Tag Archives: Health care

Inguinal hernia

Description:
An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. Symptoms are present in about 66% of affected people.
It occurs when tissue, such as part of the intestine, protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. The resulting protrusion can be painful, especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object, exercise, or bowel movements. Often it gets worse throughout the day and improves when lying down. A bulging area may occur that becomes larger when bearing down. Inguinal hernias occur more often on the right than left side. The main concern is strangulation, where the blood supply to part of the intestine is blocked. This usually produces severe pain and tenderness of the area.

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An inguinal hernia isn’t necessarily dangerous. It doesn’t improve on its own, however, and can lead to life-threatening complications. Your doctor is likely to recommend surgery to fix an inguinal hernia that’s painful or enlarging. Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure.

Sign & symptoms:
Hernias present as bulges in the groin area that can become more prominent when coughing, straining, or standing up. They are rarely painful, and the bulge commonly disappears on lying down. Mild discomfort can develop over time. The inability to “reduce”, or place the bulge back into the abdomen usually means the hernia is ‘incarcerated’ which requires emergency surgery.

Causes & Risk Factors:
There isn’t one cause for this type of hernia, but weak spots within the abdominal and groin muscles are thought to be a major contributor. Extra pressure on this area of the body can eventually cause a hernia.

*heredity
*personal history of hernias
*premature birth
*being overweight or obese
*pregnancy
*cystic fibrosis
*chronic cough
*frequent constipation
*frequently standing for long periods of time

Significant pain is suggestive of strangulated bowel (an incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia).

As the hernia progresses, contents of the abdominal cavity, such as the intestines, liver, can descend into the hernia and run the risk of being pinched within the hernia, causing an intestinal obstruction. If the blood supply of the portion of the intestine caught in the hernia is compromised, the hernia is deemed “strangulated” and gut ischemia and gangrene can result, with potentially fatal consequences. The timing of complications is not predictable. Emergency surgery for incarceration and strangulation carry much higher risk than planned, “elective” procedures. However, the risk of incarceration is low, evaluated at 0.2% per year. On the other hand, surgical intervention has a significant risk of causing inguinodynia, and this is why minimally symptomatic patients are advised to watchful waiting.

Diagnosis:
There are two types of inguinal hernia, direct and indirect, which are defined by their relationship to the inferior epigastric vessels. Direct inguinal hernias occur medial to the inferior epigastric vessels when abdominal contents herniate through a weak spot in the fascia of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, which is formed by the transversalis fascia. Indirect inguinal hernias occur when abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring, lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels; this may be caused by failure of embryonic closure of the processus vaginalis.

Direct inguinal hernia: Enters through a weak point in the fascia of the abdominal wall (Hesselbach triangle)

Indirect inguinal hernia: Protrudes through the inguinal ring and is ultimately the result of the failure of embryonic closure of the processus vaginalis after the testicle passes through it.

In the case of the female, the opening of the superficial inguinal ring is smaller than that of the male. As a result, the possibility for hernias through the inguinal canal in males is much greater because they have a larger opening and therefore a much weaker wall through which the intestines may protrude.

A physical exam is usually all that’s needed to diagnose an inguinal hernia. Your doctor will check for a bulge in the groin area. Because standing and coughing can make a hernia more prominent, you’ll likely be asked to stand and cough or strain.

If the diagnosis isn’t readily apparent, your doctor might order an imaging test, such as an abdominal ultrasound, CT scan or MRI.

Treatment:

If your hernia is small and isn’t bothering you, your doctor might recommend watchful waiting. In children, the doctor might try applying manual pressure to reduce the bulge before considering surgery.

Enlarging or painful hernias usually require surgery to relieve discomfort and prevent serious complications.

There are two general types of hernia operations — open hernia repair and laparoscopic repair.

Open hernia repair:
In this procedure, which might be done with local anesthesia and sedation or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and pushes the protruding tissue back into your abdomen. The surgeon then sews the weakened area, often reinforcing it with a synthetic mesh (hernioplasty). The opening is then closed with stitches, staples or surgical glue.

After the surgery, you’ll be encouraged to move about as soon as possible, but it might be several weeks before you’re able to resume normal activities.

Laparoscopy:
In this minimally invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia, the surgeon operates through several small incisions in your abdomen. Gas is used to inflate your abdomen to make the internal organs easier to see.

A small tube equipped with a tiny camera (laparoscope) is inserted into one incision. Guided by the camera, the surgeon inserts tiny instruments through other incisions to repair the hernia using synthetic mesh.

People who have laparoscopic repair might have less discomfort and scarring after surgery and a quicker return to normal activities. However, some studies indicate that hernia recurrence is more likely with laparoscopic repair than with open surgery.

Laparoscopy allows the surgeon to avoid scar tissue from an earlier hernia repair, so it might be a good choice for people whose hernias recur after traditional hernia surgery. It also might be a good choice for people with hernias on both sides of the body (bilateral).

Some studies indicate that a laparoscopic repair can increase the risk of complications and of recurrence. Having the procedure performed by a surgeon with extensive experience in laparoscopic hernia repairs can reduce the risks.

Prevention and Outlook of Inguinal Hernias:
Although you can’t prevent genetic defects that may cause hernias, it’s possible to lessen the severity of hernias by:

*Maintaining a healthy weight
*Eating a high-fiber diet
*Not smoking
*Avoiding heavy lifting

Early treatment can help cure inguinal hernias. However, there’s always the slight risk of recurrence and complications, such as infection after surgery, scars.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inguinal_hernia
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/inguinal-hernia/home/ovc-20206354
http://www.healthline.com/health/inguinal-hernia?isLazyLoad=false#causes3

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Epstein-Barr infection

Description: The Epstein-Barr virus, also called EBV, is an extremely common virus that infects most people at one time or another during their lifetimes. There are several forms of Epstein–Barr virus infection. Infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Burkitt’s lymphoma can all be caused by the Epstein–Barr virus.

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It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). It is also associated with particular forms of cancer, such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), such as hairy leukoplakia and central nervous system lymphomas. There is evidence that infection with the virus is associated with a higher risk of certain autoimmune diseases, especially dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and multiple sclerosis.

Infection with EBV occurs by the oral transfer of saliva and genital secretions.

Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity. In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and 90 to 95 percent of adults have evidence of previous infection. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and other developed countries, many people are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35 to 50 percent of the time.

EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells. Once the virus’s initial lytic infection is brought under control, EBV latently persists in the individual’s B cells for the rest of the individual’s life.

Symptoms:
Epstein-Barr virus infection generally causes a minor cold-like or flu-like illness, but, in some cases, there may be no symptoms of infection.Initial symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Sometimes, a swollen spleen or liver involvement may develop. Heart problems or involvement of the central nervous system occurs only rarely, and infectious mononucleosis is almost never fatal. There are no known associations between active EBV infection and problems during pregnancy, such as miscarriages or birth defects. Although the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually resolve in 1 or 2 months, EBV remains dormant or latent in a few cells in the throat and blood for the rest of the person’s life. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and is commonly found in the saliva of infected persons. Reactivated and post-latent virus may pass the placental barrier in (also seropositive) pregnant women via macrophages and therefore can infect the fetus. Also re-infection of prior seropositive individuals may occur. In contrast, reactivation in adults usually occurs without symptoms of illness.

EBV also establishes a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the body’s immune system. A late event in a very few carriers of this virus is the emergence of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two rare cancers. EBV appears to play an important role in these malignancies, but is probably not the sole cause of disease.

Most individuals exposed to people with infectious mononucleosis have previously been infected with EBV and are not at risk for infectious mononucleosis. In addition, transmission of EBV requires intimate contact with the saliva (found in the mouth) of an infected person. Transmission of this virus through the air or blood does not normally occur. The incubation period, or the time from infection to appearance of symptoms, ranges from 4 to 6 weeks. Persons with infectious mononucleosis may be able to spread the infection to others for a period of weeks. However, no special precautions or isolation procedures are recommended, since the virus is also found frequently in the saliva of healthy people. In fact, many healthy people can carry and spread the virus intermittently for life. These people are usually the primary reservoir for person-to-person transmission. For this reason, transmission of the virus is almost impossible to prevent.

The clinical diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is suggested on the basis of the symptoms of fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and the age of the patient. Usually, laboratory tests are needed for confirmation. Serologic results for persons with infectious mononucleosis include an elevated white blood cell count, an increased percentage of certain atypical white blood cells, and a positive reaction to a “mono spot” test.
Causes:
Epstein–Barr can cause infectious mononucleosis, also known as ‘glandular fever’, ‘Mono‘ and ‘Pfeiffer’s disease’. Infectious mononucleosis is caused when a person is first exposed to the virus during or after adolescence. Though once deemed “The Kissing Disease,” recent research has shown that transmission of EBV not only occurs from exchanging saliva, but also from contact with the airborne virus. It is predominantly found in the developing world, and most children in the developing world are found to have already been infected by around 18 months of age. Infection of children can occur when adults mouth feed or pre-chew food before giving it to the child. EBV antibody tests turn up almost universally positive.

Treatment:
There is no specific treatment for infectious mononucleosis, other than treating the symptoms. No antiviral drugs or vaccines are available. Some physicians have prescribed a 5-day course of steroids to control the swelling of the throat and tonsils. The use of steroids has also been reported to decrease the overall length and severity of illness, but these reports have not been published.

It is important to note that symptoms related to infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV infection seldom last for more than 4 months. When such an illness lasts more than 6 months, it is frequently called chronic EBV infection. However, valid laboratory evidence for continued active EBV infection is seldom found in these patients. The illness should be investigated further to determine if it meets the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome, or CFS. This process includes ruling out other causes of chronic illness or fatigue.

Prognosis:
There is currently no specific cure for an Epstein-Barr virus infection. Treatment includes measures to help relieve symptoms and keep the body as strong as possible until the disease runs its course. This includes rest, medications to ease body aches and fever, and drinking plenty of fluids. People who are in good health can generally recover from an Epstein-Barr virus infection at home with supportive care, such as rest, fluids and pain relievers.

Prevention:
Treatment of most viral diseases begins with preventing the spread of the disease with basic hygiene measures. However, controlling the spread of the Epstein-Barr virus is extremely difficult because it is so common and because it is possible to spread the Epstein-Barr virus even when a person does not appear sick. Many healthy people who have had an Epstein-Barr virus infection continue to carry the virus in their saliva, which means they can spread it to others throughout their lifetimes. However, avoiding contact with another person’s saliva by not sharing drinking glasses or toothbrushes is still a good general disease prevention measure.

Regular exercise with healthy food habits and healthy life style is the best way of prevention.

Research:
As a relatively complex virus, EBV is not yet fully understood. Laboratories around the world continue to study the virus and develop new ways to treat the diseases it causes. One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes.  Epstein–Barr virus and its sister virus KSHV can be maintained and manipulated in the laboratory in continual latency. Although many viruses are assumed to have this property during infection of their natural host, they do not have an easily managed system for studying this part of the viral lifecycle. Genomic studies of EBV have been able to explore lytic reactivation and regulation of the latent viral episome.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epstein%E2%80%93Barr_virus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epstein–Barr_virus_infection
http://www.healthgrades.com/conditions/epstein-barr-virus

Gardenia jasminoides

Botanical Name : Gardenia jasminoides
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Gardenia
Species: G. jasminoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names: Common gardenia, Cape jasmine or Cape jessamine (The common names cape jasmine and cape jessamine derive from the earlier belief that the flower originated in Cape of Good Hope, South Africa)

Habitat :It originated in Asia and is most commonly found growing in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan and India.

Description:
Gardenia jasminoides is a fragrant flowering evergreen tropical plant  with greyish bark and dark green shiny leaves with prominent veins. The white flowers bloom in spring and summer and are highly fragrant. They are followed by small oval fruit.

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It is  favorite in gardens worldwide.  With its shiny green leaves and fragrant white summer flowers, it is widely used in gardens in warm temperate and subtropical climates. It has been in cultivation in China for at least a thousand years, and was introduced to English gardens in the mid 18th century. Many varieties have been bred for horticulture, with low growing, and large- and long-flowering forms.

Cultivation:
Gardenia jasminoides is generally considered to be somewhat difficult to take care of.

As a tropical plant, it thrives best in warm temperatures in humid environments. Getting those conditions is rather hard when in non tropical latitudes, reason for which gardenias are usually cultivated indoors or in greenhouses. In warm places, though, it can be grown outdoors. Either way, it prefers bright indirect sunlight or partial shade, rather than direct sunlight.

Apart from the difficulties in creating the suitable conditions for the plant to live, Gardenias need to be planted in an acidic soil (it is an acidophile plant). If the soil is not acid enough, many of its nutrients (especially iron compounds) will not be available for the plant, since they won’t dilute in water and therefore won’t be absorbed via the roots. It this happens, gardenias start to develop chlorosis, whose main symptom is a yellowing of the leaves. (See Soil ph).

For this reason, it’s advisable not to water Gardenias with very hard water. When having to water with hard water, it is possible to add some vinegar or lemon juice to it before doing so, this will lower the pH of the water.

Iron chelate can be added to the soil in order to lower the pH, but care must be taken since an overdose can kill the plant, as with any other inorganic soil amendment.

Some gardeners will spill vinegar over the soil to effectively keep the pH low and prevent chlorosis. This can be carried out either regularly or when the first symptoms of chlorosis have been spotted.

Medicinal Uses:
It is used as a tea for feverish states, inflammations of the liver (chronic hepatitis), gastrointestinal tract (with impaired digestion, minor constipation), genitourinary tract (cystitis), and as an antidyscratic (blood purifier) and anti-inflammatory for atopic eczema and chronic rheumatic complaints.

Traditional uses:
Gardenia jasminoides fructus (fruit) is used within Traditional Chinese Medicine to “drain fire” and thereby treat certain febrile conditions.

Pharmacological research:
Studies in animals indicate some pharmacological potential, but there is no evidence from clinical studies in humans. In one animal study Gardenia jasminoides significantly lowered serum IL-1? and TNF-? levels in rheumatoid arthritis rats, and its effect had a close relation with inhibitory development of rheumatoid arthritis in the rats.

A mice study found that genipin was an active constituent in Gardenia that regulated inflammatory activity. Geniposide from Gardenia enhanced glutathione content in rat livers. Glutathione is an important immune system amino acid that helps determine modulation of immune response, including cytokine production

Other Uses:
It is widely used as a garden plant in warm temperate and subtropical gardens. It can be used as a hedge.

The fruit is used as a yellow dye, which is used for clothes and food (including the Korean mung bean jelly called hwangpomuk).

Polynesian people in the pacific islands use these fragrant blooms in their flower necklaces, which are called Ei in the Cook Islands, Hei in French Polynesia and Lei in Hawai’i

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardenia_jasminoides
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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Failure to Thrive

Alternative Names: Growth failure; FTT (Faltering Growth)

Definition:
Failure to thrive is a description applied to babies or children whose current weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below that of others of similar age and sex.

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From the moment they’re born, a baby’s weight and height are closely monitored. Health visitors provide health record booklets that include growth charts to help with this…..CLICK & SEE

In general, failure-to-thrive means that a child:
Is at or below the 3rd to 5th percentile for height and weight, or
Has failed to grow as expected, as shown by dropping two growth percentiles (For example, the child goes from the 75th percentile to below the 25th percentile.)

Failure to thrive may be caused by a variety of factors. Some children who fit this category appear lethargic, pale and miserable, while others seem fairly well.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
In the Deloped countries where chronic disease in childhood isn’t common, failure to thrive in infants may be a result of poor feeding techniques.

In older children, unhappy home circumstances and emotional problems are often to blame.

Infants or children that fail to thrive seem to be dramatically smaller or shorter than other children the same age. Teenagers may have short stature or appear to lack the usual changes that occur at puberty. However, there is a wide variation in normal growth and development.

In general, the rate of change in weight and height may be more important than the actual measurements.

It is important to determine whether failure to thrive results from medical problems or factors in the environment, such as abuse or neglect.

There are multiple medical causes of failure to thrive. These include:

*Chromosome abnormalities such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome

*Defects in major organ systems

*Problems with the endocrine system, such as thyroid hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency, or other hormone deficiencies

*Damage to the brain or central nervous system, which may cause feeding difficulties in an infant

*Heart or lung problems, which can affect how oxygen and nutrients move through the body

*Anemia or other blood disorders

*Gastrointestinal problems that result in malabsorption or a lack of digestive enzymes

*Long-term gastroenteritis and gastroesophageal reflux (usually temporary)
Cerebral palsy

*Long-term (chronic) infections

*Metabolic disorders

*Complications of pregnancy and low birth weight

Other factors that may lead to failure to thrive:

*Emotional deprivation as a result of parental withdrawal, rejection, or hostility

*Economic problems that affect nutrition, living conditions, and parental attitudes

*Exposure to infections, parasites, or toxins

*Poor eating habits, such as eating in front of the television and not having formal meal times

Some Other Causes:

*Problems with milk feeds
Breastmilk is the best choice for newborns and babies should thrive on it. But some new mothers and their babies struggle to latch on and get a good technique going. Health visitors can offer advice on this and appropriate formula feeds, if necessary.

If you’re formula feeding but your baby isn’t growing as they should, check you’re following the manufacturer’s instructions for making up the feed exactly (not too dilute) and that your baby is able to get the milk as fast as they need to (check the teat size).

*Dietary problems
Children may be unable to absorb food into their bodies because of problems with their gut, such as parasitic infections, malabsorption, liver disease or milk sensitivity (usually temporary).

 

Coeliac disease, which causes diarrhoea with foul-smelling faeces and anaemia, is another explanation for failure to thrive. It’s caused by a reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat and similar proteins in other grains.

*Genetic causes
There are many different inherited conditions that can mean a child fails to thrive, such as chromosomal problems.

The most common of all genetic factors isn’t an illness but simply the fact that the parents are also small, so it’s normal for that family. This is sometimes known as constitutional short stature and, of course, no treatment is needed.

What’s important is that the child is growing at a steady rate, following a line on the growth charts parallel to the average child, even if continually smaller than average.

*Problems in the womb
Some children born with a low weight as a result of some factor during pregnancy will continue to have problems catching up. This is more likely if the growth retardation happened early in the pregnancy.

If the mother has high blood pressure, smokes, drinks alcohol or takes certain medications it can affect her baby’s growth in the womb. Maternal infections, such as rubella and toxoplasmosis, can also result in low birth weight.

*Chronic or repeated illness
Any illness in a child temporarily slows growth. While many catch up, repeated illness, even coughs and colds, can affect growth in the long term.

Serious illness is more likely to affect growth, from chronic infections such as TB to major heart abnormalities, deficiencies of hormones such as thyroid or growth hormone, lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, and kidney disease.

*Psychological problems
Sometimes there’s no apparent physical explanation for why a child is failing to thrive until home circumstances are carefully probed.

Social deprivation, especially if a child’s emotional needs are being neglected, can lead to growth problems even in the first few months of life.

Many times the cause cannot be determined.

Symptoms:-
Infants or children who fail to thrive have a height, weight, and head circumference that do not match standard growth charts. The person’s weight falls lower than 3rd percentile (as outlined in standard growth charts) or 20% below the ideal weight for their height. Growing may have slowed or stopped after a previously established growth curve.

The following are delayed or slow to develop:

*Physical skills such as rolling over, sitting, standing and walking

*Mental and social skills

*Secondary sexual characteristics (delayed in adolescents)

Signs and tests:-
The doctor will perform a physical exam and check the child’s height, weight, and body shape. A detailed history is taken, including prenatal, birth, neonatal, psychosocial, and family information.

A Denver Developmental Screening Test reveals delayed development. A growth chart outlining all types of growth since birth is created.

The following laboratory tests may be done:

*Complete blood count (CBC)

*Electrolyte balance

*Hemoglobin electrophoresis to determine the presence of conditions such as sickle cell disease

*Hormone studies, including thyroid function tests

*X-rays to determine bone age

*Urinalysis

Treatment:
The treatment depends on the cause of the delayed growth and development. Delayed growth due to nutritional factors can be resolved by educating the parents to provide a well-balanced diet.

If psychosocial factors are involved, treatment should include improving the family dynamics and living conditions. Parental attitudes and behavior may contribute to a child’s problems and need to be examined. In many cases, a child may need to be hospitalized initially to focus on implementation of a comprehensive medical, behavioral, and psychosocial treatment plan.

Do not give your child dietary supplements like Boost or Ensure without consulting your physician first.

Prognosis:
If the period of failure to thrive has been short, and the cause is determined and can be corrected, normal growth and development will resume. If failure to thrive is prolonged, the effects may be long lasting, and normal growth and development may not be achieved.

Complications:
Permanent mental, emotional, or physical delays can occur.

Prevention:
The best means of prevention is by early detection at routine well-baby examinations and periodic follow-up with school-age and adolescent children.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/babies2.shtml
http://healthtools.aarp.org/adamcontent/failure-to-thrive/2
http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/c/camfak_syndrome/book-diseases-4a.htm

http://www.beliefnet.com/healthandhealing/getcontent.aspx?cid=11872

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Clerodendrum infortunatum(Ghentu ful in bengali)

Botanical Name :Clerodendrum infortunatum
Family: Lamiaceae /Verbenaceae.
Genus: Clerodendrum
Species: C. infortunatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: hill glory bower, Saraswaty’s leaf, sticky glorybower • Bengali: bhant, ghentu • Hindi: bhant • Kannada: ibbane • Lepcha: kumboul kung • Malayalam: peruku, vattaparuvalam • Manipuri: kuthap manbi • Marathi: bhandira • Sanskrit: bhandika, bhandira, bhantaka • Tamil: perugilai, vattakanni • Telugu: kattiyaku, saraswati-yaku ;

Habitat:  Clerodendrum infortunatum is native to tropical regions of Asia including Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia, the Andaman Islands, and Sri Lanka.

Description :
Clerodendrum infortunatum is a perennial flowering shrub or small tree, and is so named because of its rather ugly leaf. The stem is eresct, 0.5–4 m high, with no branches and produce circular leaves with 6 inch diameter. Leaves are simple, opposite; both surfaces sparsely villous-pubescent, elliptic, broadly elliptic, ovate or elongate ovate, 3.5–20 cm wide, 6–25 cm long, dentate, inflorescence in terminal, peduncled, few-flowered cyme; flowers white with purplish pink or dull-purple throat, pubescent. Fruit berry, globose, turned bluish-black or black when ripe, enclosed in the red accrescent fruiting-calyx. The stem is hollow and the leaves are 6-8 inch (15–20 cm) long, borne in whorls of four on very short petioles. The inflorescence is huge, consisting of many tubular snow white flowers in a terminal cluster up to 2 ft (0.6 m) long. The tubes of the flowers are about 4 inch (10 cm) long and droop downward, and the expanded corollas are about 2 inch (5 cm) across. The fruits are attractive dark metallic blue drupes, about a half inch in diameter. Fruit usually with 4 dry nutlets and the seeds may be with or without endosperm. It flowers from April to August.

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Chemical composition: The major compounds are sterols, sugars, flavonoids and saponins. Novel crystalline compounds such as clerodolone, clerodone, clerodol and a sterol designated clerosterol have been isolated from the root. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, glucose and fructose were identified. Fumaric acid, caffeic acid esters, ?-sitosterol and ?-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from the flowers. Apigenin, acacetin and a new flavone glycoside, characterised as the methyl ester of acacetin-7-0-glucuronide are isolated from the flowers. Saponin is one of the major compounds of the leaf. 24 beta-ethylsterols, clerosterol and 22-dehydroclerosterol, 24-methyl-sterols (24-methylcholestanol, 24-methylcholesterol, 24-methyl-22-dehydrocholesterol, and 24-methyllathostero) and 24 beta-ethyl-22-dehydrocholestanol are found in the seeds.Scutellarin and hispidulin-7-O-glucuronide are present in the leaf. Poriferasterol and stigmasterol are the components of the aerial parts.

Properties and uses: The juice of the leaves is believed to possess anthelminitic properties-

Medicinal Uses:
Saponin (SN1) isolated from Clerodendrum  infortunatum leaves in doses of 30, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, ip provided 36.28, 60.47, 90.71, 100% protection respectively from writhing induced by 1.2% v/v acetic acid. In hot plate method, SN1 not only produced analgesia in mice but also potentiated the analgesic action of pentazocine and aspirin. The anticonvulsant activity was tested by leptazol-induced seizures. SN1 decreased the duration of seizures and gave protection in a dose dependent manner against leptazol-induced convulsions. The results suggest that saponin has significant analgesic and anticonvulsant effects.
In Ayurvedic and Siddha traditional medicines, the leaves and roots of C. infortunatum are used as herbal remedy for alopecia, asthma, cough, diarrhoea, rheumatism, fever and skin diseases. It is also known to have hepato-protective and antimicrobial activities.[FROM :unreliable medical source] The roots and bark of stem of this plant prepared as decoction and given in the dose of 60-80 ml twice daily for respiratory diseases, fever, periodic fever, cough, bronchial asthma, etc. The leaves are ground well and applied externally to induce ripenning of ulcers and swellings. A paste of leaves and roots are applied externally over skin diseases especially fungal infections and alopecia. Fresh leaves are given for diarrhoea, liver disorders and headache.
Traditional practices:
The leaf and root are widely used as antidandruff, antipyretic, ascaricide, laxative, vermifuge, and in treatments of convulsion, diabetes, gravel, malaria, scabies, skin diseases, sore, spasm, scorpion sting, snake bite and tumor. In Thai medicine the leaves and root are known to be diuretic; and used for treatment of intestinal infections and kidney dysfunction; when boiled or ground with water, it is taken to increase milk secretion for post-labor. In many traditional practices the leaves and root are widely used as antihyperglycemic.

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Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clerodendrum_infortunatum
ভাইটা  ‘‍ঘন্টাকর্ণ’   : CLERODENDRUM INFORTUNATUM.,
https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a—l/l/lamiaceae/clerodendrum/clerodendrum-infortunatum

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