Tag Archives: Cabinet of India

Siddha

Introduction:
Siddha  is usually considered as the oldest medical system known to mankind.  Contemporary Tamil literature holds that the system of Siddha medicine originated in Southern India, in the state of Tamil Nadu. Siddha is reported to have surfaced more than 10,000 years ago.

“Siddhargal” or Siddhars were the premier scientists of ancient days.  Siddhars, mainly from Southern India laid the foundation for this system of medication. Siddhars were spiritual adepts who possessed the ashta siddhis, or the eight supernatural powers. Sage Agathiyar is considered the guru of all Sidhars, and the Siddha system is believed to have been handed over to him by Lord . “Agathiyar” was the first Siddhar,   and his disciples and Siddhars from other schools produced thousands of texts on Siddha, including medicine, and form the propounders of the system to the world.

The Siddha science is the oldest traditional treatment system generated from Dravidian culture. The Siddha flourished in the period of Indus Valley civilization.  Palm leaf manuscripts says that the Siddha system was first described by Lord Shiva to his wife Parvati. Parvati explained all this knowledge to her son Lord Muruga. He taught all these knowledge to his disciple sage Agasthya. Agasthya taught 18 Siddhars and they spread this knowledge to human beings.

The word Siddha comes from the Sanskrit word Siddhi which means an object to be attained perfection or heavenly bliss.  Siddha focused to “Ashtamahasiddhi,” the eight supernatural power. Those who attained or achieved the above said powers are known as Siddhars. There were 18 important Siddhars in olden days and they developed this system of medicine. Hence, it is called Siddha medicine. The Siddhars wrote their knowledge in palm leaf manuscripts, fragments of which were found in parts of South India. It is believed that some families may possess more fragments but keep them solely for their own use. There is a huge collection of Siddha manuscripts kept by traditional Siddha families.

Generally the basic concepts of the Siddha medicine are almost similar to Ayurveda. The only difference appears to be that the siddha medicine recognizes predominance of Vaadham, Pitham and Kabam in childhood, adulthood and old age, respectively, whereas in Ayurveda, it is totally reversed: Kabam is dominant in childhood, Vaatham in old age and Pitham in adults.

According to the Siddha medicine, various psychological and physiological functions of the body are attributed to the combination of seven elements: first is ooneer (plasma) responsible for growth, development and nourishment; second is cheneer (blood) responsible for nourishing muscles, imparting colour and improving intellect; the third is oon (muscle) responsible for shape of the body; fourth is koluppu/Kozhuppu (fatty tissue) responsible for oil balance and lubricating joints; fifth is elumbu (bone) responsible for body structure and posture and movement; sixth is elumbu majjai (bone marrow) responsible for formation of blood corpuscles; and the last is sukkilam (semen) responsible for reproduction. Like in Ayurveda, in Siddha medicine also, the physiological components of the human beings are classified as Vaadham (air), Pitham (fire) and Kabam(earth and water).

Concept of disease and cause:
It is assumed that when the normal equilibrium of the three humors — Vaadham, Pittham and Kabam — is disturbed, disease is caused. The factors assumed to affect this equilibrium are environment, climatic conditions, diet, physical activities, and stress. Under normal conditions, the ratio between Vaadham, Pittham, and Kabam are 4:2:1, respectively.

According to the Siddha medicine system, diet and lifestyle play a major role in health and in curing diseases. This concept of the Siddha medicine is termed as pathiyam and apathiyam, which is essentially a list of “do’s and don’ts”

Diagnosis:
In diagnosis, examination of eight items is required which is commonly known as “enn vakaith thervu”. These are:

1.Na (tongue): black in Vaatham, yellow or red in pitham, white in kabam, ulcerated in anaemia.
2.Varnam (colour): dark in Vaatham, yellow or red in pitham, pale in kabam.
3.Kural (voice): normal in Vaatham, high-pitched in pitham, low-pitched in kabam, slurred in alcoholism.
4.Kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitham, pale in kabam.
5.Thodal (touch): dry in Vaatham, warm in pitham, chill in kapha, sweating in different parts of the body.
6.Malam (stool): black stools indicate Vaatham, yellow pitham, pale in kabam, dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness.
7.Neer (urine): early morning urine is examined; straw color indicates indigestion, reddish-yellow color in excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron color in jaundice, and looks like meat washed water in renal disease.
8.Naadi (pulse): the confirmatory method recorded on the radial art.

Drugs:
The drugs used by the Siddhars could be classified into three groups: thavaram (herbal product), thadhu (inorganic substances) and jangamam (animal products). The Thadhu drugs are further classified as: uppu (water-soluble inorganic substances or drugs that give out vapour when put into fire), pashanam (drugs not dissolved in water but emit vapour when fired), uparasam (similar to pashanam but differ in action), loham (not dissolved in water but melt when fired), rasam (drugs which are soft), and ghandhagam (drugs which are insoluble in water, like sulphur).

The drugs used in siddha medicine were classified on the basis of five properties: suvai (taste), gunam (character), veeryam (potency), pirivu (class) and mahimai (action).

According to their mode of application, the siddha medicines could be categorized into two classes:

Internal medicine was used through the oral route and further classified into 32 categories based on their form, methods of preparation, shelf-life, etc.
External medicine includes certain forms of drugs and also certain applications (such as nasal, eye and ear drops), and also certain procedures (such as leech application). It also classified into 32 categories.

Treatment:
The treatment in siddha medicine is aimed at keeping the three humors in equilibrium and maintenance of seven elements. So proper diet, medicine and a disciplined regimen of life are advised for a healthy living and to restore equilibrium of humors in diseased condition. Saint Thiruvalluvar explains four requisites of successful treatment. These are the patient, the attendant, physician and medicine. When the physician is well-qualified and the other agents possess the necessary qualities, even severe diseases can be cured easily, according to these concepts.

The treatment should be commenced as early as possible after assessing the course and cause of the disease. Treatment is classified into three categories: devamaruthuvum (Divine method); manuda maruthuvum (rational method); and asura maruthuvum (surgical method). In Divine method, medicines like parpam, Chendooragyhtyjm, guru, kuligai made of mercury, sulfur and pashanams are used. In the rational method, medicines made of herbs like churanam, kudineer, or vadagam are used. In surgical method, incision, excision, heat application, blood letting, or leech application are used.

According to therapies the treatments of siddha medicines could be further categorized into following categories such as purgative therapy, emetic therapy, fasting therapy, steam therapy, oleation therapy, physical therapy, solar therapy, blood-letting therapy, yoga therapy, etc.

Sidda education:
Siddha has lost its popularity after modern medicine was introduced, as a scientific medical system, even in Tamil Nadu. Still, there are a few ardent followers of the system who prefer Siddha for only a few diseases like jaundice. After some modern doctors, such as Dr. Ramalingam, IMPCOPS, president, Chennai, C.N. Deivanayagam, tried to popularize the Siddha system, a few modern doctors have started suggesting Siddha. In 2012, VA Shiva Ayyadurai, a Tamilian and MIT systems scientist, launched an educational program for medical doctors through the Chopra Center with Deepak Chopra which integrates concepts from traditional systems medicine such as Siddha, Ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine, with systems science and systems biology.

The Tamil Nadu state runs a 5.5-year course in Siddha medicine (BSMS: Bachelor in Siddha Medicine and Surgery). The Indian Government also gives its focus on Siddha, by starting up medical colleges and research centers like National Institute of Siddha  and Central Council for Research in Siddha. There has been renewed interest in Siddha, as many started feeling modern medicine is not complete and changing its stands/theories frequently. The health minister of Tamil Nadu in 2007 claimed that Siddha medicine is effective for chikungunya

Educational institutions:
Government of Tamil Nadu runs two Siddha medical colleges:

Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli district
Government Siddha Medical College, Anna Hospital Campus, Arumbakkam, Chennai – 600106

.
Government of India runs a Siddha medical college:

National Institute of Siddha, Grand Southern Trunk Road, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai – 600047

.
Colleges available in Kerala:

*Santhigiri Siddha Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram
*Private Siddha colleges (approved by Dept. of AYUSH, Govt. of India and affiliated to TN Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai):

*Velumailu Siddha Medical College and Hospital, No. 48, G.W.T. Road, Opp. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial, Sriperumbudur – 602 105
*Sri Sai Ram Siddha Medical College & Research Centre, Sai Leo Nagar, Poonthandalam, West Tambaram, Chennai – 600 044
*R.V.S. Siddha Medical College & Hospital, Kumaran Kottam, Kannampalayam, Coimbatore – 641042
*A.T.S.V.S. Siddha Medical College, Munchirai, Pudukkadai Post, Kanyakumari – 629171
*Sivaraj Siddha Medical College, Siddhar Kovil Road, Thumbathulipatty, Salem – 636307

.
Government of Sri Lanka runs three… Siddha medical colleges offering BSMS degrees:

*Department of Siddha Medicine, University of Jaffna, Kaithady, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
*Unit of Siddha Medicine, Trincomalee Campus, Eastern University, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddha_medicine

Advertisements

Unani

Unani is an another good form of treatment in the Alternative medicine group. This treatment is carried out in systematic programs that helps to achieve the perfect balance that is required to maintain perfect health.It is said to be very effective and inexpensive too……...CLICK & SEE

Description: Unani system of Medicine (Unanipathy) which originated in Greece is based on the principles propounded by Galen, a Greek practitioner. After him, many Arab and Persian scholars enriched the system. Among them Abu Sina, an Arab philosopher and Physicist who wrote ‘Kitab-al-shifa’ or ‘Avicenna‘ was noteworthy. This system earlier known as ‘Galenic‘, later became Unani (Arabic name for Greek) system of medicine.

This system has a long and impressive record in India. It was introduced in India around 10th century A.D with the spread of Islamic civilization. Now Unanipathy has become a part of Indian system of Medicine and India is one of the leading countries so far as its practice is concerned. It is very much similar to our Ayurveda.

Unani Medicine established that disease was a natural process and that symptoms were the reactions of the body to the disease. It believes in the humoral theory which presupposes the presence of 4 humours -Dam (blood), Balgham (phlegm), Safra( Yellow bile) and Sauda (black bile) in the body. Each humour has its own temperament – blood is hot and moist, phlegm cold and moist, yellow bile hot and dry and black bile cold and dry. According to Unani, if the four main humours and the four primary qualities were all in a state of mutual equilibrium, one is considered healthy.

The diagnosis of diseases in Unani system of medicine is through examination of pulse, urine and stool. This system observes the influence of surroundings and ecological conditions such as air, food, drinks, body movement and repose, phychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness and excretion and retention on the state of health. This influence causes a dominance of one of the four humours in every human body. Unani believes that it is this dominance which gives a man his individual habit and complexion i.e his temperament.

In short, Unanipathy aims at maintaining proper health by conserving symmetry in the different spheres of a man’s life. Unani practitioners not only cures bodily diseases but also acts as an ethical instructor.One can learn more about this treatment in this page. I would also advice to look into this page as well………click & see

Diagnosis:
Unani classical literature consists of thousands of books. According to Unani medicine, management of any disease depends upon the diagnosis of disease. In the diagnosis, clinical features, i.e., signs, symptoms, laboratory features and mizaj (temperament) are important.

Any cause and or factor is countered by Quwwat-e-Mudabbira-e-Badan (the power of body responsible to maintain health), the failing of which may lead to quantitatively or qualitatively derangement of the normal equilibrium of akhlat (humors) of body which constitute the tissues and organs. This abnormal humor leads to pathological changes in the tissues anatomically and physiologically at the affected site and exhibits the clinical manifestations.

Treatment:
After diagnosing the disease, Usoole Ilaj (principle of management) of disease is determined on the basis of etiology in the following pattern:

*  Izalae Sabab (elimination of cause)
* Tadeele Akhlat (normalization of humors)
* Tadeele Aza (normalization of tissues/organs)

For fulfillment of requirements of principle of management, treatment is decided as per the Unani medicine which may be one or more of the following:

*   Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer wa Ilaj-Bil-Ghiza (Regimenal Therapy). The disease may be treated by the modification of six essential pre-requisites of health (Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya in Unani Tibbi terminology). Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya may be modified by the use of one or more regimens: i.e., Dalak, Riyazat, Hammam, Taleeq, Takmeed, Hijamat (Cupping Therapy), Fasd, Lakhlakha, Bakhur, Abzan, Shamoomat (Aromatherapy), Pashoya, Idrar, Ishal, Qai, Tareeq, Elam, Laza-e-Muqabil, Imalah and alteration of food. According to the norms of C.C.I.M. New Delhi, Department of Ilaj-
Bil-Tadbeer has been established in almost all Unani Tibbi Colleges of India. In the State Unani Medical College, Allahabad, U.P. and State
Takmeel-Ul-Tibb College, Lucknow, Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is known as Moalijat Khususi. Moaliajt Khususi is the old nomenclature of
Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer, suggested by C.C.I.M. New Delhi. Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is synonym to Panchkarma in Ayurveda.

* Ilaj-Bil-Advia (Pharmacotherapy). For this purpose Mamulate Matab Nuskha (prescription) is formulated which contain the single and or compound (murakk?b?t) Unani drugs[12] having desired actions as per requirements.

*  Ilaj-Bil-Yad (Surgery)

As an alternative form of medicine, Unani has found favor in India where popular products like Roghan Baiza Murgh (Egg Oil) and Roghan Badaam Shirin (Almond Oil) are commonly used for hair care. Unani practitioners can practice as qualified doctors in India, as the government approves their practice. Unani medicine has similarities to Ayurveda. Both are based on theory of the presence of the elements (in Unani, they are considered to be fire, water, earth and air) in the human body. (The elements, attributed to the philosopher Empedocles, determined the way of thinking in Medieval Europe.) According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in different fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.

The theory postulates the presence of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in the human body. Each person’s unique mixture of these substances determines his Mizaj (temperament). a predominance of blood gives a sanguine temperament; a predominance of phlegm makes one phlegmatic; yellow bile, bilious (or choleric); and black bile, melancholic.

Unani Education:   In India, there are 40 Unani medical colleges where the Unani system of medicine is taught. After five and half year courses, the graduates are awarded BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery). There are about eight Unani medical colleges where a postgraduate degree (Mahir-e-Tib and Mahir Jarahat) is being awarded to BUMS doctors. All these colleges are affiliated to reputed universities and recognized by the governments.

Notable Unani organizations/institutions:
*Hamdard Al-Majeed College of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University, Pakistan
*Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad
*Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, India.
*National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, (Government of India)
*Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College, Gulbarga, Karnataka.
*Govt. Unani and Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Recognition:  In India, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971 under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine including, Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of formulations of systems of Indian medicine, includes 98,700 Unani formulations. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM)[16] established in 1979, also under AYUSH, aids and co-ordinates scientific research in the Unani system of medicine through a network of 22 nationwide research institutes and units, including two Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine, at Hyderabad and Lucknow, eight Regional Research Institutes at Chennai, Bhadrak, Patna, Aligarh, Mumbai, Srinagar, Kolkata and New Delhi, six Clinical Research Units at Allahabad, Bangalore, Karimganj, Meerut, Bhopal and Burhanpur, four Drug Standardisation Research Units at New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Lucknow, a Chemical Research Unit at Aligarh, a Literary Research Institute at New Delhi.

In Pakistan, Hamdard Foundation and Qarshi Foundation are prominent patrons of research and development in herbal medicines. Hamdard Research Institute of Unani Medicine at the Hamdard University offers advance degrees in the field.   The programs are accredited by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC),  and the Pakistan Pharmacy Council (PCP).

The Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery at Qarshi University, Pakistan offers education and training in a network of clinics and dispensaries across the country under Qarshi Foundation so that students acquire clinical skills under the guidance of experienced Hakeem during their academic training.

Qarshi Industries, Pakistan is one of the leading pharmaceutical companies manufacturing products using Ayurveda and Unani system of medicines.

.
Safety Precautions:  According to WHO, “Pharmacovigilance activities are done to monitor detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of any obnoxious adverse reactions to drugs at therapeutic concentration that is used or is intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of recipient.” These drugs may be any substance or product including herbs, minerals, etc. for animals and human beings and can even be that prescribed by practitioners of Unani or ayurvedic system of medicine. In recent days, awareness has been created related to safety and adverse drug reaction monitoring of herbal drugs including Unani drugs.

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unani