located in the chest cavity — in turn send the signals to the sweat glands, causing the latter to produce sweat. As a result of hyperhidrosis, the sweat glands disobey these signals, as it were, and produce substantial volumes of sweat that then seek outlets on your underarms, face, palms and feet.

Types Of Hyperhidrosis:

Hyperhidrosis can either be generalized or localized to specific parts of the body. Hands, feet, armpits, and the groin area are among the most active regions of perspiration due to the relatively high concentration of sweat glands. When excessive sweating is localized (e.g. palms, soles, face, underarms, scalp) it is referred to as primary or focal hyperhidrosis. Generalized or secondary hyperhidrosis usually involves the body as a whole and is the result of an underlying condition.

Hyperhidrosis can also be classified depending by onset, either congenital or acquired. Focal hyperhidrosis is found to start during adolescence or even before and seems to be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. Primary or focal hyperhidrosis must be distinguished from secondary hyperhidrosis, which can start at any point in life. The latter form may be due to a disorder of the thyroid or pituitary glands, diabetes mellitus, tumors, gout, menopause, certain drugs, or mercury poisoning.

Hyperhidrosis may also be divided into palmoplantar (symptomatic sweating of primarily the hands or feet), gustatory hyperhidrosis, generalized and focal hyperhidrosis.

Alternatively, hyperhidrosis may be classified according to the amount of skin affected and its possible causes. In this approach, excessive sweating in an area greater than 100 cm2 (16 in2) (up to generalized sweating of the entire body) is differentiated from sweating that affects only a small area .

Broadly, hyperhidrosis can be categorized into two types: primary and secondary. There are four major areas of the body that are typically more susceptible to primary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating induced by natural causes) than others .

Primary hyperhidrosis

When your excessive sweating is not caused by any other medical condition, or is not a side effect of any drugs that you may be under, you are suffering from primary hyperhidrosis. You may also find that the condition is described as focal hyperhidrosis. In such cases, the excessive sweating occurs on specific (or focal) parts of the body, the most affected areas being the hands, feet, underarms, and face.

Research has shown that the first signs of primary hyperhidrosis are often detected in childhood or early adolescence. Plenty of sufferers tend to sweat less excessively when at rest or asleep, though that is not always the case. There is also a theory that the sweat problem is hereditary, though there has been no conclusive research on this. Areas of the body most vulnerable to primary hyperhidrosis are :your face, underarm, hands and feet.
Secondary Hyperhidrosis

This type of excessive sweating (also called generalized hyperhidrosis) is caused by a usually unrelated medical condition (e.g. menopause), or is a side effect of a particular drug. In other words, it is everything that primary hyperhidrosis is not. There are two other significant differences: people suffering from secondary hyperhidrosis typically experience sweating on generalized  or larger parts of the body, and they usually experience the excessive sweating even while at rest.

When there is excessive sweating under the arms it is called axillary hyperhidrosis (click & see)  sometimes some people have excessieve sewating on the face then it is called facial hyperhidrosis   (click & see)  and excessieve sweating on the feet is called plantar hyperhidrosis.(click & see)

Treatments:

Given the profound social and professional embarrassment that excessive sweating can cause, there have been several different approaches to the treatment of hyperhidrosis. These include herbal remedies, chemical lotions, oral medication and over-the-counter antiperspirants. However, none of these have cured hyperhidrosis .

Since a couple of decades ago, an extremely delicate form of invasive endoscopic surgery has been performed on patients to restrict the flow of neural transmissions to the sweat glands. Though many patients have reported an alleviation of the problem of excessive sweating, the surgical approach is beset by the appearance of certain side effects that can assume potentially dangerous consequences.

Yet another method of treatment is iontophoresis, a procedure that involves the administering of mild electrical currents to the affected areas to thicken the outer layer of the skin, thus blocking the flow of sweat to the skin’s surface. However, this method is absolutely out of the question for a large group of sufferers, which may include pregnant women, and cardiac and epileptic patients.

Another very recent development involves the use of Botox to treat hyperhidrosis. As of now, however, Botox has received FDA approval only for use in the treatment of underarm or axillary hyperhidrosis. Additionally, the relatively high cost of treatment and the fact that a top-up dose needs to be administered every 6-10 months means that not everyone has access to this treatment.

Some effective home remedies:
1.Saga Tea: For excessive sweating infuse one teaspoon of dried saga in a cup of boiling water for 15 minutes, strain and drink the tea 2-4 times a day.
2.Zinc: Take 30 to 50 mg. of zinc perday.
3. Tea bags: For sweaty hands or feet , boil 5 regular tea bags in a quart of water for 5 minutes, let it cool and soak hands or feet for 20 to 30 minutes at night before bed.
4. Always try to avoid more sugar, alcohol, and hot spicy food.
5.Drink plenty of pure water(6 to 8 glass a day) and this is essential.

 

Click to learn more about Hyperhidrosis

You may click to learn more

Regular Yoga Exercise with PRANAYAMA  under the guideline of  expert  cures the problem totally….click & see

Click & see :   The Many Health Benefits of Sweating

partly extracted from:http://www.hyperhidrosisweb.com/excessive-sweating.html

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