Tag Archives: Europe

Allium subhirsutum

Botanical Name: Allium subhirsutum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. subhirsutum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium album F.Delaroche
*Allium brachystemon Redouté
*Allium ciliare F.Delaroche
*Allium ciliatum Cirillo
*Allium clusianum Retz. ex Willd

Common Name : Hairy garlic

Habitat :Allium subhirsutum is native to Europe – Mediterranean region from Spain and the Canary Islands to Turkey and Palestine. It grows on rocky stony arid places, woods.

Description:
Allium subhirsutum is a perennial herb up to 50 cm tall. Leaves are long, up to 15 mm across, tapering toward the tip, with hairs along the margins (hence the name “hairy garlic”). The umbel contains only a few flowers, white with thin pink midveins.It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 6-Oct It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a warm sunny position. The plants require a period of summer rest when they are best kept dry but they do succeed in a well-drained sunny position in the open garden. Prefers a rich moist but well-drained soil. Closely related to A. neopolitanum and A. trifoliatum,   this species comes into new growth in the autumn and flowers in the spring, dying down in the summer. It is a potential winter salad crop but is less hardy than A. neopolitanum so is only suitable for the mildest areas of Britain. The plant is thriving at Kew and so is hardier than the books say. The plants can flower within 12 months of germination, the bulbs are also producing offsets by this time. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse. It germinates quickly and can be grown on in the greenhouse for the first year, planting out the dormant bulbs in the late summer of the following year if they have developed sufficiently, otherwise grow on in pots for a further year. Stored seed can be sown in spring in a greenhouse. Division in summer after the plants have died down. Very easy, the bulbs divide freely and can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is about 15mm in diameter. It is used like garlic as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods. The flavour is somewhat milder with a slight sweetness, and it can be used in much greater quantities than garlic. The bulbs are harvested in mid summer once the plant has died down, and will store for at least 6 months. Leaves – raw or cooked. The leaves have a pleasant texture, they are slightly sweet with a mild garlic flavour and can be available all winter. Flowers – raw. A mild garlic flavour with a delicate sweetness. Used in the spring as a garnish on salads, they are attractive to both the eye and the tongue.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:….Repellent……The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in very large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_subhirsutum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+subhirsutum

Myricaria germanica

Botanical Name : Myricaria germanica
Family: Tamaricaceae
Genus: Myricaria
Species: Myricaria germanica
Subspecies: M. g. subsp. alopecuroides
Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Habitat ;Myricaria germanica is native to C. and S. Europe to E. Asia. It grows on the river banks, by the sides of mountain streams and other sandy occasionally inundated places.
Description:
Myricaria germanica is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). It is in flower from Jul to August. Twigs erect, brown reddish. Leaves 2–5, linear-lanceolate, greyish green, obtuse, sessile, imbricate. Bracts longer than flowers. Calyx and corolla 5-lobed, pink to white, in terminal spikes, 4–12 cm long. Anthers 10, ovary with sessile stigmas. Capsule pyramidal. Seeds small, with a pappus of hairs. Fl. VI–VII, fr. VII–VIII. Insect pollination. Reproduction by seeds.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile well-drained soil in full sun with shelter from cold drying winds. Tolerates chalk soils. An easily grown plant, preferring a damp sandy soil. Closely related and very similar to Tamarisk spp.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, November to January in a sandy propagating mix in an open frame.
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the bark is aperient. It is used in Spain in the treatment of jaundice.

Other Uses:….Fuel…….The wood is used as a fuel
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Myricaria_germanica
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Myricaria+germanica

http://e-ecodb.bas.bg/rdb/en/vol1/Myrgerma.html

Astragalus hamosus

Botanical Name: Astragalus hamosus
Family : Fabaceae
Subfamily : Faboideae
Tribe : Galegeae
United : Plantae
Division : magnoliophyta
Class : magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order : Fabales

Common Name : European milkvetch
Habitat : Astragalus hamosus is native to EuropeMediterranean to Armenia, Ukraine and the Caucasus. It grows on the dry grassland. Semidesert areas in foothills and the low montane belt, on clay, loess, sand and rock debris.

Description:
Astragalus hamosus is an annual herbiculas plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The lives in dry fields and meadows terofíticos . It branches from the base but branches are applied to the soil. The leaves have many leaflets , but less and are smaller than in Astragalus boeticus .
It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.

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The flowers are white, are grouped at the end of a stalk . The fruits perfectly characterize this species as they are strongly curved, they are similar to some fishhooks. It blooms in the spring and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidIt is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. optera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Grows well in Cornwall. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best sown in situ. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – sow late winter in a greenhouse. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water. If any seed does not swell up in this time then carefully prick it with a needle making sure that you do not damage the embryo, and re-soak for a further 24 hours. Germination usually takes place within 3 – 6 weeks at 13°c. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer.
Edible Uses: Young seedpods – cooked. They quickly become tough and fibrous. The young seedpods are also used in salads. They have only a mediocre taste, but look very much like certain worms and so are used mainly for their novelty value.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant is demulcent, emollient, galactogogue and laxative. It is useful in treating irritation of the mucous membranes, nervous affections and catarrh.

Known Hazards: Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+hamosus
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus_hamosus

Astragalus exscapus

Botanical Name : Astragalus exscapus
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Astragalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Habitat :Astragalus exscapus is native to Central EuropeMoldavia and the Ukraine. It grows on steppe and foothills, on limestone soils.
Description:
Astragalus exscapus is a perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
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It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Succeeds in poor soils. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. This plant is a sub-shrub and although it produces woody stems these tend to die back almost to the base each winter. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing – but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours. Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 – 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of syphilitic sores.

Other Uses:
A gum called morea tragacanth is obtained from the stem (see above). It has a wide range of uses including:- a thickening agent in preparing dyes for calico printing, textile dyes and for dressing fabrics, it is also a thickener in making glues, water colours, ink (where it supplies a gloss), it is a binding agent in paper making, a culture medium in laboratories etc

Known Hazards : Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+exscapus

Ferula gummosa

 

Botanical Name : Ferula gummosa
Familia: ApiaceaeGalbanum
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales
Tribe: Scandiceae
Subtribes: Ferulinae
Species: Ferula gummosa

Synonyms : Ferula galbaniflua. Bioss.&Buhse.

Common Names: Galbanum
Vernacular names:-
Akan: Prekese
italiano: Galbano

Habitat :Ferula gummosa is native to W. Asia – Central Iran, Turkey and southern Russia. It grows on herbaceous slopes in steppes.

Description:
Ferula gummosa is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Another report says that it tolerates temperatures down to at least -15°c and should therefore succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance due to their long taproot. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. The flowers have an unpleasant smell.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment…….The gum resin obtained from the root is used as a celery-like food flavouring.
Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin ‘galbanum‘. This is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant and stimulant. It is used internally in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, asthma and other chest complaints. It is a digestive stimulant and antispasmodic, reducing flatulence, griping pains and colic. Externally it is used as a plaster for inflammatory swellings, ulcers, boils, wounds and skin complaints.

Other Uses:
The aromatic gum resin ‘Galbanum’ is obtained from wounds made in the stem. It is collected by removing soil from around the top of the root and then cutting a slice off the root and can also be obtained from incisions made in the stem. It is used medicinally and is also an ingredient of incense. It was an important ingredient of the incense used by the Israelites

Researches:
The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin “galbanum”. A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents–polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia–on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p < 0.05) and the friability percent was of the reverse order (p < 0.05). The ranking for the dissolution rate of tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ferula_gummosa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+gummosa
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22568044

Taxus cuspidata

Botanical Name: Taxus cuspidata
Family: Taxaceae
Genus: Taxus
Species: T. cuspidata
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Common Names: Japanese yew or Spreading yew

Habitat :Taxus cuspidata is native to Japan, Korea, northeast China and the extreme southeast of Russia. It grows on mountains throughout Japan. Acid soils in cold, humid places at elevations of 500 – 1000 metres in Heilongjiang, E Jilin, Liaoning and Shaanxi provinces, China.
Description:
It is an evergreen tree or large shrub growing at a slow rate to 10–18 m tall, with a trunk up to 60 cm diameter. The leaves are lanceolate, flat, dark green, 1–3 cm long and 2–3 mm broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flattish rows either side of the stem except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious.

The seed cones are highly modified, each cone containing a single seed 4–8 mm long partly surrounded by a modified scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril, 8–12 mm long and wide and open at the end. The arils are mature 6–9 months after pollination. Individual trees from Sikhote-Alin are known to have been 1,000 years old.

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It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.

It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation:
Thrives in almost any soil, acid or alkaline, as long as it is well-drained[1, 200]. Succeeds in dry soils. Very shade tolerant. The dormant plant is hardy to about -35°c but it requires more summer heat and humidity than T. baccata and is rarely more than a shrub in Britain. Young shoots can be damaged by late spring frosts. The foliage may turn reddish-brown in cold winters[81]. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value. Plants produce very little fibrous root and should be planted in their final positions when still small. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if fruit and seed is required. Female plants fruit freely in Britain if they are pollinated. Special Features:Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – can be very slow to germinate, often taking 2 or more years. It is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn when it should germinate 18 months later. Stored seed may take 2 years or more to germinate. 4 months warm followed by 4 months cold stratification may help reduce the germination time. Harvesting the seed ‘green’ (when fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and then sowing it immediately has not been found to reduce the germination time because the inhibiting factors develop too early[80]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and grow them on in pots in a cold frame. The seedlings are very slow-growing and will probably require at least 2 years of pot cultivation before being large enough to plant out. Any planting out is best done in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe terminal shoots, 5 – 8cm long, July/August in a shaded frame. Should root by late September but leave them in the frame over winter and plant out in late spring. High percentage. Cuttings of ripe terminal shoots, taken in winter after a hard frost, in a shaded frame.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or made into jam. Very sweet and gelatinous, most people find it delicious though some find it sickly. The fruit is a fleshy berry about 8mm in diameter and containing a single seed. All other parts of this plant, including the seed, are highly poisonous. When eating the fruit you should spit out the large seed found in the fruit’s centre. Should you swallow the whole seed it will just pass straight through you without harm, if the seed has been bitten into, however, it could cause some problems.
Medicinal Uses:
Modern research has shown that yew trees contain the substance ‘taxol’ in their shoots and bark. Taxol has shown exciting potential as an anti-cancer drug, particularly in the treatment of ovarian cancers. This remedy is very toxic and, even when used externally, should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. See also the notes below on toxicity. A compound used to treat diabetes is extracted from the wood, bark, leaves, and roots.

Other Uses :
A brown dye is obtained from the heartwood. Red according to another report. An oil is extracted from the seeds. Wood – hard, strong, elastic, fine grained, takes a beautiful polish. Used for furniture, bows etc. The wood is used in building construction, furniture manufacture and as a carving material.

Landscape Uses:Hedge, Screen, Superior hedge, Specimen. It is widely grown in eastern Asia and eastern North America as an ornamental plant.
Known Hazards: All parts of the plant, except the flesh of the fruit, are highly poisonous. The entire yew bush is toxic enough to kill a horse, except for the fleshy berry surrounding the seed. For dogs, 2/5ths of an oz per 10 pounds of body weight is lethal. It is therefore advisable to keep domestic animals away from the plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxus_cuspidata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Taxus+cuspidata

Portulaca grandiflora

Botanical Name: Portulaca grandiflora
Family: Portulacaceae
Genus: Portulaca
Species:P. grandiflora
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Caryophyllales

Synonyms:
*Portulaca hilaireana G. Don
*Portulaca immersostellulata Poelln.
*Portulaca mendocinensis Gillies ex Hook.
*Portulaca multistaminata Poelln.

Common Names: Rose moss, Eleven o’clock, Mexican rose, Moss rose, Sun rose, Rock rose, and Moss-rose purslane, 9’O Clock

Habitat:Portulaca grandiflora is native to S. America – Brazil. Occasionally established in S. and S.C. Europe. It is also seen in South Asia and widely spread in most of the cities with old 18th- and 19th-century architecture in the Balkans. In Pakistan it is called Gul Dopheri, meaning After Noon Flower, as flowers bloom whole after noon in summer’s heat. In Bangladesh, it is called “time fuul”, meaning “time flower”, because the flower has a specific time to bloom. In India, it is called “nau bajiya” or “9 o’clock flower” as it blooms in morning around 9:00 am. In the Philippines,it is called uru-alas dose or like twelve o’clock because it loses its bloom by noon. In Vietnam, it is called “hoa m??i gi?” meaning “ten o’clock flower”, because the flower is usually in full bloom at 10:00 in the morning. Its buds are often chewed by small birds like the house sparrow. It grows on roadsides and waste places in Europe.

Description:
Portulaca grandiflora is a small, but fast-growing annual plant growing to 30 cm tall, though usually less. However if it is cultivated properly it can easily reach this height. The leaves are thick and fleshy, up to 2.5 cm long, arranged alternately or in small clusters. The flowers are 2.5–3 cm diameter with five petals, variably red, orange, pink, white, and yellow.

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It is frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a rather dry poor soil in full sun. Succeeds in a hot dry position, and dislikes wet soils. Although a perennial when grown in warmer climates than Britain, it is best treated as a half-hardy annual in this country. There are some named forms selected for their ornamental value.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a greenhouse, pricking out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Plant out after the last expected frosts. The seed can also be sown in situ in late spring, though the plants will not grow so large this way.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be ground into a powder and used in soups etc, or can be added to cereals. The seed is very small and fiddly to utilize. Root – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
The entire plant is depurative. It is used in the treatment of hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver with ascites, swelling and pain in the pharynx. The fresh juice of the leaves and stems is applied externally as a lotion to snake and insect bites, burns, scalds and eczema.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portulaca_grandiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Portulaca+grandiflora

Centaurea melitensis

Botanical Name :Centaurea melitensis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cynareae
Genus: Centaurea
Species:C. melitensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Maltese star-thistle in Europe, Tocalote or Tocolote

Habitat: Centaurea melitensis is native to Mediterranean region, eastwards to Greece and Tunisia.  It grows on wasteplaces and roadsides.
Description:
Centaurea melitensis is an erect winter annual with a spiny, yellow-flowered head that typically reaches 1 m tall. The stems are stiff and openly branched from near or above the base or sometimes not branched in very small plants. Stem leaves are alternate, and mostly linear or narrowly oblong to oblanceolate. Margins are smooth, toothed, or wavy, and leaf bases extend down the stems (decurrent) and give stems a winged appearance. Rosette leaves typically are withered by flowering time.

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It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
We do not have information on this species, but the following notes are based on the closely related C. solstitialis. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Prefers a well-drained fertile soil and a sunny position. Tolerates dry, low fertility and alkaline soils. A good bee and butterfly plant the flowers are rich in nectar. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow April in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. If you have sufficient seed it can be sown in situ in the spring, and an autumn swing in situ might also be worth trying.

Medicinal Uses: The plant is used in the treatment of the kidneys.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurea_melitensis
http://texasinvasives.org/plant_database/detail.php?symbol=CEME2
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Centaurea+melitensis

Scolymus hispanicus

Botanical Name : Scolymus hispanicus
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Scolymus
Species:S. hispanicus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Scolymus hispanicus

Common Names:Spanish Salsify, Common golden thistle or Spanish oyster thistle

Habitat: Scolymus hispanicus is native to southern and western Europe, north to northwestern France. It grows in dry open places.

Description:
Scolymus hispanicus is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plant growing to 80 cm tall, with spiny stems and leaves. The flowerheads are bright yellow to orange-yellow, 2–3 cm diameter. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:...Grows well in an ordinary garden soil in sun or semi-shade.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and plant out in the summer. Seed can also probably be sown in situ. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer

Edible Uses: Coffee; Colouring…..The stalks are eaten raw or boiled. Very popular in almost every province of Spain, where it’s usually eaten in stews during Spring time. It’s also used in salads, soups and with scrambled eggs in Andalusia, Spain, where it is called “tagarnina”. In the sixteenth century in Salamanca, the washed young plants used to be eaten with their root, either raw or in stews with meat.

Medicinal Uses: Since at least the time of Theophrastus in ancient Greece, this plant has been known for medicinal uses. Although it has been cultivated at times, currently most of the plant which is consumed comes from harvesting of wild plant. In ancient medicine the plant was used as a diuretic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scolymus_hispanicus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Scolymus+hispanicus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Viburnum mullaha

 

Botanical Name : Viburnum mullaha
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Domain: Eukaryotes
Kingdom :Plants
Division: Vascular plants
Class: Dicotyledonous angiosperms
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms : V. stellulatum.

Common Names:

Habitat :Viburnum mullaha is native to E. AsiaHimalayas. It grows in the forests and shrubberies, especially in moist localities in the undergrowth of oak and fir, to 3000 metres.

Description:
Viburnum mullaha is a tall deciduous Shrub growing 10-15′ tall and 8-10′ across. Medium green leaves are a broad oval, tapering to the pedicel and deeply dentate along the top half. White flowers in 2-3″ wide cymes in May. Fruit is egg-shaped, yellow at first, changing to red and slightly hairy.
It is frost tender. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile…CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Edible Uses:..Fruit  – raw or cooked. Acid tasting.

Medicinal Uses:
Stimulant; Stomachic.

The crushed fruit is eaten as a stimulant. The juice of the fruit is used to treat indigestion.

Other Uses:…Dye; Wood…..A dye is obtained from the fruit. Wood – moderately hard. The straight branches are used for walking sticks

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_mullaha
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+mullaha
http://www.classicviburnums.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/plants.plantDetail/plant_id/7136/whichname/genus/index.htm