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Ferula sumbul

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Botanical Name: Ferula sumbul

Family: Apiaceae
Genus:
Ferula
Kingdom
Plantae
Order:
 Apiales

Synonyms: Euryangium Musk Root. Jatamansi. Ouchi. Ofnokgi. Sumbul Radix. Racine de Sumbul. Sumbulwurzel. Moschuswurzel, Ferula suaveolens

Common Names: Sumbul

Parts Used:  Root and rhizome.
Habitat: sumbul is native to the Mediterranean region east to central Asia, mostly growing in arid climates.Turkestan, Russia, Northern India.

Description:
Ferula sumbul is a herbaceous perennial plant It reaches a height of 8 feet, and has a solid, cylindrical, slender stem which gives rise to about twelve branches. The root-leaves are 2 1/2 feet long, triangular in outline, while the stem-leaves rapidly decrease in size until they are mere sheathing bracts. The pieces of root, as met with in commerce, are from 1 to 3 inches in diameter and 3/4 to 1 inch in thickness. They are covered on the outside with a duskybrown, papery, transversely-wrinkled cork, sometimes fibrous; within they are spongy, coarsely fibrous, dry, and dirty yellowishbrown, with white patches and spots of resin. The odour is strong and musk-like, the taste bitter and aromatic….: CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Sumbul – a Persian and Arabic word applied to various roots – was discovered in 1869 by the Russian Fedschenko, in the mountains south-east of Samarkand near the small town of Pentschakend on the River Zarafshan, at an elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. A root was sent to the Moscow Botanical Gardens, and in 1872 two were sent from there to Kew, one arriving alive. In 1875 the plant died after flowering. The genus Euryangium (i.e. ‘broad reservoir’) was based by Kauffmann on the large, solitarv dorsal vittae, or oil tubes, which are filled with a quantity of latex – the moisture surounding the stigma – which pours out freely when a section is made, smelling strongly of musk, especially if treated with water, but they almost disappear in ripening, making the plant difficult to classify.

The root has long been used in Persia and India medicinally and as incense in religious ceremonies.

The physicians of Moscow and Petrograd were the first to employ it on the Continent of Europe, and Granville first introduced it to Great Britain and the United States.

The root of Ferula suaveolens, having only a faint, musky odour, is one of the species exported from Persia to Bombay by the Persian Gulf. It is the Sambul Root of commerce which differs from the original drug, being apparently derived from a different species of Ferula than that officially given.

The recognized source in the United States Pharmacopceia is F. Sumbul (Hooker Fil.). False Sumbul is the root of Dorema Ammoniacum; it is of closer texture, denser, and more firm, of a red or yellow tinge and feeble odour.

Constituents :   Volatile oil, two balsamic resins, one soluble in alcohol and one in ether; wax, gum, starch, a bitter substance soluble in water and alcohol, a little angelic and valeric acid. The odour seems to be connected with the balsamic resins. The volatile oil has a bitter taste like peppermint, and on dry distillation yields a bluish oil containing umbelliferone. A 1916 analysis shows moisture, starch, pentrosans, crude fibre, protein, dextrin, ash, sucrose, reducing sugar, volatile oil and resins. Alkaioids were not detected. The volatile oil did not show the presence of sulphur. Both betaine and umbelliferon were detected. In the resin, vanillic acid was identified and a phytosterol was present. Among the volatile acids were acetic, butyric, angelic and tiglic acid, and among the nonvolatile oleic, linoleic, tiglic, cerotic, palmitic and stearic.

Medicinal Uses:    Stimulant and antispasmodic, resembling valerian in its action, and used in various hysterical conditions. It is believed to have a specific action on the pelvic organs, and is widely employed in dysmenorrhoea and allied female disorders. It is also a stimulant to mucous membranes, not only in chronic dysenteries and diarrhoeas, but in chronic bronchitis, especially with asthmatic tendency, and even in pneumonia.

A very effective nerve stimulant and tonic.  The medicinal action resembles that of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and the plant is used in the treatment of various hysterical conditions.  It is also believed to have a specific action on the pelvic organs and is used in treating dysmenorrhea and a wide range of other feminine disorders. The root is also a stimulant to mucous membranes and is used in treating chronic dysenteries, diarrhea, bronchitis and even pneumonia.

Half an ounce of a tincture produced narcotic symptoms, confusing the head, causing a tendency to snore even when awake, and giving feelings of tingling, etc., with a strong odour of the drug from breath and skin which only passed off after a day or two.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sumbul98.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

 

 

 

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Alepidea amatymbica

Botanical Name :Alepidea amatymbica
Family: Apiaceae
Subfamily: Saniculoideae
Genus: Alepidea
Species: Alepidea amatymbica
Order: Apiales

Common Name:  larger tinsel flower (Eng.); kalmoes (Afr.); Iqwili (Xhosa); ikhathazo (Zulu)
Vernacular names:Kalmoes (A); ikhathazo (Z); lesooko (S), iqwili (Xh)

Habitat :Alepidea amatymbica  occurs mainly in southern Africa are found as far north as Ethiopia.

Description:
Alepidea amatymbica is an erect robust perennial herb to 2m in height with hollow grooved stems and a rhizomatous rootstock; leaves mostly basal on petioles up to 200mm long, with a few stalkless clasping stem leaves;The margins of the leaves are prominently toothed, each tooth ending in a bristle. The inflorescence is widely branched, with a number of small, star-shaped, white flowers, ± 250 mm in diameter.glossy green on upper surface with prominent venation on lower surface; lamina lanceolate to cordate; 300 – 100 × 20 – 75mm, with dentate margin, each tooth terminating in a long bristle; flowers (Jan-Mar) white, borne in heads 10 – 20mm in diameter, arranged in panicles; each head with 5 unequal involucral bracts, the latter white to pale yellow above, olive green on lower surface.

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Growing Alepidea amatymbica:This plant is best grown from fresh seed sown in trays filled with a very well-drained seedling mix in late summer or early spring. Once sown, the seed should be lightly covered and kept watered until germination takes place. The seedlings are very prone to damping off and so watering should be carefully monitored. Once potted into individual pots, the plants need to be grown until the underground stem develops, after which they can be planted out.

Medicinal Uses:
Alepidea amatymbica  is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases including asthma, influenza, and diarrhea in South Africa. The antimicrobial activities of the acetone and methanol extracts of the leaf, stem, rhizome, and root of the species were assessed in an effort to validate the traditional medicinal uses of this herb, especially for the treatment of infectious diseases. Ten bacterial and three fungal species were bioassayed using the agar dilution method. All the extracts demonstrated appreciable activities against three Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria have been implicated in different respiratory diseases. The inhibitory activity of some of the extracts against pathogens implicated in diarrhea diseases further validated the use of the herb in traditional medicine. Except for acetone leaf extract against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, all the extracts showed more than 50% mycotic inhibition with activity ranging from 51.39% on A. niger to 81.11% on Penicillium notatum at ?5?mg mL?1 which was the highest concentration tested in the study. The ability of the herb to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and fungi species is an indication of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential of A. amatymbica; this further validates the use of the herb for various diseases by the people of the Eastern Cape..

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.plantzafrica.com/medmonographs/alepideaatym.pdf
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alepidea_amatymbica
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13880200902817919
http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantab/alepidamat.htm

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Swine Flu May Be a Human Error From Vaccine Production

The World Health Organization is investigating a claim by Australian researcher Adrian Gibbs, who says that the swine flu virus circling the globe may have been created as a result of human error.

……………………………………

Gibbs, who collaborated on research that led to the development of Tamiflu, said in an interview that he intends to publish a report suggesting the new strain may have accidentally evolved in eggs scientists use to grow viruses and drugmakers use to make vaccines. Gibbs said he came to his conclusion as part of an effort to trace the virus’s origins by analyzing its genetic blueprint.

“One of the simplest explanations is that it’s a laboratory escape,” Gibbs said in an interview with Bloomberg Television today. “But there are lots of others.”

Gibbs, who has studied germ evolution for four decades, is one of the first scientists to analyze the genetic makeup of the virus.

Sources: Bloomberg May 13, 2009

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Hyperhidrosis Or Excessive Sweating

Hyperhidrosis – Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition in which a person sweats excessively and unpredictably. People with hyperhidrosis can sweat even when the temperature is cool, and when they are at rest.Hyperhidrosis affects millions of people around the world  nearly 3% of the population, according to some studies.In simple terms, hyperhidrosis is a medical disorder characterized by excessive sweating. This kind of excessive sweating typically occurs either on your palms (palmar hyperhidrosis), in your underarms (axillary hyperhidrosis), on your face (facial hyperhidrosis), or in your feet (plantar hyperhidrosis).
Hyperhidrosis is a physical condition caused by excessive sweating in the body. Hyperhidrosis is caused due to malfunctioning of the sympathetic nervous system or disorders of the sweat glands. Curesweatyplams provides the best excessive perspiration treatment.

Click to see the picture

Sweat Gland – a simple tubular gland of the skin that excretes perspiration, is widely distributed in nearly all parts of the human skin, and consists typically of an epithelial tube extending spirally from a minute pore on the surface of the skin into the dermis or subcutaneous tissues where it ends in a convoluted tuft.

Causes:

Though we in our ignorance often loosely use the term sweat problem for a lot of people who display the symptoms described above, they may actually be suffering from hyperhidrosis, which is a serious medical condition, and which requires proper diagnosis and treatment. Though excessive sweating causes are many the primary causes are still unknown but the secondary causes range from anxiety, obesity and psychological tension. Hyperhidrosis symptoms can be dripping sweat, odor along with sweat, stained clothes due to sweat and inferiority complex due to sweat

Under ordinary conditions, the hypothalamus, which is the part of the brain that regulates sweat-related functions, sends sensory signals to the sweat nerves. These nerves — part of the sympathetic nervous system located in the chest cavity — in turn send the signals to the sweat glands, causing the latter to produce sweat. As a result of hyperhidrosis, the sweat glands disobey these signals, as it were, and produce substantial volumes of sweat that then seek outlets on your underarms, face, palms and feet.

Types Of Hyperhidrosis:

Hyperhidrosis can either be generalized or localized to specific parts of the body. Hands, feet, armpits, and the groin area are among the most active regions of perspiration due to the relatively high concentration of sweat glands. When excessive sweating is localized (e.g. palms, soles, face, underarms, scalp) it is referred to as primary or focal hyperhidrosis. Generalized or secondary hyperhidrosis usually involves the body as a whole and is the result of an underlying condition.

Hyperhidrosis can also be classified depending by onset, either congenital or acquired. Focal hyperhidrosis is found to start during adolescence or even before and seems to be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. Primary or focal hyperhidrosis must be distinguished from secondary hyperhidrosis, which can start at any point in life. The latter form may be due to a disorder of the thyroid or pituitary glands, diabetes mellitus, tumors, gout, menopause, certain drugs, or mercury poisoning.

Hyperhidrosis may also be divided into palmoplantar (symptomatic sweating of primarily the hands or feet), gustatory hyperhidrosis, generalized and focal hyperhidrosis.

Alternatively, hyperhidrosis may be classified according to the amount of skin affected and its possible causes. In this approach, excessive sweating in an area greater than 100 cm2 (16 in2) (up to generalized sweating of the entire body) is differentiated from sweating that affects only a small area .

Broadly, hyperhidrosis can be categorized into two types: primary and secondary. There are four major areas of the body that are typically more susceptible to primary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating induced by natural causes) than others .

Primary hyperhidrosis

When your excessive sweating is not caused by any other medical condition, or is not a side effect of any drugs that you may be under, you are suffering from primary hyperhidrosis. You may also find that the condition is described as focal hyperhidrosis. In such cases, the excessive sweating occurs on specific (or focal) parts of the body, the most affected areas being the hands, feet, underarms, and face.

Research has shown that the first signs of primary hyperhidrosis are often detected in childhood or early adolescence. Plenty of sufferers tend to sweat less excessively when at rest or asleep, though that is not always the case. There is also a theory that the sweat problem is hereditary, though there has been no conclusive research on this. Areas of the body most vulnerable to primary hyperhidrosis are :your face, underarm, hands and feet.
Secondary Hyperhidrosis

This type of excessive sweating (also called generalized hyperhidrosis) is caused by a usually unrelated medical condition (e.g. menopause), or is a side effect of a particular drug. In other words, it is everything that primary hyperhidrosis is not. There are two other significant differences: people suffering from secondary hyperhidrosis typically experience sweating on generalized  or larger parts of the body, and they usually experience the excessive sweating even while at rest.

When there is excessive sweating under the arms it is called axillary hyperhidrosis (click & see)  sometimes some people have excessieve sewating on the face then it is called facial hyperhidrosis   (click & see)  and excessieve sweating on the feet is called plantar hyperhidrosis.(click & see)

Treatments:

Given the profound social and professional embarrassment that excessive sweating can cause, there have been several different approaches to the treatment of hyperhidrosis. These include herbal remedies, chemical lotions, oral medication and over-the-counter antiperspirants. However, none of these have cured hyperhidrosis .

Since a couple of decades ago, an extremely delicate form of invasive endoscopic surgery has been performed on patients to restrict the flow of neural transmissions to the sweat glands. Though many patients have reported an alleviation of the problem of excessive sweating, the surgical approach is beset by the appearance of certain side effects that can assume potentially dangerous consequences.

Yet another method of treatment is iontophoresis, a procedure that involves the administering of mild electrical currents to the affected areas to thicken the outer layer of the skin, thus blocking the flow of sweat to the skin’s surface. However, this method is absolutely out of the question for a large group of sufferers, which may include pregnant women, and cardiac and epileptic patients.

Another very recent development involves the use of Botox to treat hyperhidrosis. As of now, however, Botox has received FDA approval only for use in the treatment of underarm or axillary hyperhidrosis. Additionally, the relatively high cost of treatment and the fact that a top-up dose needs to be administered every 6-10 months means that not everyone has access to this treatment.

Some effective home remedies:
1.Saga Tea: For excessive sweating infuse one teaspoon of dried saga in a cup of boiling water for 15 minutes, strain and drink the tea 2-4 times a day.
2.Zinc: Take 30 to 50 mg. of zinc perday.
3. Tea bags: For sweaty hands or feet , boil 5 regular tea bags in a quart of water for 5 minutes, let it cool and soak hands or feet for 20 to 30 minutes at night before bed.
4. Always try to avoid more sugar, alcohol, and hot spicy food.
5.Drink plenty of pure water(6 to 8 glass a day) and this is essential.

 

Click to learn more about Hyperhidrosis

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Regular Yoga Exercise with PRANAYAMA  under the guideline of  expert  cures the problem totally….click & see

Click & see :   The Many Health Benefits of Sweating

partly extracted from:http://www.hyperhidrosisweb.com/excessive-sweating.html

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