Tag Archives: Citrus

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum clava-herculis
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species: Z. clava-herculis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms: Zanthoxylum carolinianum. Zanthoxylum catesbianum. Zanthoxylum clavatum.

Common Names: Hercules Club. Prickly Ash – Southern, Hercules’ club, Southern Prickly Ash, Pepperwood, or Southern prickly ash

Habitat :Zanthoxylum clava-herculis is native to South-eastern N. America – Virginia to Florida, west to Texas and Arkansas. It is usually found as scattered trees near the coast in light sandy soils, often on bluffs of islands, river banks or dunes. Best growth is from plants in most rich soils with good drainage.
Description:
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis is a deciduous small Shrub or tree, growing to 3 m (9ft 10in) at a medium rate.It is in leaf 1-Mar It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The leaves are alternate, very tardily deciduous or evergreen, pinnately compound, 7-9 narrowly elliptical to lanceolate leaflets, leaflets with round-pointed teeth, waxy-shiny above, light green below, 5-8 inches overall, rachis may bear spines. The flowers are dioecious; in terminal many-branched racemes, individual flowers tiny and yellow-green, with 5 petals, appearing in early spring.
(Individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.Fruits are follicles produced in clusters, individual fruits enclosed in a brown husk that splits open at maturity to reveal a shiny red-brown to black seed.

Twigs are Stout, green changing brown-green, bearing sharp scattered single spines, leaf scars shield-shaped, terminal buds rounded and green to brown. The bark is very unique, gray-brown and smooth, with large spine-tipped corky-pyramidal projections, losing spines with age.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Massing. Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. The leaves are often persistent until the following spring when the new leaves are produced. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Special Features:North American native, Attracts butterflies, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
The following report is for Zanthoxylum americanum, it is probably also applicable to this species. Seed – used as a condiment. A pepper substitute. The fruit is rather small, about 4 – 5m in diameter, but is produced in dense clusters which makes harvesting easy. Each fruit contains a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis is quite widely used in herbal medicine, it has the same properties as Z. americanum, but is said to be more active. All parts of the plant, but especially the bark and roots, contain the aromatic bitter oil xanthoxylin. This has a number of applications in medicine. The fruit has a similar medicinal action to the bark. The bark and roots are irritant, odontalgic and antirheumatic. Along with the fruit they are diaphoretic, stimulant and a useful tonic in debilitated conditions of the stomach and digestive organs. They produce arterial excitement and are of use in the treatment of fevers, ague, poor circulation etc. The fruits are considered more active than the bark, they are also antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic and antirheumatic. The pulverized root and bark are used to ease the pain of toothache. One report says that it is very efficacious, but the sensation of the acrid bark is fully as unpleasant as the toothache. Chewing the bark induces copious salivation. Rubbing the fruit against the skin, especially on the lips or in the mouth, produces a temporary loss of sensation. A tea or tincture of the bark has been used in the treatment of rheumatism, dyspepsia, dysentery, heart and kidney troubles etc. A tea made from the inner bark has been used to treat itchy skin.

Other Uses: Wood – light, soft, weak and close-grained. It weighs 31lb per cubic foot. Too small for commercial use

Known Hazards: Absorption of gut iron reduced. sun sensitivity, bruising and bleeding. May interfere with cardiac glycoside therapy. May interfere with blood clotting drugs.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_clava-herculis
http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=649
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+clava-herculis

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Lime-berry

Botanical Name : Triphasia trifolia
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Triphasia
Species: T. trifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Other scientific Names:Limonia trifolia Burm. f. ,Limonia trifoliata Linn.,Triphasia trifoliata DC. ,Triphasia aurantiola Lour.

Common Names: Sua-sua (Bik.),Suang-kastila (Bik.),Tagimunau (Neg.), Lime-berry (Engl.),Trifoliate limeberry (Engl.),Triphasia (Engl.),Kalamansito (Ilk., Ibn.),Kamalitos (Tag.), Limoncito (Span.),Limonsitong-kastila (Bik.)

Habitat : Triphasia trifolia is native to tropical southeastern Asia in Malaysia and possibly elsewhere.Grows throughout the Philippines, in thickets and settled areas; in some places, abundant.

Description:
It is an evergreen  smooth shrub growing to a height of 2 to 3 meters.
The leaves are trifoliate, glossy dark green, each leaflet 2-4 cm long and 1.5-2 cm broad.  They have two sharp and slender spines at the base. The short-petioled leaves have three leaflets, ovate to oblong-ovate, the terminal one 2 to 4 cm long; the lateral ones, smaller. The margins are crenate. Flowers are very short-stalked, white, fragrant, and about 1 cm long. Fruit is ovoid, fleshy and red, somewhat resinous, about 12 mm long, similar to a small Citrus fruit.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
It is grown for its edible fruit, and has been widely introduced to other subtropical to tropical regions of the world; it has become naturalized on a number of islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

This tree is also considered a weed in other introduced locations.

Edible Uses:
*Fruit is edilbe, raw or cooked.
*Ripe fruit is pleasant and sweet tasting.
*Fruit can be pickled or made into jams.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized  :Leaves and fruits.

Constituents and Properties
• Berries are lemon-scented.
• Fragrant white flowers have a scent of orange blossoms.
• Leaves exude a resinous scent when bruised.
• Considered antifungal and antibacterial.
• Study yielded a new bicoumarin from the leaves and stems; the two coumarinic moieties are derivatives of mexoticin and meranzin hydrate.
• From the oil 81 compounds were identified, the main constituent was germacrene B.

Folkloric
*Leaves applied externally for colic, diarrhea, and skin afflictions.
*Fruits used for cough and sore throat.
*Preparation: Peel the fruits and soak overnight lime (apog) water. Rinse, and boil in 1 cup water with 1/2 cup sugar. Rinse and boil a second and third time as preferred, syrupy or candied, using as needed for cough or sore throat.

Studies
• Phenolics / Anti-HSV: Study on the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds on herpes simplex virus and HIV included 13 coumarins from Triphasia trifolia. The data suggests the bis-hydroxyphenyl structure as a potential target for anti-HSV and HIV drugs development.
• Bicoumarin: Study yielded a new bicoumarin from the leaves and stems of Triphasia trifolia.The two coumarinic moieties are derivatives of mexoticin and meranzin hydrate.

Others Uses:
*Leaves used in making aromatic bath salts.
*Leaves used as cosmetic.
*Cultivated for its ornamental fragrant flower and edible red fruit. Attractive as a garden hedge.
*The Limeberry has been used as a bonsai plant…....CLICK & SEE….

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Limonsito.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triphasia_trifolia
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/limeberry.htm
http://www.artofbonsai.org/galleries/worldview06.php

Rosa Canina

Botanical Name:Rosa Canina
Family:Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division:
Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Genus: Rosa
Species: R. canina

Comon Name:Rosehip,  Dog rose

Etymology:
The name ‘dog’ has a disparaging meaning in this context, indicating ‘worthless’ (by comparison with cultivated garden roses) (Vedel & Lange 1960). It was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to treat the bite of rabid dogs, hence the name “dog rose” arose. (It is also possible that the name derives from “dag,” a shortening of “dagger,” in reference to the long thorns of the plant.) Other old folk names include rose briar (also spelt brier), briar rose, dogberry, herb patience, sweet briar, wild briar, witches’ briar, and briar hip.

*In Turkish, its name is ku?burnu, which translates as “bird nose.”
*In Swedish, its name is stenros, which translates to “stone rose.”
*In Norwegian, its name is steinnype, which translates to “stone hip.”
*In Danish, , its name is hunderose, which translates as “dog rose.”
*In Azeri, its name is itburunu, which translates as “dog nose.”

Habitat: Rosa Canina is native to Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa and southwest Asia. It grows in the hedges, scrub, woods, roadsides, banks etc.

 

Description:
It is a fast growing deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1-5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked spines, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4-6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1.5-2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The branches bearing two inch (5cm) wide white to pale pink flowers in June followed by glossy red egg-shaped hips in autumn. These are good for rose-hip syrup, or provide excellent bird food in winter.

Invasive species
Dog rose is an invasive species in the high country of New Zealand. It was recognised as displacing native vegetation as early as 1895 although the Department of Conservation do not consider it to be a conservation threat.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a circumneutral soil and a sunny position with its roots in the shade. When grown in deep shade it usually fails to flower and fruit.  Succeeds in wet soils but dislikes water-logged soils or very dry sites. Tolerates maritime exposure. The fruit attracts many species of birds, several gall wasps and other insects use the plant as a host A very polymorphic species, it is divided into a great number of closely related species by some botanists. The leaves, when bruised, have a delicious fragrance. The flowers are also fragrant. Grows well with alliums, parsley, mignonette and lupins. Garlic planted nearby can help protect the plant from disease and insect predation. Grows badly with boxwood. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed. Rose seed often takes two years to germinate. This is because it may need a warm spell of weather after a cold spell in order to mature the embryo and reduce the seedcoat[80]. One possible way to reduce this time is to scarify the seed and then place it for 2 – 3 weeks in damp peat at a temperature of 27 – 32°c (by which time the seed should have imbibed). It is then kept at 3°c for the next 4 months by which time it should be starting to germinate. Alternatively, it is possible that seed harvested ‘green’ (when it is fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and sown immediately will germinate in the late winter. This method has not as yet(1988) been fully tested. Seed sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame sometimes germinates in spring though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be sown as early in the year as possible and stratified for 6 weeks at 5°c. It may take 2 years to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Plant out in the summer if the plants are more than 25cm tall, otherwise grow on in a cold frame for the winter and plant out in late spring. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July in a shaded frame. Overwinter the plants in the frame and plant out in late spring[78]. High percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth. Select pencil thick shoots in early autumn that are about 20 – 25cm long and plant them in a sheltered position outdoors or in a cold frame[78, 200]. The cuttings can take 12 months to establish but a high percentage of them normally succeed. Division of suckers in the dormant season. Plant them out direct into their permanent positions. Layering. Takes 12 months

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit; Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.

Fruit – raw or cooked. It can be used in making delicious jams, syrups etc. The syrup is used as a nutritional supplement, especially for babies[238]. The fruit can also be dried and used as a tea. Frost softens and sweetens the flesh. The fruit is up to 30mm in diameter, but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement. Be sure to remove the seed hairs. The dried leaves are used as a tea substitute. A coffee substitute according to another report. Petals – raw or cooked. The base of the petal may be bitter so is best removed. Eaten as a vegetable in China. The petals are also used to make an unusual scented jam

Medicinal Uses:
The petals, hips and galls are astringent, carminative, diuretic, laxative, ophthalmic and tonic. The hips are taken internally in the treatment of colds, influenza, minor infectious diseases, scurvy, diarrhoea and gastritis. A syrup made from the hips is used as a pleasant flavouring in medicines and is added to cough mixtures. A distilled water made from the plant is slightly astringent and is used as a lotion for delicate skins. The seeds have been used as a vermifuge. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Resignation’ and ‘Apathy’. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. Ascorbic acid in Dog Rose shells (vitamin C, 0.2 to 2.4%).

The hips yield ascorbic acid and are of the greatest value when given to young children. Rosehip tea has a mild diuretic and tonic effect, and the fresh petals can be made into a delicate jam. Rose hips are rich in Vitamin C and are traditionally made into conserves and puries. They were collected from the wild during World War II when citrus fruit was scarce. They will help the body’s defenses against infections and especially the development of colds. They make an excellent spring tonic and aid in general debility and exhaustion. They will help in cases of constipation and mild gall-bladder problems as well as conditions of the kidney and bladder. One of the best tonics for old dogs. Dog rose hips reduce thirst and alleviate gastric inflammation. The hips are taken internally in the treatment of colds, influenza, minor infectious diseases, scurvy, diarrhea and gastritis. A syrup made from the hips is used as a pleasant flavoring in medicines and is added to cough mixtures. A distilled water made from the plant is slightly astringent and is used as a lotion for delicate skins. The seeds have been used as a vermifuge. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bioactive compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Other Uses:
Plants make a dense and stock-proof hedge, especially when trimmed. 

Dog rose in culture
The dog rose was the stylized rose of Medieval European heraldry, and is still used today. It is also the county flower of Hampshire.

Known Hazards: There is a layer of hairs around the seeds just beneath the flesh of the fruit. These hairs can cause irritation to the mouth and digestive tract if ingested.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosa_canina
http://www.bucknur.com/acatalog/product_10286.html
http://www.actahort.org/books/690/690_13.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rosa+canina
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Pomelo

Botanical Name:Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr
Family: Rutaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Citrus
Species :C. maxima
Synonyms: Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck, Citrus decumana L.
Common Name:Pomelo, Pummelo, Chinese grapefruit, Pommelo, Shaddock, Jambola
Dutch: Pompelmoes
French: Pomélo, Pamplemousse
German: Pompelmus, Pampelmus
Spanish: Pomelo

Chinese grapefruit, pummelo, pommelo, Lusho Fruit, jabong, shaddock, Citrus maxima (Merr., Burm. f.), also Citrus grandis (L.), is a citrus fruit.
Indigenous names include som in Thai and buoi in Vietnamese. In Burmese, the fruit is called kywègaw thee in the south and shaupann thee in upcountry. In Malay and Indonesian, it is known as limau/jeruk bali (“Balinese lime/orange”) after the island of Bali. In the Philippines, while the common name is pomelo, it is also known as suha in Tagalog and boongon in Visayan.

In Chinese, the fruit is known as yòuzi , although the same Chinese characters can also be used for the yuzu, a different species. The Japanese refer to the pomelo as buntan ( buntan) or zabon ( zabon), apparently both derived from Cantonese captain , whose name is read Sha Buntan in Japanese.

Batabi Nimbu in India and particularly in Bengal

Habitat:The pomelo is native to South-East Asia.The pomelo is native to southeastern Asia and all of Malaysia; grows wild on river banks in the Fiji and Friendly Islands. It may have been introduced into China around 100 B.C. It is much cultivated in southern China (Kwang-tung, Kwangsi and Fukien Provinces) and especially in southern Thailand on the banks to the Tha Chine River; also in Taiwan and southernmost Japan, southern India, Malaya, Indonesia, New Guinea and Tahiti.

It is grown in many eastern countries including China, Japan, India, Fiji, Malaysia, and Thailand. It is also now grown in the Caribbean and in the United States, in California and Florida. In season November through March, Pummelos are especially popular for Chinese New Year. The Chinese believe the delectable Pummelo is a sign of prosperity and good fortune – good things will happen if they eat it.

Description:
The Tree is Evergreen,grows large to midium.Large flowers of 3-7 cm in diameter, either single or in small clusters, with cream colored petals. : Pomelo has the largest leaves among all citrus.
You may click to see the picture
Pomelo fruits are pale green to yellow when ripe. Pomelo is a big citrus fruit (larger than grapefruits), 10-25 cm in diameter, with a thick spongy rind. The flesh is sweet. Pulp vesicles are large with a yellow or pink color.

Cultivation and uses:-
The Chandler is a Californian variety with a smoother skin than many other varieties. In Vietnam, a particularly well known variety called b??i N?m Roi is cultivated in the Vinh Long Province of the Mekong Delta region.

The tangelo is a hybrid between the pomelo and the tangerine. It has a thicker skin than a tangerine and is less sweet.

The pummelo is an exotic large citrus fruit that is an ancient ancestor of the common grapefruit. It is the largest of the citrus fruits with a shape that can be fairly round or slightly pointed at one end (the fruit ranges from nearly round to oblate or pear-shaped). They range from cantaloupe-size to as large as a 25-pound watermelon and have very thick, soft rind. The skin is green to yellow and slightly bumpy; flesh color ranges from pink to rose.

Like grapefruits, they can range from almost seedless to very seedy, from juicy to dry, from sweet to sour. It is sweeter than a grapefruit and can be eaten fresh, although membranes around the segments should be peeled. Pummelos commonly have 16 to 18 segments, compared to most grapefruit that have about 12 segments. Be sure to refrigerate and use quickly. Use as you would grapefruit sections. They are also good for jams, jellies, marmalades and syrups.
The pomelo tastes like a sweet, mild grapefruit – it has very little or none of the common grapefruit’s bitterness, but the membranes of the segments are bitter and usually discarded. The peel is sometimes used to make marmalade, or candied then dipped in chocolate. The peel of the pomelo is also used in Chinese cooking or candied. In general, citrus peel is often used in southern Chinese cuisine for flavouring, especially in sweet soup desserts.

The flowers of Pomelo are highly aromatic and gathered in North Vietnam for making perfume. The wood is heavy, hard, tough, fine-grained and suitable for making tool handles.

Containts:One-fourth of a Pummelo (152 grams) has 60 calories and provides 130% of the Vitamin C recommended for the day. It is sodium, fat and cholesterol free and is a source of potassium.

Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines and Southeast Asia, decoctions of the leaves, flowers, and rind are given for their sedative effect in cases of epilepsy, chorea and convulsive coughing.
The hot leaf decoction is applied on swellings and ulcers. The fruit juice is taken as a febrifuge. The seeds are employed against coughs, dyspepsia and lumbago. Gum that exudes from declining trees is collected and taken as a cough remedy in Brazil.

In the Philippines and Southeast Asia, decoctions of the leaves, flowers, and rind are given for their sedative effect in cases of epilepsy, chorea and convulsive coughing, The hot leaf decoction is applied on swellingd and ulcers. The fruit juice is taken as a febrifuge . The sarcocarps are employed against coughs, dyspepsia and lumbago. Gum that exudes from declining trees is collected and taken as a cough remedy in Brazil . An essence prepared from the flowersis taken to overcome insomnia, also as a stomachic, and cardiac tonic. The pulp is considered an effective aid in the treatment of urinary disorders. Leaf extractions have shown antibiotic activity.

In Indian Ayurveda Pomelo is verymuch useful for vata-kaphha nashak,mild laxative,digestive,appetiser,loss of appetite,abdominal colick,worm,vomiting,nausea

Recipes
Pomelo salad

Ingredients:
1 large pomelo, 1 red chili, 1 clove garlic, 1 teaspoon honey, 1 tablespoon fish sauce, 1 stalk lemongrass, 2 limes, some fresh coriander

Preparation:
Peel and segment the pomelo. Crush the garlic. Slice the lemon grass (fine) and the chili. Squeeze the limes. Prepare a dressing from chili, garlic, honey, fish sauce, lemon grass and line juice. Mix this dressing in a bowl with the fruit and decorate it with fresh coriander.

Click for more Recipes of pomelo

Dangerous/Poisonous:
Like that of other citrus fruits, the peel of the pummelo contains skin irritants, mainly limonene and terpene, also citral, aldehydes, geraniol, cadinene and linalool, which may cause dermatitis in individuals having excessive contact with the oil of the outer peel.
Harvesters, workers in processing factories, and housewives may develop chronic conditions on the fingers and hands.
(Morton, J. 1987. Fruits of warm climates.)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomelo
http://whatscookingamerica.net/pomelo.htm
http://www.bijlmakers.com/fruits/pomelo.htm
http://www.ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?rid=419&plantid=2851

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/concepts/ayurveda.asp

http://www.pomelofruit.cn/faq.asp

Bhava

Botanical Name :Garcinia cowa
Family: Clusiaceae

Synonyms: Garcinia kydia

Other names: Bhava, chenhek.

Bengali/vernacular names: Kau, Cowa, Kaglichu; Kao-gola (Chittagong)

Tribal name: Kao-gula (Chakma, Tanchangya), Tah Gala (Marma)

English name: Cow Tree

Habitat: Bhava is a lesser known edible fruit found in the states of East India (Assam, Mizoram, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa).  It is also found in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  It occurs wild frequently in evergreen and semi evergreen forests or along streams in deep valleys,

Description:
Bhava is a decidious Trees 8-12 m tall, 15-20 cm in diam;  bark dark brown; branches many, borne toward top of trunk, horizontal but usually distally pendulous, slender; twigs dark brown, striate.

click & see the pictures

Petiole 0.8-1.5(-2) cm; leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 6-14 × 2-5 cm, papery, midvein raised abaxially, impressed adaxially; secondary veins 12-18 pairs, near margin joining together; tertiary veins conspicuous on both surfaces, base cuneate, sometimes slightly decurrent, margin cartilaginous, involute, apex acuminate or long acuminate, rarely acute or obtuse.

Dioecious; male flowers 3-8, terminal or axillary, in an umbel; umbel shortly pedunculate or rarely sessile, 4-bracteate at base; bracts subulate; pedicels 4-8 mm, slender; petals yellow, ca. 2 × as long as sepals; stamen fascicles 4, connate, forming a central capitate 4-sided mass of 40-50 anthers; filaments ± absent, at most short, anthers 4-celled, cells longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent; female flowers usually solitary, axillary, larger than male; pedicels robust, 2-3 mm; staminodes united in lower half and enveloping ovary base; filaments long or short, usually shorter than ovary; ovary ovoid, 4-8-loculed; stigma radiately 4-8-lobed, papillate, 6-7 mm high.

Fruit opaquely yellow-brown, ovoid-globose, oblique, 5-6 × 4-5 cm in diam., 4-8-sulcate, usually apiculate, pinkish red,  looking similar to tomato...click & see

Seeds 2-4, narrow, fusiform, slightly curved, ca. 2.5 cm, rough...click & see

Cultivation: New trees are raised from seed.  These are planted at a distance of 8 m from each other the bearing starts in 4-5 years.

Edible Uses:
The fruits are edible.  In spite of their being slightly sour in taste, these are fondly eaten by local people especially in Mizoram.  The fruits are also made into jam and preserve. The young leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

Chemical constituents:
Fruit pericarp is composed of a fat and the seeds yield a wax-like fat consisting of glycerides of stearic, oleic, palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Bark contains a gum resin (Ghani, 2003). A new compound 1,3,6-Trihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-xanthone has been isolated from stems (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Click to see :Chemical constituents and biological activities of
Garcinia cowa Roxb  :

Medicinal Uses:
In East India, the sun dried slices of this fruit are used to treat dysentery.Bark is astringent; used in spasm. Fruits are given in headache. Gum resin is drastic cathartic, may produce nausea and vomiting.

Ethanolic extract of the leaf may possesses antibacterial properties  too.

Other Uses:
The bark is used for dying clothes yellow.Bhava tree also produces a yellow gum resin which resembles gamboge.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.fruitipedia.com/Cowa_Garcinia_cova.htm
http://www.mpbd.info/plants/garcinia-cowa.php