Tag Archives: Bone

Knee Care

The knees are one of the larger joints in the body, supporting its entire weight. It is a hinge joint, like that of a door, capable only of moving forwards and backwards. Attempts to force a door to move sideways or push it open in the wrong direction will result in the door “coming off its hinges.” A similar problem occurs when the knee is forced to move in the wrong direction.

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The knee joint is composed of three bones, the lower end of the femur and the upper ends of the tibia and fibula, articulating with one another. The raw bones do not grate against each other. They are separated by a “joint space” filled with synovial fluid, lined with articulating cartilage and separated by little washers called meniscii. There are ligaments inside the joint holding it in place. Considering the size of the knee joint, these ligaments are woefully inadequate. In the front of the knee is the kneecap or patella.

Click & see: Anatomy of knee :

The knee undergoes constant wear and tear. Our daily activities involve walking and climbing stairs as well as exercising. In a lifetime, the knee joint functions over and above its capacity!

The knee undergoes constant wear and tear. Our daily activities involve walking and climbing stairs as well as exercising. In a lifetime, the knee joint functions over and above its capacity!

Pain in the joint can be acute and occurs owing to injury, infection, or age-(or overuse) related degeneration. The cartilage breaks down, exposing parts of the bone underneath. The raw nerves are exposed and this becomes very painful. Bits of broken cartilage can get trapped in the joint. When that occurs, movement can result is sudden pain and the joint can get locked.

Dislocations and injuries are more common in the young — basketball and football are notorious for causing knee injuries. This is because there are sudden abrupt changes in the direction of movement, which may be against the normal anatomical direction of movement. The player may land awkwardly or fall, bruising and injuring the joint.

The two knees support the weight of the entire body between them. The bones are physically capable of supporting only a certain amount of weight. Obesity causes the knees to degenerate rapidly. Depending on gait and posture, one side may wear out faster than the other. This may result in a bow-legged appearance. Walking is extremely painful and the gait may be crab like. The entire joint may be swollen and painful. Or, the pain may be localised on one side. At times, instead of the whole joint, the area under the patella gets worn down and irregular. As that rubs against the bones underneath, there is terrible pain with movement.

Children seldom develop knee pain without injury or a fracture. Boys can develop pain as part of certain inherited congenital syndromes or birth defects in the knee. The patella may also get dislocated. This is more common in teenage girls.

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Infections, acute trauma and fractures result in swollen, warm and tender joints. Arthritis, especially rheumatoid or osteoarthritis, can produce a similar picture. Infection always produces fever. Gout usually affects the big toe but can present itself as a painful knee joint. It may be worth checking uric acid levels.

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Ayurvedic remedies  of knee pain

Ayurvedic Therapy – A Promising Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis?

Natural Ayurvedic Home Remedies for Knee Pain
Ayurveda for Osteo Arthritis (Knee Joint Pain)

Homeopathy for Knee Pain

Knee Injury Treatment With Six Homeopathic Medicines

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, Indi

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Calcium Every Day Keeps Fractures Away

Debility, illness and loss of independence are assumed to be an inevitable part of ageing. In  Indian society , where there are no health benefits and minimal social security, old age can be frightening. Unfortunately, young people do not realise that if they take remedial action, some of the incapacitating changes of ageing like osteoporosis are preventable.

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Osteoporosis occurs because of calcium deficiency the bones became fragile and brittle. This means that the slightest trauma can lead to a fracture. In India, the incidence of osteoporosis is high and, with our ageing population, it will only climb.

Patients do not realise that anything is wrong until the first fracture. The trauma that caused the break need not be severe; a trivial fall may be sufficient. The commonest sites are the wrist and the hip. Treatment usually requires setting the bone surgically and screwing it into place. Healing is a long-drawn-out and painful process. Fear of surgery may lead people to native bonesetters, who set fractures with bandages and egg whites. But these ancient treatments are not successful in osteoporosis, especially when the fracture occurs in a deep-seated bone like the hip.

Apart from fractures, early signs of osteoporosis are a decrease in height as the spinal vertebrae grind into each other. This also results in a stooped appearance with a “dowager’s hump”.

The only way to avoid osteoporosis is to have enough calcium, which is necessary not only for healthy bones but also for the proper functioning of cells and enzymes. If there isn’t enough calcium in the blood, the body gets it from the bones. If this calcium is not replaced, the bones become increasingly fragile. Bones are built up in childhood, adolescence and the early twenties. So it should be ensured that the body gets enough calcium during this period. The final strength of the bones is determined by genes but diet and lifestyle can modify this.

The body gets calcium from dairy products such as milk and cheese (processed as well as cottage). Other calcium-rich foods are sardines, custard apples and green leafy vegetables. To absorb dietary calcium, the body also needs 400 IU of vitamin D, 400mg of magnesium and 110 micrograms of vitamin K. The skin can synthesise sufficient vitamin D from sunlight but the problem is that most people either work indoors or use sunscreen and umbrellas. The other source of vitamins is green leafy vegetables. However, the requisite amounts of these vitamins are usually not available in a normal diet. Therefore, you need calcium supplements, most of which contain additional vitamins and minerals to aid absorption.

Calcium supplements are best absorbed if taken after meals in 500mg doses several times a day. Other minerals such as iron and zinc interfere with calcium absorption. Even though many people need supplements of all these elements, they have to be given separately or at least 12 hours apart. A common mistake is to try and combine all these ingredients into one giant biologically ineffective capsule or tablet.

The other thing that can interfere with calcium absorption is too much protein, caffeine (coffee and cola) or alcohol in the diet. There is a demonstrated difference between the bone density of people who drink colas every day and those who drink it once a month.

Osteoporosis can also occur as a side effect of medication like corticosteroids (called secondary osteoporosis). These are prescribed for ailments such as arthritis or asthma and patients are sometimes not aware that they have been given steroids on a long-term basis. Sometimes, it is part of the unlabeled medication dispensed by practitioners of alternative medicine.

Some antacids contain aluminium, which acts as “bone poison” and interferes with the incorporation of calcium into the bones, increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Thyroid disorders or malfunctioning parathyroid glands can also increase the risk of developing the disease. Lactose (milk) intolerance results in an inadequate intake of milk and dairy products with subsequent calcium deficiency.

It is never too late to contain osteoporosis. Physical activity helps bones retain and even gain density all through life. Effective exercises are running, jogging, skipping, stair-climbing, tennis and badminton. Exercise also improves muscle strength and coordination so that falls and injuries are less. One should exercise for an hour every day, all through life. Although exercise at any age is a boon to health, to build bone strength one needs to be regular and consistent.

Daily calcium requirement

• 1-3 yr: 700mg
• 4-8 yr: 1,000mg
• 10-20 yr: 1,300mg
• 20-70 yr: 1,000mg
• Women over 50: 1,200mg
• Men over 71: 1,200mg

Source : The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Bone Cancer

Definition:
Cancer that starts in a bone is rare.Bone cancer can begin in any bone in the body, but it most commonly affects the long bones that make up the arms and legs.

Primary bone cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some types of primary bone cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (such as the prostate, breast, or lung).

Some types of bone cancer occur primarily in children, while others affect mostly adults.

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Bone cancer also doesn’t include blood cell cancers, such as multiple myeloma and leukemia, that begin in the bone marrow — the jelly-like material inside the bone where blood cells are made.

Symptoms:
The symptoms of bone cancer depend where the tumour grows (about half occur in or near the knee). By the time a lump or swelling is detectable, the cancer may have been present for some time. (Swelling and tenderness near the affected area)

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Pain, especially at night, is a common problem and may cause a limp if the leg is affected, because weight-bearing is uncomfortable or the cancer interferes with the way the joints work.

There may also be generalised symptoms such as weight loss, sweats, fever and lethargy , tiredness or fatigue. Sometimes, bone cancer is discovered incidentally – when an x-ray is taken after an accident, for example – or occasionally when the bone breaks due to weakness caused by the cancer.

Weakened bones, sometimes leading to fractures.

Causes:
It’s not clear what causes most bone cancers. Doctors know bone cancer begins as an error in a cell’s DNA. The error tells the cell to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way. These cells go on living, rather than dying at a set time. The accumulating mutated cells form a mass (tumor) that can invade nearby structures or spread to other areas of the body.

Unlike most cancers, bone cancer tends to affect the young. Osteosarcoma usually appears in children and young adults, while Ewing’s sarcoma is most common between the ages of 10 and 20.

Other risk factors include:

•Previous radiotherapy treatment, especially at a young age. Some chemotherapy drugs also increase the risk of osteosarcoma
•As many as one in eight people who develop a tumour of the eye will go on to develop an osteosarcoma, possibly because of a genetic susceptibility to both conditions and the additional effect of anti-cancer treatments
•Genetic conditions linked to bone tumours including Li-Fraumeni syndrome, HME, inherited breast cancer and congenital umbilical hernia (Ewing’s sarcoma is three times more common in children with this condition)
•Paget’s disease, a bone disease that generally occurs in older people and increases the risk of osteosarcoma, as does another bone condition called chondroma
•Bone cancer has often been linked to injuries to a limb, but it’s questionable and may simply be that the injury draws attention to a tumour that was already growing

Diagnosis:
Imaging tests :-
What imaging tests you undergo depends on your situation. Your doctor may recommend one or more imaging tests to evaluate the area of concern, including:

*Bone scan
*Computerized tomography (CT)
*Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
*Positron emission tomography (PET)
*X-ray
Removing a sample of tissue for laboratory testing
Your doctor may recommend a procedure to remove (biopsy) a sample of tissue from the tumor for laboratory testing. Testing can tell your doctor whether the tissue is cancerous and, if so, what type of cancer you have. Testing may also reveal the cancer’s grade, which helps doctors understand how aggressive the cancer may be.

Types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose bone cancer include:

*Inserting a needle through your skin and into a tumor. During a needle biopsy, your doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and guides it into the tumor. The needle is used to remove small pieces of tissue from the tumor.

*Surgery to remove a tissue sample for testing. During a surgical biopsy, your doctor makes an incision through your skin and removes either the entire tumor (excisional biopsy) or a portion of the tumor (incisional biopsy).

Determining the type of biopsy you need and the particulars of how it should be performed requires careful planning by your medical team. Doctors need to perform the biopsy in a way that won’t interfere with future surgery to remove bone cancer. For this reason, ask your doctor for a referral to an appropriate surgeon before your biopsy.

Tests to determine the extent (stage) of the bone cancer
Once your doctor diagnoses your bone cancer, he or she works to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. The cancer’s stage guides your treatment options.

Stages of bone cancer include:

*Stage I. At this stage, bone cancer is limited to the bone and hasn’t spread to other areas of the body. After biopsy testing, cancer at this stage is considered low grade and is not considered aggressive.

*Stage II. This stage of bone cancer is limited to the bone and hasn’t spread to other areas of the body. But biopsy testing reveals the bone cancer is high grade and is considered aggressive.

*Stage III. At this stage, bone cancer occurs in two or more places on the same bone.

*Stage IV. This stage of bone cancer indicates that cancer has spread beyond the bone to other areas of the body, such as the brain, liver or lungs.

Treatment:
The treatment options for your bone cancer are based on the type of cancer you have, the stage of the cancer, how far it has spread, your overall health and your preferences. Bone cancer treatment typically involves surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of treatments.

Bone cancer that hasn’t spread outside the bone may be treated with surgery and may not require chemotherapy. More abnormal bone cancer that has spread will be more difficult to treat, and chemotherapy as well as surgery is usually recommended.

In general, treatment of bone cancer has a good outlook, especially if it’s in the early stages and can be completed during surgery. About two-thirds of people with primary bone cancer can be cured. But if the cancer is more advanced or has spread, the prognosis may not be so good, with five-year survival rates of only 10-20 per cent. It’s vital that you talk to your specialist to get a picture of how successful treatment is likely to be in your individual case.

Treatment usually consists of surgery often combined with chemotherapy to shrink the tumour and make it less likely to recur. Because surgery involves removing bone, it can be quite drastic. Where possible, the surgeon will try to replace the diseased bone with a graft of bone from elsewhere in the body or an implant, but sometimes amputation is necessary.

Some bone cancers, such as Ewing’s sarcoma, respond well to chemotherapy and other treatments such as radiotherapy.

Newer biological therapies based on natural body chemicals such as interferon are also being used. These may work, for example, by encouraging the body’s immune system to attack the cancer cells. A number of different research trials are looking at different combinations of these treatments in an effort to improve results.

After initial treatment, regular follow-ups are essential to check for recurrences and to manage the consequences of treatment, such as the use of an artificial limb.

You may click to see:-
*Bone and Tissue Transplantation
*Bone Sarcoma in the Upper Extremity
*Ewing’s Family of Tumors (PDQ)…(Also available in Spanish)

*Osteosarcoma/Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone (PDQ) …..(Also available in Spanish)

*Surgical Management of Cancer that Spreads to the Bone

*Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty

 

Prevention, Genetics, Causes:-
Information related to prevention, genetics, and risk factors:

Understanding Gene Testing

Search: Cancer Genetics Services Directory

Cancer Genetics Overview
[ health professional ]

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/in_depth/cancer/typescancer_bone.shtml
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bone-cancer/DS00520/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/bone

http://bone-cancer-symptoms.org/

http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/bone-cancer-symptoms-prognosis-treatment-survival-rate-primary-metastatic.html

http://www.onlinecancerguide.com/blog/bone-cancer/pain-in-bones-fear-for-bone-cancer/

http://www.cancersymptomspage.com/bone-cancer-symptoms.html

Acrodysostosis

Alternative Names  :Arkless-Graham; Acrodysplasia; Maroteaux-Malamut

Definition:
Acrodysostosis is an extremely rare  genetic disorder that is present at birth. It is a rare congenital malformation syndrome which involves shortening of the interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet, mental deficiency in approximately 90% of affected children, and peculiar facies. Other common abnormalities include short head (as measured front to back i.e. [[ ]]), small broad upturned nose with flat nasal bridge, protruding jaw, increased bone age, Intrauterine growth retardation, juvenile arthritis and short stature. Further abnormalities of the skin, genitals, teeth, and skeleton may occur.

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Most reported cases have been sporadic, but it has been suggested that the condition might be genetically related i.e. in a autosomal dominant mode of transmission. Both males and females are affected. The disorder has been associated with older parental age.

Symptoms:
•Growth problems, short arms and legs
•Frequent middle ear infections
•Hearing problems
•Unusual looking face
•Mental deficiency

People with acrodysostosis have certain bones that mature rapidly, before they’ve had enough time to grow fully. The bones most often affected are those of the nose and jaw, and the long tubular bones of the hands and feet.

This abnormal bone development results in a collection of characteristic features, including a typical facial appearance (short nose, open mouth and prominent jaw), small hands and feet.

Those with acrodysostosis often have some degree of mental retardation and learning difficulties.

Causes:
The gene responsible for acrodysostosis has not yet been identified and the condition may result from different genetic problems rather than one specific condition.

Most patients with acrodysostosis have no family history of the disease. However, sometimes the condition is passed down from parent to child.

It appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. This means that if one parent is carrying the gene, they will be normal but there is a one in two chance that any child of theirs will have the condition and seems to be more common among older parents.

There is a slightly greater risk with fathers who are older.

Diagnosis:
Exams and Tests
A physical exam confirms this disorder.

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Findings may include:

•Advanced bone age
•Bone deformities in hands and feet
•Delays in growth
•Problems with the skin, genitals, teeth, and skeleton
•Short arms and legs with small hands and feet
•Short head, measured front to back (brachycephaly)
•Short height
•Small, upturned broad nose with flat bridge
•Unusual features of the face (short nose, open mouth, jaw that sticks out)
•Unusual head
•Wide-spaced eyes (hypertelorism), sometimes with extra skin fold at corner of eye
In the first months of life, x-rays may show spotty calcium deposits, called stippling, in bones (especially the nose). Infants may also have:

•Abnormally short fingers and toes (brachydactyly)
•Early growth of bones in the hands and feet
•Short bones
•Shortening of the forearm bones near the wrist

Treatment:
There’s no cure for acrodysostosis but appropriate support by orthopaedic surgeons and paediatricians is important.

Treatment depends on the physical and mental problems that occur.

Antenatal diagnosis may be made by ultrasound examination of the bones in babies whose mother has the condition, but routine screening isn’t done.

Possible Complications:
•Arthritis
•Carpal tunnel syndrome
•Worsening range of movement in the spine, elbows, and hands

Prognosis ;
Problems depend on the degree of skeletal involvement and mental retardation. In general, patients do relatively well.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001248.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/acrodysostosis1.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrodysostosis

http://www.gfmer.ch/genetic_diseases_v2/gendis_detail_list.php?cat3=1098

http://health.allrefer.com/health/acrodysostosis-info.html

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Achondroplasia

Definition:
Achondroplasia is a genetic (inherited) bone disorder that occurs in one in 25,000 live births. Achondroplasia is the most common type of dwarfism, in which the child’s arms and legs are short in proportion to body length. Further, the head is often large and the trunk is normal size. The average height of adult males with achondroplasia is 52 inches (or 4 feet, 4 inches). The average height of adult females with achondroplasia is 49 inches (or 4 feet, 1 inch).

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When a baby is developing in the womb, the skeleton first forms out of cartilage, which then this develops into bone (except in certain areas such as the nose or ears where cartilage remains).

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In achondroplasia, this process doesn’t happen as it should, especially in the long bones of the arms and legs. Instead, the cartilage cells in the growth plates turn only very slowly into bone.


Symptoms:

The following are the most common symptoms of achondroplasia. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

*shortened arms and legs, with the upper arms and thighs more shortened than the forearms and lower legs

*large head size with prominent forehead and a flattened nasal bridge

*crowded or misaligned teeth

*curved lower spine – a condition also called lordosis (or “sway-back”) which may lead to kyphosis, or the development of a small hump near the shoulders that usually goes away after the child begins walking.

*small vertebral canals (back bones) – may lead to spinal cord compression in adolescence. Occasionally children with achondroplasia may die suddenly in infancy or early childhood in their sleep due to compression of the upper end of the spinal cord, which interferes with breathing.

*bowed lower legs

*flat feet that are short and broad

*extra space between the middle and ring fingers (Also called a trident hand.)

*poor muscle tone and loose joints

*frequent middle ear infections which may lead to hearing loss

*normal intelligence

*delayed developmental milestones such as walking (which may occur between 18 to 24 months instead of around one year of age)

These bone abnormalities can lead to a range of health problems, as well as psychological trauma caused by the stigma of looking different from the crowd. Most children with achondroplasia have normal intelligence.

Babies with achondroplasia may have poor muscle tone and be slow to stand and walk. Spinal problems can develop, and the lower part of the legs may become bowed. There may be dental problems because teeth are often crowded and poorly aligned. Middle ear infections occur frequently and can cause mild to moderate hearing loss.

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Causes:
Achondroplasia is inherited by an autosomal dominant gene that causes abnormal cartilage formation. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that the gene is located on one of the autosomes (chromosome pairs 1 through 22). This means that males and females are equally affected. Dominant means that only one gene is necessary to have the trait. When a parent has a dominant trait, there is a 50 percent chance that any child they have will also inherit the trait. So, in some cases, the child inherits the achondroplasia from a parent with achondroplasia. The majority of achondroplasia cases (80 percent), however, are the result of a new mutation in the family – the parents are of average height and do not have the abnormal gene.

As mentioned, persons with achondroplasia have a 50 percent chance to pass the gene to a child, resulting in the condition. If both parents have achondroplasia, with each pregnancy, there is a 50 percent chance to have a child with achondroplasia, a 25 percent chance that the child will not inherit the gene and be of average height, and a 25 percent chance that the child will inherit one abnormal gene from each parent, which can lead to severe skeletal problems that often result in early death.

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Geneticists have found that fathers who are older than 45 have a higher chance of having children with certain autosomal dominant conditions such as achondroplasia, but no cause for the new mutations in sperm has been discovered at this time.

The gene responsible for achondroplasia was discovered in 1994 making accurate prenatal diagnosis available, in most cases.

There are two other syndromes with a genetic basis similar to achondroplasia: hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia.

In approximately 75 per cent of cases the problem results from a new mutation of a gene (that is, neither parent carries the faulty gene), but in some cases a child inherits achondroplasia from a parent who also has the condition. There is also a link with older fathers, over the age of 40.

Diagnosis:

Achondroplasia can be diagnosed before birth by fetal ultrasound or after birth by complete medical history and physical examination. DNA testing is now available before birth to confirm fetal ultrasound findings for parents who are at increased risk for having a child with achondroplasia.A DNA test can be performed before birth to detect homozygosity, wherein two copies of the mutant gene are inherited, a lethal condition leading to stillbirths.
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Radiologic findings:
A skeletal survey is useful to confirm the diagnosis of achondroplasia. The skull is large, with a narrow foramen magnum, and relatively small skull base. The vertebral bodies are short and flattened with relatively large intervertebral disk height, and there is congenitally narrowed spinal canal. The iliac wings are small and squared,[4] with a narrow sciatic notch and horizontal acetabular roof. The tubular bones are short and thick with metaphyseal cupping and flaring and irregular growth plates. Fibular overgrowth is present. The hand is broad with short metacarpals and phalanges, and a trident configuration. The ribs are short with cupped anterior ends. If the radiographic features are not classic, a search for a different diagnosis should be entertained. Because of the extremely deformed bone structure, people with achondroplasia are often double jointed.

The diagnosis can be made by fetal ultrasound by progressive discordance between the femur length and biparietal diameter by age. The trident hand configuration can be seen if the fingers are fully extended.

Another distinct characteristic of the syndrome is thoracolumbar gibbus in infancy.


Treatment :

Currently, there is no way to prevent or treat achondroplasia, since the majority of cases result from unexpected new mutations. Treatment with growth hormone does not substantially affect the height of an individual with achondroplasia. Leg-lengthening surgeries may be considered in some very specialized cases.

Detection of bone abnormalities, particularly in the back, are important to prevent breathing difficulties and leg pain or loss of function. Kyphosis (or hunch-back) may need to be surgically corrected if it does not disappear when the child begins walking. Surgery may also help bowing of the legs. Ear infections need to be treated immediately to avoid the risk of hearing loss. Dental problems may need to be addressed by an orthodontist (dentist with special training in the alignment of teeth).

There is research into the family of genes called fibroblast growth factors, in which the gene that causes achondroplasia is included. The goal is to understand how the faulty gene causes the features seen in achondroplasia, in order to lead to improved treatment. These genes have been linked to many heritable skeletal disorders.

However, if desired, the controversial surgery of limb-lengthening will lengthen the legs and arms of someone with achondroplasia.

Usually, the best results appear within the first and second year of therapy.  After the second year of GH therapy, beneficial bone growth decreases. Therefore, GH therapy is not a satisfactory long term treatment.

Prognosis:
People with achondroplasia seldom reach 5 feet in height. Intelligence is in the normal range. Infants who receives the abnormal gene from both parents do not often live beyond a few months.

Complications:
* Clubbed feet
* Fluid build up in the brain (hydrocephalus)

Epidemiology:

Achondroplasia and is one of several congenital conditions with similar presentations, such as osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia tarda, achondrogenesis, osteopetrosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia. This makes estimates of prevalence difficult, with changing and subjective diagnostic criteria over time. One detailed and long-running study in the Netherlands found that the prevalence determined at birth was only 1.3 per 100,000 live births.[8] However, another study at the same time found a rate of 1 per 10,000.


Prevention:

Genetic counseling may be helpful for prospective parents when one or both have achondroplasia. However, because achondroplasia most often develops spontaneously, prevention is not always possible.

* Reviewed last on: 11/2/2009
* Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.yalemedicalgroup.org/stw/Page.asp?PageID=STW026342
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achondroplasia
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/achondroplasia1.shtml
http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001577all.htm

http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/index.php/Group_6_HYALOS_(hyaline_cartilage)

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