Tag Archives: Forest

Agrimonia striata

 

Botanical Name : Agrimonia striata
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Agrimonia
Species:A. striata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names: Roadside agrimony, Grooved agrimony, Agrimony, Cocklebur, Woodland Agrimony, Woodland grooveburr.

Habitat :Agrimonia striata is native to the United States, Canada, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. It grows mainly on the cultivated beds, forest edges, forests, meadows and fields, woodlands.

Description:
Agrimonia striata is a species of perennial forb belonging to the Rose family (Rosaceae). It grows to about 40in. (1m) producing a dense cluster (raceme) of 5-parted yellow flowers on a hairy stalk above pinnately-divided leaves.. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet found anywhere.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrimonia_striata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Agrimonia+striata
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/agrimonia/striata/

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Masoor Dal

 

Botanical Name : Lens Culinaris/Red Lentil
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Vicieae
Genus: Lens
Species: L. culinaris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Lens esculenta. Moench.

Common Name : Masoor  Dal  Masur Dal

Habitat :
Red Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) was first grown in southwest Asia about 7,000 BCE in the area that is now southern Turkey and northern Syria. It is best adapted to the cooler temperate zones of the world, or the winter season in Mediterranean climates.

The two main lentil market classes are red and green. Red lentil is marketed as whole seed, but 90-95 per cent of red lentil is dehulled before it is eaten. Dehulled lentil is consumed in whole form (footballs) or in split form.
Description:
Lens culinaris is an annual plant growing to typically short, compared to cereal crops, ranging from 20 – 65 cm (8 – 26 inches) in height depending on variety and growing conditions.
The leaves are alternate, with six pairs of oblong-linear leaflets about 15 mm (0.5 inch) long and ending in a spine. Two to four pale blue flowers are borne in the axils of the leaves in June or early July. The pods are about 15–20 mm long, broadly oblong, and slightly inflated and contain two seeds the shape of a doubly convex lens and about 4–6 mm in diameter. There are many cultivated varieties of the plant, differing in size, hairiness, and colour of the leaves, flowers, and seeds. The seeds may be more or less compressed in shape, and the colour may vary from yellow or gray to dark brown; they are also sometimes mottled or speckled.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES...>…....…(01) .....….(1) ......(2).

Because most red lentil is dehulled before consumption, the suitability of new red lentil varieties for secondary processing such as dehulling and splitting is of utmost importance. Dehulling and splitting yields in some processing plants are higher for more thick seeds which may be more desired for specific markets.
Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sandy soil in a warm sunny sheltered position. Another report says that it does best on clay. It produces most seed when grown on poorer soils. Lentils are widely cultivated in warm temperate and tropical zones for their edible and very nutritious seed, there are many named varieties. The plants are much hardier than is commonly supposed and many of these varieties can succeed in Britain, particularly in warm summers. There is at least one, called ‘WH2040’, that can withstand temperatures as low as -23°c in the seedling stage. ‘Chilean’ is a low-growing plant that can be grown in the winter in areas where winter vegetables can be grown. ‘HarLen’ tolerates temperatures down to -10°c and performs very well in gardens. The plants take the same time as peas to mature, so lentils are a potential commercial crop for Britain. Yields of up to 2 tonnes per hectare are possible. The main problem with growing them as a commercial crop is that they are produced by using cheap labour in many countries which makes it very difficult for British farmers to compete on prices. However, this does not preclude their being grown in the garden and allotment. Lentils are also beneficial to grow as part of a rotation on the farm or garden. They have a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby and, if the roots are left in the ground when the seeds are harvested, this will provide a source of nitrogen for the next crop.

Propagation :
Seed – sow early April in situ. Some cultivars are probably suitable for sowing outdoors in the autumn, at least in the milder parts of the country

Edible Uses: Dehulled lentil is most commonly eaten as soup in the Mediterranean region or as dhal – a thick sauce in which spices are used as flavouring – in south Asia. It is an important source of dietary protein and carbohydrate.
Seed – cooked or sprouted and eaten raw. A very nutritious food, the seeds can be cooked on their own or added to soups, stews etc. The seed can be soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then allowed to sprout for about 5 days. They have a crunchy, fresh flavour. Lentils are more digestible than many legumes. The dried seed can also be ground into a powder and used with cereal flours in making bread etc, this greatly enhances the value of the protein in the bread. The seed stores better if it is left in its husk. Young seedpods – used fresh or cooked like green beans.

Whole Red Lentils Nutritional Information Per 100 g dry
Amount……………………………… % Daily Value
Fat………………………….. 1.0 g………………..2 %
Carbohydrates…….59.1 g……………..20%
Total Fibre………… 14.2 g…………………..57%
Insoluble Fibre… 12.4 g
Soluble Fibre……… 1.81 g
Sucrose……………….. 1.79 g
Protein……………….28.4 g
Calcium……………. 97.3 mg………………10%
Iron…………………….. 7.3 mg………………41%
Potassium….. 1,135 mg………………….32%
Vitamin C…………. 0.73 mg……………….1%
Thiamin……………. 0.34 mg…………….23%
Riboflavin………… 0.31 mg………………18%
Niacin……………….. 1.73 mg………………..9%
Vitamin B6……… 0.28 mg………………14%
Folate…….. 186 mcg…………………………47%

Medicinal Uses :     The seeds are mucilaginous and laxative. They are considered to be useful in the treatment of constipation and other intestinal affections. Made into a paste, they are a useful cleansing application in foul and indolent ulcers.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lentil
http://www.miltopexports.com/red_lentils.htm
http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=a88f57f0-242b-40f6-8755-1fc6df4dfa14

 

Ilex purpurea

Botanical Name :Ilex purpurea
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Kingdom: Plantae
Order
: Aquifoliales
Species: I. purpurea
Synonyms : Ilex chinensis – Sims., Ilex oldhamii – Miq.
Common Name: Purple holly

Habitat : Asia – China, Japan.  Evergreen broad-leaf forests, forest margins on mountain slopes at elevations of 500 – 1000 metres in China.

Description:
Ilex purpurea is a species of holly, a flowering plant.It is an evergreen Tree growing to 12m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from September to December. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

You may click to see more pictures :
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.


Cultivation:

Succeeds in most soils so long as they are not water-logged. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. According to another report, the plant is only hardy to about -3°c. Resents root disturbance, especially as the plants get older. It is best to place the plants into their permanent positions as soon as possible, perhaps giving some winter protection for their first year or two. Plants are very tolerant of pruning and can be cut right back into old wood if required. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:

Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can take 18 months to germinate. Stored seed generally requires two winters and a summer before it will germinate and should be sown as soon as possible in a cold frame. Scarification, followed by a warm stratification and then a cold stratification may speed up the germination time. The seedlings are rather slow-growing. Pot them up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame for their first year. It is possible to plant them out into a nursery bed in late spring of the following year, but they should not be left here for more than two years since they do not like being transplanted. Alternatively, grow them on in their pots for a second season and then plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Give them a good mulch and some protection for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of almost ripe wood with a heel, August in a shaded position in a cold frame. Leave for 12 months before potting up. Layering in October. Takes 2 years.

Medicinal Uses
Cancer; Carminative; Skin; Tonic.
This plant is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. It is reported to have antitumor properties. An extract of the leaves is made into a solution and used for treating burns, ulcers in the lower extremities etc. The ashes of the leaves are used as a dressing for skin ailments and poisoned wounds. Seed is carminative and tonic.

Determination of active ingredients of Ilex Purpurea Hassk and its medicinal preparations by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.
Abstract:
A method based on capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection has been developed for the separation and determination of isovanillic acid, gentisic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid in Ilex Purpurea Hassk and its medicinal preparations for the first time. The effects of working electrode potential, pH and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage and injection time on CE-ED were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes could be separated in a 50 mmoll(-1) borate buffer (pH 9.0) within 21 min. A 300 microm diameter carbon disk electrode has a good response at +0.95 V (versus SCE) for all analytes. The response was linear over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 3 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-7)gml(-1) for the analytes. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real sample, with satisfactory results.


Known Hazards:
Although no specific reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, the fruits of at least some members of this genus contain saponins and are slightly toxic. They can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and stupor if eaten in quantity.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://server9.web-mania.com/users/pfafardea/database/plants.php?Ilex+purpurea
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/trees-new/ilex_purpurea.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ilex_purpurea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilex_purpurea
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16165336

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Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis)

Botanical Name : Coptis chinensis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Coptis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Species: C. chinensis
syn. : Coptis teeta Wallich var. chinensis Finet & Gagnepain
Common Name : Huang Lian
Other Name :Chinese goldthread

Habitat : Native to China.Damp coniferous woods and bogs. Forests, shaded places in valleys at elevations of 500 – 2000 metres.  Slow-growing and sensitive plant provides a rich yellow rhizome and thread-like rootlets.


Description:

Perennial forest dweller. Does well in pots. An evergreen Perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 10in) by 0.2 m (0ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to March, and the seeds ripen from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES…...(01).....(1)..…....…(2)..…..(3)…..……………..

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist or wet soil.

Cultivation :

Succeeds in a light moist humus-rich slightly acidic soil with a northerly aspect or light shade. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c.Sow seeds in fall or very early spring with germination in the spring as the ground warms up. Keep well-watered, protected and shaded until seedlings are established. Plant prefers rich, acid loam with moisture and shade.

Propagation
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in an ericaceous compost. Seal the pot in a polythene bag until germination takes place, which is usually within 1 – 6 months at 10°c. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible. Four weeks cold stratification may be beneficial. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out in mid-autumn or in spring. Division in spring.

Chemical Constituents:Among other active compounds that Coptis chinensis contains is berberine and coptisine.

Medicinal uses.

Anaesthetic;  Analgesic;  Antibacterial;  Antidote;  Antipyretic;  Antispasmodic;  Bitter;  Blood tonic;  Carminative;  Cholagogue;  Digestive;
Sedative;  Skin;  Stomachic;  Tonic;  Vasodilator.

Huang Lian is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The root is a pungent, very bitter, cooling herb that controls bacterial and viral infections, relaxes spasms, lowers fevers and stimulates the circulation. It is one of the most frequently used herbs in prescriptions for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The root is analgesic, locally anaesthetic, antibacterial, antidote, antipyretic, bitter, blood tonic, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, sedative, stomachic, tonic and vasodilator. It is particularly helpful in the treatment of diarrhoea, acute enteritis and dysentery, whilst it is also used in the treatment of insomnia, fidget, delirium due to high fever, leukaemia and otitis media. Externally it is used to treat various skin problems such as acne, boils, abscesses and burns whilst it is also used as a gargle for mouth and tongue ulcers, swollen gums and toothache. As an eyewash it is used to treat conjunctivitis. The root is harvested in the autumn and used fresh or dried

It acts on Hearts, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach

It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is called duan è huánglián . One study found Coptis chinensis to be effective against the gastrointestinal parasite Blastocystis hominis.

You may click to see : Pharmacological & Clinical Research on Coptis chinensis & Coptis rhizome  :

Other Uses
Dye;  Ground cover.

A bright yellow pigment found in the roots can be used for dyeing. Can be grown as a ground cover plant in the peat garden.


Known Hazards:
Although no specific mention of toxicity has been found for this species, it belongs to a family that contains many species that are mildly toxic and so it is wise to treat this plant with some caution.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coptis_chinensis
http://www.crimson-sage.com/shop/?shop=1&itemid=100150
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Coptis%20chinensis

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Boehmeria Longispica

Botanical Name : Boehmeria longispica
Family: Urticaceae
Genus  : Boehmeria
Synonyms : Boehmeria japonica – Miq.

Habitat: E. Asia – China, Japan. Mountains, C. and S. Japan. Thickets, edges of forests, along streams in hills and mountains at elevations of 300 – 600 metres in N. and SE. China, 1000 – 1300 metres in SW. China.Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Cultivated Beds;

Description:
A decidious Shrub growing to 1.2m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. It is a sub-shrub, dying back to a woody rootstock in cold winters. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in a warm sandy soil that is very well-drained[200]. We are not sure if this species is dioecious or monoecious[K].

Propagation

Seed – sow spring in a warm greenhouse, only just covering the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted straight into their permanent positions whilst smaller clumps are best potted up and kept in a cold frame until they are growing away well.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Roots – cooked. Leaves – cooked.

Medicinal Actions & Uses
Febrifuge.

The leaves are used as a medicine for treating fevers and relieve internal fever.

Other Uses
Fibre.

A fibre obtained from the stems is used to make ropes and cloth.

Known Hazards :  Although members of the nettle family, plants in this genus do not have stinging hairs.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Boehmeria+longispica
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB:Boehmeria_longispica_in_Sendai,_Japan.jpg
http://www.plantsystematics.org/imgs/jdelaet/r/Urticaceae_Boehmeria_nivea_34336.html

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