Tag Archives: Eye Disorders

Blepharochalasis

Definition:
Blepharochalasis is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue resulting in redundant folds over the lid margins. It typically affects only the upper eyelids, and may be unilateral as well as bilateral.

click to see the pictures

Subjective: Lax, wrinkled, and baggy eyelid skin

Blepharochalasis results from recurrent bouts of painless eyelid swelling, each lasting for several days. This is thought to be a form of localized angioedema, or rapid accumulation of fluid in the tissues. Recurrent episodes lead to thin and atrophic skin. Damage to the levator palpebrae superioris muscle causes ptosis, or drooping of the eyelid, when the muscle can no longer hold the eyelid up.

These episodes often result in eyelid skin redundancy. In 1817, Beer initially described the condition; however, in 1896, Fuchs first assigned the term blepharochalasis to this entity. The word blepharochalasis originates from the Greek blepharon (eyelid) and chalasis (a relaxing).

Various disease stages have been observed. In 1926, Benedict described a swelling stage and a subsequent stage characterized by thinning skin. Others have suggested an active, intumescent phase that precedes a quiescent, atrophic phase.

It is encountered more commonly in younger rather than older individuals.

Symptoms:
•Droopy eyelid
•Eyelid swelling
•Stretched eyelid
•Degeneration of the eyelid
•Thin eyelids

Causes:
Blepharochalasis is idiopathic in most cases, i.e., the cause is unknown. Systemic conditions linked to blepharochalasis are renal agenesis, vertebral abnormalities, and congenital heart disease.

Complications:
Complications of blepharochalasis may include conjunctival hyperemia (excessive blood flow through the moist tissues of the orbit), chemosis, entropion, ectropion, and ptosis.

Diagnosis:
Blepharochalasis is often confused with dermatochalasis, which refers to the lax and redundant skin most commonly observed in the upper eyelids with aging. However, dermatochalasis is usually not associated with recurrent attacks of edema, “cigarette-paper” skin, and subcutaneous telangiectasia, as observed in blepharochalasis.

Treatment:-
Surgery:

A surgeon trained to do eyelid surgery, such as a plastic surgeon or ophthalmologist, is required to decide and perform the appropriate surgical procedure. Following procedures have been described for blepharochalasis:

*External levator aponeurosis tuck
*Blepharoplasty
*Lateral canthoplasty
*Dermis fat grafts

These are used to correct atrophic blepharochalasis after the syndrome has run its course.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blepharochalasis
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1214014-overview
http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v18/n4/fig_tab/6700668f2.html

http://elementsofmorphology.nih.gov/index.cgi?tid=995a2398db7eefe2

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Retinitis pigmentosa

Definition:
Retinitis pigmentosa(RP) is an eye disease in which there is damage to the retinaretina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye that converts light images to nerve signals and sends them to the brain.

CLICK & SEE 
It is a group of genetic eye conditions that leads to incurable blindness. In the progression of symptoms for RP, night blindness generally precedes tunnel vision by years or even decades. Many people with RP do not become legally blind until their 40s or 50s and retain some sight all their lives. Others go completely blind from RP, in some cases as early as childhood. Progression of RP is different in each case.

RP is a type of progressive retinal dystrophy, a group of inherited disorders in which abnormalities of the photoreceptors (rods and cones) or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the retina lead to progressive visual loss. Affected individuals first experience defective dark adaptation or nyctalopia (night blindness), followed by reduction of the peripheral visual field (known as tunnel vision) and, sometimes, loss of central vision late in the course of the disease.

Symptoms:
Mottling of the retinal pigment epithelium with black bone-spicule pigmentation is typically indicative (or pathognomonic) of retinitis pigmentosa. Other ocular features include waxy pallor of the optic nerve head, attenuation (thinning) of the retinal vessels, cellophane maculopathy, cystic macular edema and posterior subcapsular cataract.

Symptoms often first appear in childhood, but severe vision problems do not usually develop until early adulthood.

•Decreased vision at night or in low light
•Loss of side (peripheral) vision, causing “tunnel vision”
•Loss of centralcentral vision (in advanced cases)

Causes:
It is a group of genetic eye conditions that leads to incurable blindness. In the progression of symptoms for RP, night blindness generally precedes tunnel vision by years or even decades. Many people with RP do not become legally blind until their 40s or 50s and retain some sight all their lives. Others go completely blind from RP, in some cases as early as childhood. Progression of RP is different in each case.

RP is a type of progressive retinal dystrophy, a group of inherited disorders in which abnormalities of the photoreceptors (rods and cones) or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the retina lead to progressive visual loss. Affected individuals first experience defective dark adaptation or nyctalopia (night blindness), followed by reduction of the peripheral visual field (known as tunnel vision) and, sometimes, loss of central vision late in the course of the disease.

Retinitis pigmentosa can run in families. The disorder can be caused by a number of genetic defects.

The cells controlling night vision (rods) are most likely to be affected. However, in some cases, retinal cone cells are damaged the most. The main sign of the disease is the presence of dark deposits in the retina.

The main risk factor is a family history of retinitis pigmentosa. It is an uncommon condition affecting about 1 in 4,000 people in the United States.

Diagnosis:-
The diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa relies upon documentation of progressive loss in photoreceptor cell function by electroretinography (ERG) and visual field testing.

The mode of inheritance of RP is determined by family history. At least 35 different genes or loci are known to cause “nonsyndromic RP” (RP that is not the result of another disease or part of a wider syndrome).

DNA testing is available on a clinical basis for:

*RLBP1 (autosomal recessive, Bothnia type RP)
*RP1 (autosomal dominant, RP1)
*RHO (autosomal dominant, RP4)
*RDS (autosomal dominant, RP7)
*PRPF8 (autosomal dominant, RP13)
*PRPF3 (autosomal dominant, RP18)
*CRB1 (autosomal recessive, RP12)
*ABCA4 (autosomal recessive, RP19)
*RPE65 (autosomal recessive, RP20)

For all other genes, molecular genetic testing is available on a research basis only.

RP can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. X-linked RP can be either recessive, affecting primarily only males, or dominant, affecting both males and females, although males are usually more mildly affected. Some digenic (controlled by two genes) and mitochondrial forms have also been described.

Tests:-
Tests to evaluate the retina:

•Color vision
•Examination of the retina by ophthalmoscopyophthalmoscopy after the pupils have been dilated
•Fluorescein angiographyFluorescein angiography
•Intraocular pressureIntraocular pressure
•Measurement of the electrical activity in the retina (electroretinogramelectroretinogram)
•Pupil reflex response
•Refraction testRefraction test
•Retinal photographyRetinal photography
•Side vision test (visual field test)
•Slit lamp examinationSlit lamp examination
•Visual acuityVisual acuity

Genetic counseling depends on an accurate diagnosis, determination of the mode of inheritance in each family, and results of molecular genetic testing.

Associations:
Retinitis pigmentosa is seen in a variety of diseases, so the differential of this sign alone, is broad.

*RP combined with deafness (congenital or progressive) is called Usher syndrome.
*RP combined with opthalmoplegia, dysphagia, ataxia, and cardiac conduction defects is seen in the mitochondrial DNA disorder Kearns-Sayre syndrome (aka Ragged Red Fiber Myopathy)
*RP combined with retardation, peripheral neuropathy, acanthotic (spiked) RBCs, ataxia, steatorrhea, is absence of VLDL is seen in abetalipoproteinemia.

Other conditions include neurosyphilis, toxoplasmosis(Emedicine “Retinitis Pigmentosa”), abetalipoproteinemia, and Refsum’s disease.

Genetics
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common forms of inherited retinal degeneration. This disorder is characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptor cells and may eventually lead to blindness.

There are multiple genes that, when mutated, can cause the Retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. In 1989, a mutation of the gene for rhodopsin, a pigment that plays an essential part in the visual transduction cascade enabling vision in low-light conditions, was identified. Since then, more than 100 mutations have been found in this gene, accounting for 15% of all types of retinal degeneration. Most of those mutations are missense mutations and inherited mostly in a dominant manner.

The rhodopsin gene encodes a principal protein of photoreceptor outer segments. Studies show that mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 25% of autosomal dominant forms of RP.

Mutations in four pre-mRNA splicing factors are known to cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These are PRPF3, PRPF8, PRPF31 and PAP1. These factors are ubiquitously expressed and it is still a puzzle as to why defects in a ubiquitous factor should only cause disease in the retina.

Up to 150 mutations have been reported to date in the opsin gene associated with the RP since the Pro23His mutation in the intradiscal domain of the protein was first reported in 1990. These mutations are found throughout the opsin gene and are distributed along the three domains of the protein (the intradiscal, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains). One of the main biochemical causes of RP in the case of rhodopsin mutations is protein misfolding, and molecular chaperones have also been involved in RP. It was found that the mutation of codon 23 in the rhodopsin gene, in which proline is changed to histidine, accounts for the largest fraction of rhodopsin mutations in the United States. Several other studies have reported other mutations which also correlate with the disease. These mutations include Thr58Arg, Pro347Leu, Pro347Ser, as well as deletion of Ile-255. In 2000, a rare mutation in codon 23 was reported causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, in which proline changed to alanine. However, this study showed that the retinal dystrophy associated with this mutation was characteristically mild in presentation and course. Furthermore, there was greater preservation in electroretinography amplitudes than the more prevalent Pro23His mutation.

Treatment:
Although incurable the progression of the disease can be reduced by taking some measures.
Wearing sunglasses to protect the retina from ultraviolet light may help preserve vision.

Some studies have suggested that treatment with antioxidants (such as high doses of vitamin A palmitate) may slow the disease.
Recent studies have shown that proper vitamin A supplementation can postpone blindness by up to 10 years (by reducing the 10% loss pa to 8.3% pa). However, taking high doses of vitamin A can cause serious liver problems. The benefit of treatment has to be weighed against risks to the liver.

Several clinical trials are in progress to investigate new treatments for retinitis pigmentosa, including the omega-3 fatty acid, DHA.

Microchip implants that go inside the retina and act like a microscopic video camera are in the early stages of development for treating blindness associated with this and other serious eye conditions.

It can help to see a low-vision specialist, who can help you adapt to vision loss. Make regular visits to an eye care specialist, who can detect cataractscataracts or retinal swelling — both of which can be treated.

Research on possible treatments:
Future treatments may involve retinal transplants, artificial retinal implants, gene therapy, stem cells, nutritional supplements, and/or drug therapies.

2006: Stem cells: UK Researchers working with mice, transplanted mouse stem cells which were at an advanced stage of development, and already programmed to develop into photoreceptor cells, into mice that had been genetically induced to mimic the human conditions of retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. These photoreceptors developed and made the necessary neural connections to the animal’s retinal nerve cells, a key step in the restoration of sight. Previously it was believed that the mature retina has no regenerative ability. This research may in the future lead to using transplants in humans to relieve blindness.

2008: Scientists at the Osaka Bioscience Institute have identified a protein, named Pikachurin, which they believe could lead to a treatment for retinitis pigmentosa.

2010: A possible gene therapy seems to work in mice.

2010:R-Tech Ueno(Japanese Medicine manufacture enterprise )Completes Phase II Clinical Study on Ophthalmic Solution UF-021 (Product Name Ocuseva (TM)) on Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Prognosis:
The disorder will continue to progress, although slowly. Complete blindness is uncommon.

Prevention:
Genetic counseling and testing may help determine whether your children are at risk for this disease.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinitis_pigmentosa
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001029.htm

http://www.rwjuh.edu/health_information/adult_eye_retin.html

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1094.htm

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FDA Warns About Eyelash Thickener Claims

The U.S. FDA has warned Allergan Inc. that the Web site for its eyelash thickener Latisse is misleading. The site downplays or fails to mention risks associated with the product.

…..eyelashes…..eyelashes..…….
The Latisse site either doesn’t mention potential side effects including bacterial eye infections, allergic reactions, excess hair growth outside the intended treatment area, and permanent changes in iris and eyelid pigmentation, or presents them in very small text.

The drug is approved to make eyelashes thicker, fuller and darker. Latisse, or bimatoprost, was already on the market as a treatment for glaucoma.

Source: MSNBC September 17, 2009

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Strabismus

Alternative Names: Crossed eyes; Esotropia; Exotropia; Squint; Walleye.

One eye moves normally, while the other points in (esotropia or “crossed eyes”), out (exotropia), up (hypertropia) or down (hypotropia).

Strabismus is often incorrectly referred to as “lazy eye” (which in fact refers to the associated condition amblyopia). It is also referred to as “squint”, “crossed eye”, “codeye” and “wall eye”.

“Cross-eyed” means that when a person with strabismus looks at an object, one eye fixates the object and the other fixates with a convergence angle less than zero, that is the optic axes overconverge. “Wall-eyed” means that when a person with strabismus looks at an object, one eye fixates the object and the other fixates with a convergence angle greater than zero, that is the optic axes diverge from parallel.

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Definition:-Strabismus  is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles that prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely affect depth perception. Strabismus can be either a disorder of the brain coordinating the eyes or a disorder of one or more muscles, as in any process that causes a dysfunction of the usual direction and power of the muscle or muscles. Difficult strabismus problems are usually co-managed between orthoptists and ophthalmologists.

It is a disorder in which the eyes do not line up in the same direction when focusing. The condition is more commonly known as “crossed eyes.”

Causes:-
Strabismus is caused by a lack of coordination between the eyes. As a result, the eyes look in different directions and do not focus at the same time on a single point.

In most cases of strabismus in children, the cause is unknown. In more than half of these cases, the problem is present at or shortly after birth (congenital strabismus).

In children, when the two eyes fail to focus on the same image, the brain may learn to ignore the input from one eye. If this is allowed to continue, the eye that the brain ignores will never see well. This loss of vision is called amblyopia, and it is frequently associated with strabismus.

Some other disorders associated with strabismus in children include:

*Apert syndrome
*Cerebral palsy
*Congenital rubella
*Hemangioma near the eye during infancy
*Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome
*Noonan syndrome
*Prader-Willi syndrome
*Retinopathy of prematurity
*Retinoblastoma
*Traumatic brain injury
*Trisomy 18 (a child has 3 copies of chromosome 18, instead of the normal 2 copies)

Strabismus that develops in adults can be caused by:

*Botulism
*Diabetes (causes a condition known as acquired paralytic strabismus)
*Guillain-Barre syndrome
*Injuries to the eye
*Shellfish poisoning
*Stroke
*Traumatic brain injury
*Vision loss from any eye disease or injury

A family history of strabismus is a risk factor. Farsightedness may be a contributing factor. In addition, any other disease causing vision loss may cause strabismus.

Diagnosis:-
During eye examinations, orthoptists, ophthalmologists and optometrists typically use a cover test to aid in the diagnosis of strabismus. If the eye being tested is the strabismic eye, then it will fixate on the object after the “straight” eye is covered, as long as the vision in this eye is good enough. If the “straight” eye is being tested, there will be no change in fixation, as it is already fixated. Depending on the direction that the strabismic eye deviates, the direction of deviation may be assessed. Exotropic is outwards (away from the midline) and esotropic is inwards (towards the nose).

click to see

A simple screening test for strabismus is the Hirschberg test. A flashlight is shone in the patient’s eye. When the patient is looking at the light, a reflection can be seen on the front surface of the pupil. If the eyes are properly aligned with one another, then the reflection will be in the same spot of each eye. Therefore, if the reflection is not in the same place in each eye, then the eyes aren’t properly aligned.
Differential diagnosis: pseudostrabismus
Pseudostrabismus is the false appearance of strabismus. It generally occurs in infants and toddlers whose bridge of the nose is wide and flat, causing the appearance of strabismus. With age, the bridge of the child’s nose narrows and the folds in the corner of the eyes go away. To detect the difference between pseudostrabismus and strabismus, a Hirschberg test may be used.

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Exams and Tests:
A physical examination will include a detailed examination of the eyes. Tests will be done to determine the strength of the eye muscles.

click to see

Eye tests include:

*Retinal exam
*Standard ophthalmic exam
*Visual acuity
*A neurological examination will also be performed.
Laterality
Strabismus may be classified as unilateral if the same eye consistently ‘wanders’, or alternating if either of the eyes can be seen to ‘wander’. Alternation of the strabismus may occur spontaneously, with or without subjective awareness of the alternation. Alternation may also be seen following the cover test, with the previously ‘wandering’ eye remaining straight while the previously straight eye is now seen to be ‘wandering’ on removal of the cover. The cover-uncover test is used to diagnose the type of strabismus (also known as tropia) present.

Onset
Strabismus may also be classified based on time of onset, either congenital, acquired or secondary to another pathological process, such as cataract. Many infants are born with their eyes slightly misaligned. The best time for physicians to assess this is between ages 3 and 6 months.

Pathophysiology:-
Strabismus can be an indication that a cranial nerve has a lesion. Particularly Cranial Nerve III (Occulomotor), Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear) or Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens). A strabismus caused by a lesion in either of these nerves results in the lack of innervation to eye muscles and results in a change of eye position. A strabismus may be a sign of increased intracranial pressure, as CN III is particularly vulnerable to damage from brain swelling.

More commonly however, squints are termed concominant (i.e. non paralytic). This means the squint is not caused by a lesion reducing innervation. The squint in this example, is caused by a refractive error in one or both eyes. This refractive error causes poor vision in one eye and so stops the brain from being able to use both eyes together.
Treatment and management:-Treatment involves strategies to strengthen the weakened muscles and realign the eyes. Glasses and eye muscle exercises may be prescribed.

If the condition is caused by a lazy eye, the doctor may prescribe an eye patch. Some children may need surgery. For more information on treating lazy eye, see: Amblyopia

As with other binocular vision disorders, the primary therapeutic goal for those with strabismus is comfortable, single, clear, normal binocular vision at all distances and directions of gaze.

Whereas amblyopia, if minor and detected early, can often be corrected with use of an eyepatch on the dominant eye and/or vision therapy, the use of eyepatches is unlikely to change the angle of strabismus. Advanced strabismus is usually treated with a combination of eyeglasses or prisms, vision therapy, and surgery, depending on the underlying reason for the misalignment. Surgery does not change the vision; it attempts to align the eyes by shortening, lengthening, or changing the position of one or more of the extraocular eye muscles and is frequently the only way to achieve cosmetic improvement. Glasses affect the position by changing the person’s reaction to focusing. Prisms change the way light, and therefore images, strike the eye, simulating a change in the eye position.

Early treatment of strabismus and/or amblyopia in infancy can reduce the chance of developing amblyopia and depth perception problems. Most children eventually recover from amblyopia by around age 10, if they have had the benefit of patches and corrective glasses.

Eyes that remain misaligned can still develop visual problems. Although not a cure for strabismus, prism lenses can also be used to provide some comfort for sufferers and to prevent double vision from occurring.

In adults with previously normal alignment, the onset of strabismus usually results in double vision (diplopia).

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You may click to see:-Vision Screening Online Training Program
Prognosis:-With early diagnosis and treatment, the problem can usually be corrected. Delayed treatment may lead to permanent vision loss in one eye.

When strabismus is congenital or develops in infancy, it can cause amblyopia, in which the brain ignores input from the deviated eye. Strabismus can lead to a permanent weakening of vision in the strabismic eye called amblyopia (this may not always happen), sometimes referred to as lazy eye. The appearance of strabismus may also be a cosmetic problem. One study reported that 85% of adult strabismus patients “reported that they had problems with work, school and sports because of their strabismus.” The same study also reported that 70% said strabismus “had a negative effect on their self-image.”

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001004.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabismus

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Objects in the Eye

Introduction:It’s not uncommon for a speck of dirt or a small object, such as an eyelash or makeup, to get in your eye. Usually your natural tears will wash the object out. Objects may scratch the surface of the eye or may become stuck on the eye. If the cornea is scratched, it can be hard to tell when you have gotten the object out, because a scratched cornea may feel painful and as though something is still in the eye. Most corneal scratches are minor and heal on their own in 1 or 2 days.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Small objects traveling at high speed or sharp objects traveling at any speed can cause serious injury to many parts of the eyeball. Injury may cause bleeding, a change in the size or shape of the pupil, a film over the eye lens, or damage to the inside of the eyeball. These objects may become embedded deep in the eye and may require medical treatment.

Objects in the eye can be prevented by using protective eyewear. Wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields when working with power tools or chemicals or doing any activity that might cause an object or substance to get into your eyes. Some professions, such as health care and construction, may require workers to use protective eyewear to reduce the risk of foreign objects or substances or body fluids getting in the eyes.

CHECK THE SYMPTOMS:

Review health risks that may increase the seriousness of your symptoms.

If you have any of the following symptoms, evaluate those symptoms first.


Do you have an object in your eye? If the object hit your eye at high speed or is a piece of metal, do not try to remove it.
Do you think you have an infection after an eye injury?Call your health professional immediately .
Call your health professional immediately if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.
  • Did an object hit your eye at high speed? Note: This increases your risk of serious injury to your eye. Even if symptoms appear minor, your eye should be evaluated by a doctor.
  • Do you have a loss of vision that is more than mild blurring?

Call your health professional immediately if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

  • Do you have a piece of metal on the surface of your eye?
  • Do you have mild blurred vision that does not clear by blinking your eye?
  • Is your eye still painful or scratchy for 12 hours or longer after removing an object and using home treatment? Note: Put on dark glasses. Do not bandage or put pressure on the eye. Do not use any nonprescription eyedrops in the eye.
  • Are you unable to remove an object from the surface of your eye with home treatment measures?
  • Have you had pain in or around your eye, tearing, and swelling for longer than 30 minutes?
  • Do you have a feeling that something is in your eye (foreign body sensation) or a feeling of sand in your eye when you blink?

You may wait to see if the symptoms improve over the next 24 hours (or specified time period) if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

  • Have you had pain, redness, swelling, sensitivity to light, or a change in vision for 24 hours or longer after removing an object from your eye?
    Note:

    If you are not 100% better 24 hours after an object has been removed from your eye, an evaluation by a doctor is needed.

  • Have you been unable to remove a contact lens for 24 hours?
Call your health professional immediately if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.


  • Do you have diabetes?
  • Do you have a disease or take medicine that causes problems with your immune system ?

Call your health professional today if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

  • Do you have pain in your eye?
  • Do you feel like you have something in your eye (foreign body sensation)?
  • Are your eyes very sensitive to light ( photo phobia)?
  • Do you have a yellow, green, bloody, or watery discharge from your eye?
  • Is redness of your eye or eyelids getting worse?
  • Do you have a gray or white sore on your eye?
  • Do you know or think you have a fever?
  • Do you have blurred or decreased vision?

You may wait to see if the symptoms improve over the next 24 hours (or specified time period) if you answer “Yes” to the following question.

  • Do you have a small to moderate amount of discharge after 24 hours of home treatment?
Other Symptoms to Watch For

Do you have any of the following symptoms?

  • An eye injury other than an object in the eye:
  • An eye problem without an eye injury, such as pain, blurred vision, or blood in the eye:

Eye Problems, Noninjury.

Common types of eye problems include:

* Drainage from the eyes.
* Eyestrain or vision changes.
* Misaligned eyes or strabismus.
* Blood in the white of the eye (subconjunctival hemorrhage).
* Eyelid problems.
* Contact lens problems.
* Color blindness.
* Night blindness.
* Glaucoma.
* Cataracts.
* Retinal problems, such as diabetic retinopathy.
* Red eyes that may be caused by infection, inflammation, or tumors.
* Uveitis.
* Macular degeneration.

It is common for the eyes to be irritated or have a scratchy feeling. Pain is not a common eye problem unless there has been an injury. It is not unusual for the eyes to be slightly sensitive to light. However, sudden, painful sensitivity to light is a serious problem that may indicate glaucoma or inflammation of the muscles that control the pupil (iritis) and should be evaluated by your doctor.

Sudden problems such as new vision changes, pain in the eye, or increased drainage are often more serious and need to be evaluated by a doctor. Eye symptoms that are new or that occur suddenly may be evaluated by an emergency medicine specialist. Ongoing (chronic) eye problems that may be worsening are usually evaluated by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist).

Some children may have special risks for eye problems. Vision screening is recommended for infants who were either born at or before 30 weeks, whose birth weight was below 1500 g (3.3 lb) , or who have serious medical conditions. Most vision problems are noticed first by the parents. See tips for spotting eye problems in your child. The first screening is recommended between 4 and 7 weeks after birth.1

Review the Emergencies and Check Your Symptoms sections to determine if and when you need to see a doctor.

  • Pinkeye:

Pinkeye (also called conjunctivitis) is redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and eye surface. The lining of the eye is usually clear. If irritation or infection occurs, the lining becomes red and swollen.

Pinkeye is very common. It usually is not serious and goes away in 7 to 10 days without medical treatment.Common symptoms of pinkeye are:

* Eye redness (hyperemia).
* Swollen, red eyelids.
* More tearing than usual.
* Feeling as if something is in the eye (foreign-body sensation or keratoconjunctivitis).
* An itching or burning feeling.
* Mild sensitivity to light (photophobia).
* Drainage from the eye.

Most cases of pinkeye are caused by:

* Infections caused by viruses or bacteria.
* Dry eyes from lack of tears or exposure to wind and sun.
* Chemicals, fumes, or smoke (chemical conjunctivitis).
* Allergies.

Viral and bacterial pinkeye are contagious and spread very easily. Since most pinkeye is caused by viruses for which there is usually no medical treatment, preventing its spread is important. Poor hand-washing is the main cause of the spread of pinkeye. Sharing an object, such as a washcloth or towel, with a person who has pinkeye can spread the infection. For tips on how to prevent the spread of pinkeye, see the Prevention section of this topic.

People with infectious pinkeye should not go to school or day care, or go to work until symptoms improve.

* If the pinkeye is caused by a virus, the person can usually return to day care, school, or work when symptoms begin to improve, typically in 3 to 5 days. Medicines are not usually used to treat viral pinkeye, so it is important to prevent the spread of the infection. Pinkeye caused by a herpes virus, which is rare, can be treated with an antiviral medicine. Home treatment of viral pinkeye symptoms can help you feel more comfortable while the infection goes away.
* If the pinkeye is caused by bacteria, the person can usually return to day care, school, or work 24 hours after an antibiotic has been started if symptoms have improved. Prescription antibiotic treatment usually kills the bacteria that cause pinkeye.

Pinkeye may be more serious if you:

* Have a condition that decreases your body’s ability to fight infection (impaired immune system).
* Have vision in only one eye.
* Wear contact lenses.

Red eye

Red eye is a more general term that includes not only pinkeye but also many other problems that cause redness on or around the eye, not just the lining. Pinkeye is the main cause of red eye. Red eye has other causes, including:

* Foreign bodies, such as metal or insects. For more information, go to the topic Objects in the Eye.
* Scrapes, sores, or injury to or infection of deeper parts of the eye (for example, uveitis, iritis, or keratitis). For more information, go to the topic Eye Injuries.
* Glaucoma. For more information, go to the topics Eye Problems, Noninjury or Glaucoma.
* Infection of the eye socket and areas around the eye. For more information, go to the topic Eye Problems, Noninjury.

Swollen, red eyelids may also be caused by styes, a lump called a chalazion, inflammation of the eyelid (blepharitis), or lack of tears (dry eyes). For more information, go to the topics Styes and Chalazia or Eyelid Problems (Blepharitis).

Review the Check Your Symptoms section to determine if and when you need to see a doctor.If a visit to a health professional is not needed immediately, see the Home Treatment section for self-care information.

EMERGENCIES:

Do you have any of the following symptoms that require emergency treatment? Call 911 or other emergency services immediately.
  • An object has punctured and penetrated the eye. Note: Do not bandage or put any pressure on the eye. If an object has penetrated the eyeball, hold the object in place to prevent further movement and injury to the eye.
  • An eyeball is bulging out of its socket after an injury.
  • Sudden partial or complete vision loss has occurred after an injury. Note: Treatment is needed within 90 minutes to save vision.
HOME TREATMENT:

First aid for objects in the eye

  • Don’t rub your eye, because this could scratch the outer surface(cornea) of the eye. You may have to keep small children from rubbing their eyes.
  • Wash your hands before touching your eye.
  • If you wear contact lenses, take the contacts out before trying to remove the object or flush your eye.
  • If an object is over the dark center (pupil) of the eye or over the colored part (iris) of the eye, you may try to gently flush it out with water. If the object does not come out with flushing, put on dark glasses, and call your doctor. Do not put any pressure on the eye
  • If the object is on the white part (sclera) of the eye or inside the lower lid, wet a cotton swab or the tip of a twisted piece of tissue and touch the end to the object. The object should cling to the swab or tissue. Some minor irritation is common after you have removed the object in this way.
  • Gently flush the eye with cool water. A clean eyedropper may help. Many times the object will be under the upper eyelid and can be removed by lifting the upper lid away and flushing gently.
  • Do not try to remove a piece of metal, an object that has punctured the eye, or an object stuck on the eye after flushing with water.
  • Never use tweezers, toothpicks, or other hard items to remove any object. Using these items could cause eye damage.

If your eye symptoms are not 100% better after 24 hours of home treatment, an evaluation by a doctor is needed.

Eye injury in a child

Applying first aid measures for an eye injury in a child may be difficult depending on the child’s age, size, and ability to cooperate. Having another adult help you treat the child is helpful. Stay calm and talk in a soothing voice. Use slow, gentle movements to help the child remain calm and cooperative. A struggling child may need to be held strongly so that first aid can be started and the seriousness of the eye injury assessed.

Medicine you can buy without a prescription
Try a nonprescription medicine to help treat your fever or pain:
  • Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol or Panadol
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    • Ibuprofen, such as Advil or Motrin
    • Naproxen, such as Aleve or Naprosyn
  • Aspirin(also a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), such as Bayer or Bufferin
Safety tips
Be sure to follow these safety tips when you use a nonprescription medicine:
  • Carefully read and follow all directions on the medicine bottle and box.
  • Do not take more than the recommended dose.
  • Do not take a medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to it in the past.
  • If you have been told to avoid a medicine, call your doctor before you take it.
  • If you are or could be pregnant, do not take any medicine other than acetaminophen unless your doctor has told you to.
  • Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 20 unless your doctor tells you to.

Symptoms to Watch For During Home Treatment

Use the Check Your Symptoms section to evaluate your symptoms if any of the following occur during home treatment:

  • Decreased, double, or blurred vision doesn’t clear with blinking.
  • Pain increases or continues for more than 24 hours.
  • Blood develops over the colored part (iris) of the eye.
  • Sensitivity to light (Photo phobia) develops.
  • Sign of Infection develop.
  • Symptoms become more severe or more frequent.
PREVENTION:

The following tips may help prevent eye injuries.

  • Wear safety glasses,goggles, or face shields when you work with power tools or chemicals or do any activity that might cause an object or substance to get into your eyes. Some professions, such as health care and construction, may require workers to use protective eyewear to reduce the risk of foreign objects or substances or body fluids getting in the eyes.
  • If you are welding or near someone else who is welding, wear a mask or goggles designed for welding.
  • Wear protective eyewear during sports such as baseball, hockey, racquetball, or paintball that involve the risk of a blow to the eye. Fishhook injuries are another common cause of eye injuries. Protective eyewear can prevent sports-related eye injuries more than 90% of the time. An eye examination may be helpful in determining what type of protective eyewear is needed.

Eye injuries are common in children, and many can be prevented. Most eye injuries happen in older children. They occur more often in boys than in girls. Toys—from crayons to toy guns—are a major source of injury, so check all toys for sharp or pointed parts.

Teach children about eye safety:

  • Be a good role model—always wear eye protection.
  • Get protective eyewear for your children and help them use it properly.
  • Teach children that toys that fly should not be pointed at another person.
  • Teach children how to properly carry sharp or pointed objects.
  • Teach children that any kind of missile, projectile, or BB gun is not a toy.
  • Use safety measures near fires and explosives, such as camp fires and fireworks.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

.Sources:http://health.msn.com/health-topics/first-aid/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100102186

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