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Artemisia tridentate

Botanical Name : Artemisia tridentate
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. tridentata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name: Sage Brush, Big sagebrush, Bonneville big sagebrush, Basin big sagebrush, Mountain big sagebrush

Habitat :Artemisia tridentate is native to western N. AmericaBritish Columbia to California and Mexico, east to Nebraska. It grows on dry plains and hills on calcareous soils. Found on slightly acid and on alkaline soils.

Description:
Artemisia tridentata is an evergreen Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in). It is frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in October, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. It may have a short trunk or be branched from the base. Small, velvety, silvery leaves have a sweet, pungent aroma and, en masse, give a bluish-gray effect. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

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Cultivation:
Requires a sunny position and a well-drained soil that is not too rich. Requires a lime-free soil. There are a number of sub-species growing in different habitats from deep fertile soils to poor shallow ones. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil[245]. Established plants are very drought tolerant. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. The plant is very aromatic, especially after rain. The pollen of this species is one of the main causes of hayfever in N. America. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse in a very free-draining soil, but making sure that the compost does not dry out. The sub-species A. tridentata vaseyana germinates better if given a cool stratification for 30 – 50 days. Other sub-species germinate in 1 – 2 weeks in a warm greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very slow to root Division in spring or autumn. Layering
Edible Uses:
Leaves are cooked and eaten. The subspecies A. tridentata vaseyana has a pleasant mint-like aroma whilst some other subspecies are very bitter and pungent. The leaves are used as a condiment and to make a tea. Seeds are eaten raw or cooked. Oily. It can be roasted then ground into a powder and mixed with water or eaten raw. The seed is very small and fiddly to use.
Medicinal Uses:

Antirheumatic; Antiseptic; Digestive; Disinfectant; Febrifuge; Miscellany; Ophthalmic; Poultice; Sedative; Skin.

Sage brush was widely employed by many native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a wide range of disorders. It is little used in modern herbalism, though it certainly merits further investigation. The plant is antirheumatic, antiseptic, digestive, disinfectant, febrifuge, ophthalmic, poultice and sedative. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of digestive disorders and sore throats. An infusion of the fresh or dried leaves is used to treat pneumonia, bad colds with coughing and bronchitis. It is used both internally and externally in the treatment of rheumatism. The crushed plant is used as a liniment on cuts, sores etc whilst a decoction of the leaves is used as an antiseptic wash for cuts, wounds and sores. A poultice of the steeped leaves is applied to sore eyes. The plant is burnt in the house in order to disinfect it.

A tea made of the leaves has been used to treat headache, stomachache, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, and as an antidote for poisoning. Some Indians chewed the leaves to ease stomach gas. A wash made of boiled and steeped leaves was used for treating bullet wounds and cuts, to bathe newborn babies, and as a hot poultice in treating rheumatism. A poultice was also placed on the stomach to induce menstruation, to relieve colic and treat worms. The leaves are boiled in water and the steam inhaled as a decongestant. Warm leaves may be applied to the neck to help a sore throat. The leaves are pungent and have been preferred for making medicine among other sagebrushes.

Other Uses
Basketry; Disinfectant; Dye; Fibre; Friction sticks; Fuel; Hair; Miscellany; Paper; Repellent; Stuffing; Tinder.

An infusion of the leaves is used as a hair rinse, it treats dandruff and falling hair. An infusion of the plant repels insects, it is also disinfectant and so is used for washing walls, floors etc. A yellow to gold dye is obtained from the leaves, buds and stems combined. The fibrous bark is used for weaving mats, baskets, cloth etc., or as a stuffing material in pillows etc and as an insulation in shoes to keep the feet warm. A fibre obtained from the inner bark is used for making paper. The fibres are about 1.3mm long. The stems are harvested in late summer, the leaves removed and the stems steamed until the fibre can be stripped off. The fibre is then cooked for two hours with lye before being ball milled for 4 hours. The resulting paper is a light tan/gold colour. A bunch of the leafy stems can be tied together and used as a broom. The shredded bark is a fine tinder for starting fires. The stems make good friction sticks for making fires. The seeds are used during celebrations because, when thrown into a fire, they explode like crackers. Wood – hard, dense. It burns rapidly and well, even when green, and has a pleasant aromatic smell

Known Hazards : Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_tridentata
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ARTR2
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+tridentata

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Crocus nudiflorus

Botanical Name :Crocus nudiflorus
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Crocoideae
Genus: Crocus
Species: C. nudiflorus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Crocus aphyllus, Crocus fimbriatus, Crocus multifidus, Crocus pyrenaeus

Common Name : Saffron

Other Names: Autumnal crocus, Naked-flowered crocus

Habitat: Crocus nudiflorus is native to S. Europe – S.W. France to N.E. Spain.(the plants are found over much of Europe, especially around the Mediterranean, in North Africa, and in Western Asia.) It goows on Meadows. (Soil…Sand, Chalk)

Description:
Crocus nudiflorus is a CORM growing to Height in inches 6-10 and spread is 15.

Foliage: The Dark Green grasslike leaves appear after the flowers; becoming 6-8 inches long and 0.125 inches wide.

Flower Colour in Month(s). Seed: Bright Purple, 6 inches in height, blooms in September-October before the leaves.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, butterflies.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained sandy or loamy soil that is free from clay. Prefers some shade from the hottest sun in summer and at least a modicum of moisture during its summer dormancy. Succeeds in grass, so long as this is not mown until the leaves die down, it also grows well under deep-rooting deciduous trees and shrubs. It can also be grown with very low shallow-rooting groundcover plants such as lawn camomile (Chamaemelum nobile ‘Treneague’). Plants are very frost hardy. Plants tend to move considerably from their original planting place because of their means of vegetative reproduction, it is therefore wise not to grow different species in close proximity. The corms should be planted about 5 – 8cm deep in the soil. Any planting out is best done in late spring or early summer. Plants take 4 – 5 years to come into flowering from seed. The flowers are only open during the day time, closing at night.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light sandy soil in pots in a cold frame. The seed can also be sown in a cold frame in early spring. Sow thinly because the seed usually germinates freely, within 1 – 6 months at 18°c. Unless the seed has been sown too thickly, do not transplant the seedlings in their first year of growth, but give them regular liquid feeds to make sure they do not become deficient. Divide the small bulbs once the plants have died down, planting 2 – 3 bulbs per 8cm pot. Grow them on for another 2 years in a greenhouse or frame and plant them out into their permanent positions when dormant in late summer. Plants take 3 – 4 years to flower from seed. Division of the clumps after the leaves die down in spring. The bulbs can be replanted direct into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
This species has been used as a saffron substitute. The following notes are for the genuine saffron, C. sativus:- The flower styles are used as a flavouring and yellow colouring for various foods such as bread, soups, sauces, rice and puddings. Extremely rich in riboflavin. Water soluble. Yields per plant are extremely low, about 4000 stigmas yield 25g of saffron. Saffron is the world’s most expensive spice, it takes 150,000 flowers and 400 hours work to produce 1 kilo of dried saffron. About 25 kilos of styles can be harvested from a hectare of the plant. The flower styles are used as a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
This species has been used as a saffron substitute. The following notes are for the genuine saffron, C. sativus:- Saffron is a famous medicinal herb with a long history of effective use. The flower styles and stigmas are the parts used, but since these are very small and fiddly to harvest they are very expensive and consequently often adulterated by lesser products. They are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, appetizer, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative and stimulant. They are used as a diaphoretic for children and to treat chronic haemorrhages in the uterus of adults. A dental analgesic is obtained from the stigmas. The styles are harvested in the autumn when the plant is in flower and are dried for later use, they do not store well and should be used within 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution, large doses can be narcotic and quantities of 10g or more can cause an abortion.
Other Uses: Plants are ideal for rock gardens and for slight forcing in bowls for an early indoor display. The yellow dye obtained from the stigmas has been used for many centuries to colour cloth. It is the favoured colouring for the cloth of Indian swamis who have renounced the material world. A blue or green dye is obtained from the petals.

Known Hazards: The following reports are for C. sativus. They quite possibly also apply to this species. The plant is poisonous. The plant is perfectly safe in normal usage but 5 – 10 grams of saffron has been known to cause death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocus_nudiflorus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crocus+nudiflorus
http://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/Bulb%20Colchicum%20Crocus%20Gallery/crocusnudiflorus.html
https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/4912/Crocus-nudiflorus/Details

Rhododendron japonicum

Botanical Name :Rhododendron japonicum
Family: Ericaceae (er-ek-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Rhododendron (roh-do-DEN-dron) (Info)
Species:japonicum (juh-PON-ih-kum) (Info)
Kingdom Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants
Subkingdom:Viridiplantae
Division:Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes
Subdivision:Spermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames
Order: Ericales

Synonyms:  R. metternichii. Sieb.&Zucc.

Common Names: Japanese azalea

Habitat :Rhododendron japonicum is native to E. Asia – Japan. It grows in the dense woods in mountains in C. and S. Japan, to 1800 metres.

Description:
Rhododendron japonicum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft 7in).
It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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Leaf type:the leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)

Leaves per node:there is one leaf per node along the stem

Leaf blade edges:the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes

Leaf duration:the leaves drop off in winter (or they wither but persist on the plant)

Armature on plant:the plant does not have spines, prickles, or thorns

Leaf blade length: 40–100 mm

Leaf stalk:the leaves have leaf stalks

Fruit type (general):the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe

Bud scale number: there are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. This species is closely related to R. molle and perhaps not distinct from it. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation :
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult
Edible Uses: …Leaves. No more details are given but some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
Diuretic, tonic

Known Hazards; Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhododendron+japonicum
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/rhododendron/japonicum/
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/94265/
http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=23718

Cistus salviifolius

Botanical Name : Cistus salviifolius
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Species:C. salviifolius
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms:
*Cistus macrocalyx Sennen & Pau
*Cistus paui Sennen
*Cistus salomonis Sennen & Malag.
*Cistus salviifolius   macrocalyx Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   longipedunculatus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   vulgaris Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   biflorus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   cymosus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   grandifolius Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius var. fissipetalus Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius var. occidentalis Rouy & Foucaud
*Cistus salviifolius var. rierae Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius var. schizocalyx Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius L.
*Ledonia peduncularis var. salviifolia (L.) Spach
*Ledonia peduncularis Spach

Common Names: Sage-leaved rock-rose, Salvia cistus or Gallipoli rose,Rock Rose, Salvia cistus, Sage Leaf Rock Rose

Habitat: Cistus salviifolius is native to Europe – Mediterranean. It grows on dry woods, thickets and banks, often on acid soils and on limestone, from sea level to 1200 metres in the Alpes Maritimes.
Description:

Cistus salviifolius is an evergreen Shrub.It has spreading stems covered by clumpy hairs. This bushy shrub reaches on average 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) in height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in). The oval-shaped green leaves are 1 to 4 centimeters long, opposite, reticulate, tomentose on both sides, with a short petiole (2–4 mm).

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The inflorescence holds one or more round flowers, long-stalked, arranged at the leaf axils. The five white petals have a yellow spot at the base, forming a corolla 4–6 cm in diameter. The stamens are also yellow and the anthers shed abundant yellow pollen. This plant is pollinated by insects entomophily, especially bees. It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in August. The fruit is a pentagonal capsule, 5–7 mm long.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Chemistry:
Cistus salviifolius contains flavan-3ols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and prodelphinidins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), epigallocatechin-(4??8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin -3-O-gallate-(4??8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-(4??6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-?-d -(6?-O-galloyl)-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene, epigallocatechin-(4??8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene and rhododendrin (betuloside). It also contains ellagitannins of the punicalagin type

Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The dried leaves are used as an adulterant for marjoram (Origanum majorana).
Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Other Uses:
A good ground cover plant for the milder areas of Britain. The form ‘Prostratus’ has been recommended
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cistus_salviifolius
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cistus+salviifolius

Cicely (Myrrhis odorata)

Botanical Name:Myrrhis odorata
Family:    Apiaceae
Genus:    Myrrhis
Species: M. odorata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Apiales

Common Names: Cicely or Sweet Cicely,Myrhh

Habitat :Cicely is native to mountains of southern and central Europe, introduced and naturalized elsewhere in cultivated areas. I grows on woodland margins, roadside verges, river banks and grassland.

Description:
Cicely is an herbaceous perennial plant  growing to 2 m [6 ft 6 in] tall, depending on circumstances. The leaves are 2-4-pinnate, finely divided, feathery, up to 50 cm long, with whitish patches near the rachis. The plant is softly hairy and smells strongly of aniseed when crushed. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles.The plant is self-fertile. The flowers are white, about 2–4 mm across, produced in large umbels. The fruits are slender, 15–25 mm long and 3–4 mm broad.
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Cultivation: 
Prefers a moist rich soil in a shady position. Thrives in all soils in sun or shade. This species is hardy to about -15°c according to one report whilst another says that it is hardy to at least -20°c. Plants often self-sow freely. Sweet cicely used to be quite widely cultivated as a food plant but is now only occasionally grown in the herb garden. This is a shame since it is an extremely useful and tasty plant to grow and can provide food all year round. A good bee plant.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe since stored seed is difficult to germinate. The seed can be sown in an outdoor seedbed or, if supplies are limited, it can be sown in pots in a cold frame. Thin the seedlings in the outdoor bed as necessary (eat the thinnings) and transplant the young plants into their final positions in the following spring. Prick out the pot-grown seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in spring. Division in spring or autumn. Remove the tapering tap root and cut the remaining root into sections with at least one eye per section and replant in their permanent position.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Excellent raw, the leaves have a delicious sweet aniseed flavour and are liked by the majority of people who try them. They are also used as a flavouring for vegetables, and are an important ingredient of the herb mix ‘bouquet garni’. They can be cooked with tart fruits in order to reduce their acidity. The plant produces fresh leaves from late winter to early the following winter. The leaves can also be dried for later use. It is best to prevent the plant from flowering if the leaves are required for culinary use, because they lose their flavour when the plant is in flower. Root – raw or cooked. A similar flavour to the leaves. So long as it is not too old, the root can be boiled and mixed with other vegetables or added to salads. Seed – raw or cooked. An aniseed flavour, it is usually used as a flavouring but can also be eaten raw whilst it is still green and before the fibrous coat has formed. It makes an excellent mouth freshener. A tea is made from the leaves.

Medicinal Uses:
Cicely  has a history of use as a medicinal.The whole plant, including the seed, is aromatic, carminative, expectorant and stomachic. It is useful in the treatment of coughs and flatulence, and also as a gentle stimulant for the stomach. The root is antiseptic and a decoction has been used to treat snake and dog bites. An ointment made from the roots has been used to ease gout and soothe wounds.

Other Uses:
The leaves and the seed make good polishes for wood. You just rub them over the wood and then rub the wood with a clean cloth to remove any greenness. It is particularly good on oak panels, giving a lovely glossy finish and an aromatic smell.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Myrrhis+odorata
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicely