Tag Archives: Botanical name

Salvia Divinorum

Botanical Name : Salvia Divinorum
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species:S. divinorum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: Sage of the diviners, Ska maría pastora, Seer’s sage, Yerba de la pastora and just Salvia

Habitat : Salvia divinorum is endemic to the Sierra Mazateca in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, growing in the primary or secondary cloud forest and tropical evergreen forest at elevations from 300 to 1,830 metres (980 to 6,000 ft). Its most common habitat is black soil along stream banks where small trees and bushes provide an environment of low light and high humidity.

Description:
Salvia divinorum has large green ovate (often also dentate) leaves, with a yellow undertone that reach 10 to 30 cm (4 to 12 in) long. The leaves have no hairs on either surface, and little or no petiole. The plant grows to well over 1 metre (3 ft) in height, on hollow square stems which tend to break or trail on the ground, with the plant rooting quite readily at the nodes and internodes.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers, which bloom only rarely, grow in whorls on a 30-centimetre (12 in) inflorescence, with about six flowers to each whorl. The 3-centimetre (1.2 in) flowers are white, curved and covered with hairs, and held in a small violet calyx that is covered in hairs and glands. When it does bloom in its native habitat, it does so from September to May.

Blooms occur when the day length becomes shorter than 12 hours (beginning in mid-October in some places), necessitating a shade cloth in urban environments with exposure to light pollution (HPS)

Early authors erred in describing the flowers as having blue corollas, based on Epling and Játiva‘s description. The first plant material they received was dried, so they based the flower color on an erroneous description by Hofmann and Wasson, who didn’t realize that their “blue flowers, crowned with a white dome” were in fact violet calyces with unopened white corollas.

Seeds: Salvia seeds are very rare because the plant does not often produce them. This is because salvia wild genetics are scarce. Most of todays salvia divinorum plants are propogated in the wild. This is why over the past few decades they have stopped producing seeds. ..CLICK  & SEE 

Cultivation:
Propagation by cuttings:-
Salvia divinorum is usually propagated through vegetative reproduction. Small cuttings, between two and eight inches long, cut off of the mother plant just below a node, will usually root in plain tap water within two or three weeks

Medicinal uses:
Traditional Mazatec healers have used Salvia divinorum to treat medical and psychiatric conditions conceptualized according to their traditional framework. Some of the conditions for which they use the herb are easily recognizable to Western medical practitioners (e.g colds, sore throats, constipation and diarrhea) and some are not, e.g. ‘fat lambs belly’ which is said to be due to a ‘stone’ put in the victims belly by means of evil witchcraft. Some alternative healers and herbalists are exploring possible uses for Salvia. The problems in objectively evaluating such efforts and ‘sorting the wheat from the chaff’ are considerable. There are no accepted uses for Salvia divinorum in standard medical practice at this time. A medical exploration of some possible uses suggested by Mazatec healing practice is in order in such areas as cough suppression (use to treat colds), and treatment of congestive heart failure and ascites (is ‘fat lamb’s belly’ ascites?). Some other areas for exploration include Salvia aided psychotherapy (there is anecdotal material supporting its usefulness in resolving pathological grief), use of salvinorin as a brief acting general or dissociative anesthetic agent, use to provide pain relief, use in easing both the physical and mental suffering of terminal patients as part of hospice care, and a possible antidepressant effect.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_divinorum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

http://www.bcseeds.com/salvia-seeds-salvia-divinorum-seeds-p-158.html

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Rhododendron ‘PJM’

Botanical Name : Rhododendron ‘PJM’
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily:Ericoideae
Tribe: Rhodoreae
Genus: Rhododendron
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ericales

Common Name: Rhododendron

Habitat : Rhododendron ‘PJM’  is  mostly  grown in the midwestern countries.  A hybrid of garden origin, R. minus x R. dauricum

Description:
Rhododendron ‘PJM’ is an evergreen broadleaf evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). Leaves are elliptic, flat to convex, obtuse apex, cuneate base, rust colored scaly indumentum, deep mahogany-purple November to April. Upright, dense growth habit. Flowers are openly funnel-shaped, wavy edges, 1½” across, lilac purple to light violet. Several clones are known as well as a number of forms.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES:

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires[200]. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. This is an exceptionally hardy cultivar. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. When they are large enough to handle, prick out the seedlings into individual pots and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.
Other Uses: Plants can be grown as a hedge. It is also grown in the garden for it’s good looking flowers.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhododendron+’PJM’
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhododendron
http://www.rhododendron.org/descriptionH_new.asp?ID=643

Tropaeolum majus

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Botanical Name : Tropaeolum majus
Family: Tropaeolaceae
Genus: Tropaeolum
Species: T. majus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms:
*Cardamindum majus (L.) Moench
*Nasturtium indicum Garsault
*Tropaeolum elatum Salisb.
*Tropaeolum hortense Sparre
*Tropaeolum hybridum L.
*Tropaeolum pinnatum Andrews
*Tropaeolum quinquelobum Bergius
*Trophaeum majus (L.) Kuntze

Common Names: Nasturtium, Indian Cress, Garden nasturtium, Monks cress

Habitat :
Tropaeolum majus is native to S. America – Peru. A garden escape, locally naturalized in parts Europe. It grows on the coastal and disturbed areas from sea level to 3000 metres.

Description:
It is a herbaceous annual or perennial plant with trailing stems growing to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) long or more. The leaves are large, nearly circular, 3 to 15 centimetres (1.2 to 5.9 in) diameter, green to glaucous green above, paler below; they are peltate, with the 5–30 cm long petiole near the middle of the leaf, with several veins radiating to the smoothly rounded or slightly lobed margin. . It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) . The flowers are 2.5–6 cm diameter, with five petals, eight stamens, and a 2.5–3 cm long nectar spur at the rear; they vary from yellow to orange to red, frilled and often darker at the base of the petals. The fruit is 2 cm broad, three-segmented, each segment with a single large seed 1–1.5 cm long…..CLICK  & SEE  THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Container, Ground Tolerates most soils, though it prefers a rich light well-drained soil incover, Specimen, Woodland garden. full sun or partial shade. More and lusher leaves are produced when the plant is growing in a rich soil, though less flowers are produced. When grown in a soil of low fertility the leaves are smaller and less lush, though more flowers are produced. The plant will also succeed in very poor soils. It dislikes drought. This species is not frost hardy in Britain but it is often grown in the flower garden as an annual when it will frequently self-sow. In cold springs, however, the seed will often not germinate until mid or even late summer, which is too late to produce a reasonable crop. A very ornamental and free-flowering species, it is often in bloom from early summer until cut down by the autumn frosts. A climbing plant, it supports itself by twisting its leaf stalks around other plants etc. There are many named varieties, some of which are low-growing forms that do not climb. The flowers have a very pleasing mild scent. The Gleam Hybrid cultivars are more strongly scented. A good companion plant in the garden, growing well with radishes, cabbages and fruit trees, improving their growth and flavour. A good companion for many plants, keeping many harmful insects at bay and also improving the growth and flavour of neighbouring crops. Aphids on nasturtiums indicate a lime deficiency in the soil. Slugs and snails love eating this plant, so it can be grown to attract them away from other plants. The caterpillars of the cabbage white butterfly can be a nuisance and often cause considerable damage to the leaves. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Edible, Not North American native, Suitable for cut flowers, Fragrant flowers.
Propagation :
Seed – sow April in situ. The seed usually germinates within 2 weeks. Seed can also be sown in March in pots in a greenhouse and planted out in late spring or early summer.
Edible Use:
Leaves – raw. A hot watercress flavour. Very nice on its own or as a flavouring in mixed salads. Rich in vitamin C. The leaves are available from early summer until the first frosts of the autumn. Flowers – raw. A very ornamental and tasty addition to the salad bowl, the flowers have a hot watercress flavour and are available all through the summer. The flowers contain about 130mg vitamin C per 100g. Young seed pods – raw. These are even hotter than the flowers or leaves. They can also be harvested whilst immature and pickled for use as a caper substit. Seed – raw or cooked. Very hot. The mature seed can be ground into a powder and used as a pepper substitute. The seed contains 26% protein and 10% oil.
Medicinal Uses :

Antibacterial; Antibiotic; Antifungal; Antiseptic; Aperient; Depurative; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Expectorant; Laxative; Stimulant.

Nasturtium has long been used in Andean herbal medicine as a disinfectant and wound-healing herb, and as an expectorant to relieve chest conditions. All parts of the plant appear to be antibiotic and an infusion of the leaves can be used to increase resistance to bacterial infections and to clear nasal and bronchial catarrh. The remedy seems to both reduce catarrh formation and stimulate the clearing and coughing up of phlegm. The leaves are antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, aperient, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, laxative and stimulant. A glycoside found in the plant reacts with water to produce an antibiotic. The plant has antibiotic properties towards aerobic spore forming bacteria. Extracts from the plant have anticancer activity. The plant is taken internally in the treatment of genito-urinary diseases, respiratory infections, scurvy and poor skin and hair conditions. Externally it makes an effective antiseptic wash and is used in the treatment of baldness, minor injuries and skin eruptions. Any part of the plant can be used, it is harvested during the growing season and used fresh. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium for urinary tract infections, cough, bronchitis.

Nasturtium is an antiseptic and digestive herb, also used to treat respiratory and urinary disorders; seeds are a vermifuge and crushed for use in poultices for boils and sores.

Other Uses:
Insecticide; Oil; Repellent.

The seeds yield a high percentage of a drying oil that can be used in making paints, varnish etc. The growing plant attracts aphids away from other plants. Research indicates that aphids flying over plants with orange or yellow flowers do not stop, nor do they prey on plants growing next to or above the flowers. An insecticide can be made from an infusion of leaves and soap flakes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Tropaeolum+majus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropaeolum_majus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

Hepatica americana

Botanical Name : Hepatica americana
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Hepatica
Species: H. nobilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Names: Liverwort, Ker-gawl ,Hepatica tribola, Hepatica nobilis,American Liverleaf, Alumroot, Round Lobed Hepatica

Habitat : Hepatica americana is native to the eastern United States and to central and eastern Canada. It grows on the dry woods. Mixed woods, often in association with both conifers and deciduous trees, usually in drier sites and more acid soils, from sea level to 1200 metres. ( Rich or rocky wooded slopes, ravines, mossy banks, ledges. Usually on acid soils.)
Description:
Hepatica americana is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera……..CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

USDA hardiness zone : 3-9

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Rock garden, Woodland garden. Prefers a deep light soil with leafmold. Grows well on limey woodland soils in half shade, though it also succeeds in deep shade and in full sun[1]. Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their permanent positions as soon as possible. This species is closely related to H. acutiloba. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes. Special Features: Attractive foliage, North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies.
Propagation:
Seed – sow in a moist soil in a shady position. The stored seed requires stratification for about 3 weeks at 0 – 5°c. Germination takes 1 – 12 months at 10°c. It is probably worthwhile sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe in a shady position in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division just as the leafless plant comes into flower in late winter. Replant immediately into their permanent positions.
Medicinal Uses:
Hepatica americana was used widely by natives and colonists to treat a variety of ailments. A tea made from the leaves is laxative. It is used in the treatment of fevers, liver ailments and poor indigestion. At one time it became a cult medicine as a liver tonic and 200,000 kilos of dried Hepatica leaves were used in 1883 alone. Externally, the tea is applied as a wash to swollen breasts[

It was used most commonly as a leaf tea to treat liver disorders. This was thought to work because the plants leaves are shaped much like the human liver. This practice of treating organ ailments with the plants that most resembled them is known as the “doctrine of signatures.” The practice originated in China and, fortunately, is no longer

While rarely found in herbal remedies today, it is a mild astringent and a diuretic. It stimulates gall bladder production and is a mild laxative. Its astringency has also stopped bleeding in the digestive tract and the resultant spitting of blood. Historically, liverwort has been used for kidney problems and bronchitis. It’s active constituent, protoaneminin, has been shown to have antibiotic action. The Russians use it in their folk medicine and also to treat cattle with mouth sickness.

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, most plants in this family are poisonous. This toxicity is usually of a low order and the toxic principle is destroyed by heat or by drying.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatica_nobilis
http://www.missouriplants.com/Bluealt/Hepatica_americana_page.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hepatica+americana
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

Achillea santolina

 
Botanical Name : Achillea santolina
Family:  Asteraceae
Genus : Achillea
Kingdom : Plantae
Division:  Marchantiophyta
Class : Angiospermae
Order :  Asterales

Common Name : Santolina yarrow

Habitat: Achillea santolina is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows well in cultivated bed.

Description:
Achillea santolina is a herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in most soils but prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position. Plants in this genus generally live longer when growing in a poor soil. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or early autumn in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 3 months[133]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, the divisions can be planted direct into their permanent positions. Basal cuttings of new shoots in spring. Very easy, collect the shoots when they are about 10cm tall, potting them up individually in pots and keeping them in a warm but lightly shaded position. They should root within 3 weeks and will be ready to plant out in the summer.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant is carminative and tonic. It is used to treat stomach aches in children.

Other Uses : … Repellent……..The plant is insect repellent.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources;
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achillea
http://eol.org/pages/6173218/names/common_names
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Achillea+santolina