Tag Archives: India

Rohu or Rui

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Botanical Name: Labeo rohita
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Labeo
Species: L. rohita
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes

Common Names: , Rui, or Roho labeo, Rohu

Description:
Thev Rohu is a species of fish of the carp family, found in rivers in South Asia. It is a large omnivore and extensively used in aquaculture. It is a large, silver-coloured fish of typical cyprinid shape, with a conspicuously arched head. Adults can reach a length of up to 2 m (6.6 ft) and a weight of up to 45 kg (99 lb).This fish is available throughout northern and central India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar and Pakistan, and has been introduced into some of the rivers of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. It inhabits the freshwater section of rivers to a depth of ~550 m.

Rohu reach sexual maturity between two and five years of age. They generally spawn during the monsoon season, keeping to the middle of flooded rivers above tidal reach. The spawning season of rohu generally coincides with the southwest monsoon. Spawn may be collected from rivers and reared in tanks and lakes.

As Food:
Rohu is very commonly eaten in Bangladesh ; Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Indian states of Tripura, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.[citation needed] A recipe for fried Rohu fish is mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. In this recipe, the fish is marinated in asafoetida and salt after being skinned. It is then dipped in turmeric mixed in water before being fried.

The Maithil Brahmins and the Kayastha community of Mithila region of India and Nepal treats it as one of their most sacred foods, to be eaten on all auspicious occasions. Rohu is the most commonly used fish in Pakistan and is usually eaten fried, or in a sauce with spices.

The roe of rohu is also considered a delicacy in Bhojpur, Andhra Pradesh, Nepalis Oriyas and Bengalis. It is deep fried and served hot as an appetizer as part of a Bihari, Oriya and Bengali meal. It is also stuffed inside a pointed gourd to make potoler dolma which is considered a delicacy. Rohu is also served deep fried in mustard oil, as kalia, which is a rich gravy made of a concoction of spices and deeply browned onions and tok, where the fish is cooked in a tangy sauce made of tamarind and mustard. Rohu is also very popular in northern India and Pakistan, as in the province of Punjab. In Lahore it is a speciality of Lahori cuisine in “Lahori fried fish” where it is prepared with batter and spices. It is also a very popular food fish in Iraq.

Health Benefits:
Rohu fish is as beneficial as eating other fishes such as mackerel, salmon or tuna. Here are some of the health benefits of eating rohu fish.

Vitamin C:
Rohu is a river fish. It is considered to be a rich source of vitamin C, which is essential for maintaining a good health. It keeps diseases like cold and cough at bay and prevents other diseases related to it.

Mineral source:
Iron, zinc, iodine, potassium, calcium and selenium are just a few names. The list consists of many more such essential minerals that are found in fish. The quantity may vary from one variety to another but the fact cannot be denied that fish is a rich source of minerals required by the body.
Protein rich:
This Fish protein is one of the best forms of protein available. It is said that sea fish has a greater content of protein. But the river fishes are not far behind. Living inland where river fish like rohu and katla are more common, it is always a good idea to bank upon the fish protein as much as possible. Be it a child or an adult, this protein is needed for growth and good health of tissues.

Low fat:
Rohu is rich in protein but low in fat – what could be better than this? When you get benefits without piling up layers of fat, you know you have the ideal dish.

Heart friendly:
Omega 3 fatty acid is known for being heart friendly. We hear cooking oils being advertised of its content of Omega 3 fatty acids, but it is a fact that the best natural source of this is none other than the fish. So, that’s one of the reasons one should start eating rohu fish today.

Brain booster :
Fish and brains are always mentioned together. Eating fish benefits the entire body, including the brain. A fish eater is seen to have better memorising and analysing skills along with fewer occasions of mood swings.
Cancer chaser :
One deadly disease that is affecting people across the world is cancer. Be it any form, the mere name of cancer is heart wrenching. Antioxidants in fish are believed to be helpful in fighting cancer to a great extent. It could be river fish or sea fish but the idea is to have more of it.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohu
http://www.boldsky.com/health/nutrition/2014/health-benefits-of-rohu-fish-carp-fish/cancer-chaser-pf67831-049909.html

Some Health Problems & solutions

Contraception:-

Q: We have one child and do not want any more. I don’t like to use condoms, take hormones or have an IUD (intra uterine device) inserted. Can I use the I-pill regularly?

A: Emergency contraceptives actually contain higher doses of hormones than regular oral contraceptive pills. It is alright to take them occasionally, for contraceptive failure or rape. Regular usage as a method of contraception results in side effects such as bleeding, change of cycle dates, nausea, headache and breast tenderness. Eventually, despite emergency contraception, ovulation may occur resulting in pregnancy. If you don’t like any of the usual methods of contraception, you could try withdrawal, though that has a 60-70 per cent failure rate. Alternatively one of you could opt for a permanent method like sterilisation.

KNUCKLE RAP:-

Q: I love to crack my knuckles but someone told me that it causes arthritis. It has become a habit so I keep doing it!

A:Tiny air bubbles get trapped in the joint space and these burst producing the sounds. It does not cause arthritis. That is an old wives’ tale, probably propagooated by people who cannot bear the popping sound.

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Migraine meds:-

Q: I get headaches once or twice a month. After checking my eyes, sinuses and doing a CT scan, the doctor said it is migraine.

A: Migraines are fairly typical and can be suspected clinically. Sometimes they start with a strange sensation or an aura like bright lights, which can last for up to an hour. The headache itself usually lasts for 4-72 hours and can end in vomiting. If you get the headaches only once or twice a month then you can take the medication that the doctor prescribed at the time of the headache. Some people need continuous maintenance treatment to prevent the headaches. In addition, lying down in a dark quiet room, applying hot and cold compresses to the forehead and temples and having a cup of coffee can help to reduce the intensity and duration of the headache.

Garlic breath?:-

Q: I have bad breath and I am very conscious of it. I feel people move out of the way as I approach. I use mouthwash and floss regularly but it does not help.

A: You need to consult a dentist to see if you have cavities or gum disease. If this is not the case, bad breath can be a symptom of tonsillitis, sinusitis, diabetes, liver or kidney disease. Sometimes it is what you eat — such as garlic and other spices in your food — which contributes to the smell.

Wash it off:-

Q: My scalp itches a great deal.

A:An itchy scalp may be due to dandruff, lice, seborrhic dermatitis, eczema or simply not washing your hair at least every other day. You need to show it to a dermatologist. Dandruff usually responds well to OTC shampoos. It is better to buy two different brands and alternate them.

Vein trouble:-

Q: I have ugly varicose veins in both my legs. What can I do?

A:Wear compression stockings during the day. When sleeping, elevate feet above the level of the heart. If the veins are cosmetically unappealing, or there are ulcers or clots, surgery, laser treatment or sclerotherapy can be considered. Walking and stretching regularly can prevent varicose veins from developing.

Sources: The telegraph (Kolkata ,India)

Allium hookeri

Botanical Name : Allium hookeri
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. hookeri
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Allium tsoongii

Common Names: Hooker chives, Phulun Zung (in India), Kuan ye jiu (in China)

Habitat : Allium hookeri is native to E. Asia – Southern China, India, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The plant is widely cultivated outside its native range, and valued as a food item in much of South and Southeast Asia. It grows in forests, forest margins, moist places and meadows at elevations from 1400 – 4200 metres.

Description:

Allium hookeri is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It produces thick, fleshy roots and a cluster of thin bulbs. Scapes are up top 60 cm tall. Leaves are flat and narrow, about the same length as the scapes but only 1 cm across. Umbels are crowded with many white or greenish-yellow flowers. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors at least in the milder parts of the country. The plant is cultivated as a food crop in southern China. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_hookeri
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+hookeri

Potentilla nepalensis

Botanical Name: Potentilla nepalensis
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. nepalensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms:
*Potentilla nepalensis willmottiae
*Potentilla willmottiae
*Potentilla ‘Miss Wilmott’

Common Names: Cinquefoil, Nepal Cinquefoil

Habitat :Potentilla nepalensis is native to E. Asia and W. Himalayas, from Pakistan to Nepal. It grows on grazing grounds and cultivated areas, 2100 – 2700 metres from Pakistan to C. Nepal.

Description:
Potentilla nepalensis is a perennial herb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) at a medium rate. This plant forms low mounds of deep green strawberry-like leaves composed of broad leaflets. The cup-shaped 5-petalled flowers may be cherry red or deep pink, with a darker center, about 2.5 cm in width. They bloom July to August. Bloom Color: Pink, Red. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Irregular or sprawling. It is not frost tender.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Alpine garden, Border, Container, Ground cover, Rock garden, Specimen. A very tolerant and easily grown plant, surviving considerable neglect. It grows best in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Suitable for cut flowers.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:..…Root – cooked. Starchy.
Medicinal Uses:……The root is depurative. The ashes are mixed with oil and applied to burns.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_nepalensis
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+nepalensis

Fritillaria roylei

Botanical Name:  Fritillaria roylei

Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Fritillaria

Common name: Himalayan Fritillary • Hindi: Kakoli • Tamil: Kakoli • Malayalam: Kakoli • Telugu: Kakoli • Kannada: Kakoli • Sanskrit: Kakoli, Ksirakakol, Ksirasukla, Payasya
Habitat : Fritillaria roylei is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on the alpine slopes and in shrubberies, 2700 – 4000 metres, from Pakistan to Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Fritillaria roylei  is a herbacious plant, 0.5-2 ft tall, commonly found in alpine slopes and shrubberies of the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Uttarakhand, at altitudes of 2700-4000 m. Flowers are yellowish-green to brownish-purple and usually with a chequered pattern in dull purple. Flowers are broadly bell-shaped, hanging looking down, borne singly on the stems, but sometimes in groups of 2-4. Petals are narrow-ovate. 4-5 cm long. Leaves are linear-lancelike, often long-pointed, 5-10 cm, arrange oppositely or in whorls of 2-6 on the stem. Flowering: June-July. . The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:

This species is easily grown in a cold greenhouse but is difficult to grow outdoors in Britain. In the wild it is under snow for 6 months of the year and is baked by the sun for the rest of the year. Very closely related to and merging into F. cirrhosa in the eastern part of its range[90]. Famous in Chinese medicine, where it is called Pé-mou, it is sold as a medicinal herb in local markets there. Flowers are produced in 3 – 5 years from seed.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.

Medicinal Uses:
The bulb is antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, febrifuge, galactogogue, haemostatic, ophthalmic and oxytocic.  It is boiled with orange peel and used in the treatment of TB and asthma.

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Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Himalayan%20Fritillary.html
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+roylei

Helianthus annuus

Botanical Name:Helianthus annuus
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily:
Helianthoideae
Tribe:
Heliantheae
Genus:
Helianthus
Species:
H. annuus
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Asterales

Synonyms:
*Helianthus aridus Rydb.
*Helianthus erythrocarpus Bartl.
*Helianthus indicus L.
*Helianthus jaegeri Heiser
*Helianthus lenticularis Douglas
*Helianthus macrocarpus DC. & A.DC.
*Helianthus multiflorus Hook.
*Helianthus ovatus Lehm.
*Helianthus platycephalus Cass.
*Helianthus tubaeformis Nutt.

Common Names: Sunflower, Common sunflower

Habitat :Helianthus annuus is native to Western N. America. An occasional garden escape in Britain. It grows on open dry or moderately moist soils on the plains.
Description:
Helianthus annuus is an annual plant.  It has an erect rough-hairy stem, reaching typical heights of 3 metres (9.8 ft). The tallest sunflower on record achieved 9.17 metres (30.1 ft). Sunflower leaves are broad, coarsely toothed, rough and mostly alternate. What is often called the “flower” of the sunflower is actually a “flower head” or pseudanthium of numerous small individual five-petaled flowers (“florets”). The outer flowers, which resemble petals, are called ray flowers. Each “petal” consists of a ligule composed of fused petals of an asymmetrical ray flower. They are sexually sterile and may be yellow, red, orange, or other colors. The flowers in the center of the head are called disk flowers. These mature into fruit (sunflower “seeds”). The disk flowers are arranged spirally. Generally, each floret is oriented toward the next by approximately the golden angle, 137.5°, producing a pattern of interconnecting spirals, where the number of left spirals and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers. Typically, there are 34 spirals in one direction and 55 in the other; however, in a very large sunflower head there could be 89 in one direction and 144 in the other. This pattern produces the most efficient packing of seeds mathematically possible within the flower head.. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is not self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife…….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Bloom Color: Orange, Red, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Massing, Seashore, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, including poor soils provided they are deep and well-drained, but it grows best in a deep rich soil. Plants are intolerant of acid or waterlogged conditions. Especially when grown for its edible seed, the plant prefers a sunny position though it also tolerates light shade. Requires a neutral or preferably calcareous soil. As sunflowers have highly efficient root systems, they can be grown in areas which are too dry for many other crops. Established plants are quite drought-resistant except during flowering. The sunflower tolerates an annual precipitation of 20 – 400cm, an average annual temperature in the range of 6 – 28°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 – 8.7. The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, plants can be totally destroyed by them. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. The sunflower is a very ornamental plant that is widely grown in gardens and is also a major commercial crop for its edible seed and many other uses. It grows well in Britain, but it does not ripen its seed reliably in this country and so is not suitable for commercial cultivation at the present. It is the state flower of Kansas. Three distinct groups of sunflowers are cultivated:- Giant types grow from 1.8 – 4.2 metres tall with flower heads 30 – 50cm in diameter. The seeds are large, white or gray in colour, sometimes with black stripes, and are the best for culinary purposes, though the oil content is lower than for other types. ‘Grey Stripe’, ‘Hopi Black Dye’, ‘Mammoth Russian’ and ‘Sundak’ are examples of this type. Semi-dwarf types grow from 1.3 – 1.8 m tall, are early maturing and have heads 17 – 23 cm diameter. The seeds are smaller, black, gray or striped, the oil content is also higher. Examples include ‘Pole Star’ and ‘Jupiter’ Dwarf types grow from 0.6 – 1.4 m tall, are early maturing and have heads 14 – 16 cm in diameter.
The seeds are small but the oil content is the highest. Examples include ‘Advance’ and ‘Sunset’. Some forms are being bred for greater cold tolerance and should be more reliable in Britain. Plants tend to grow better in the south and south-west of England. Most forms require a four month frost-free growing season, though some Russian cultivars can mature a crop in 70 days. When plants are grown in cooler latitudes the seed contains higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty oils. The plant has a strong taproot that can penetrate the soil to depth of 3 metres, it also has a large lateral spread of surface roots. Sunflowers grow badly with potatoes but they do well with cucumbers and corn. A very greedy and vigorous plant, it can inhibit the growth of nearby plants. Plants tend to impoverish the soil if they are grown too often in the same place. A good bee plant, providing large quantities of nectar. The flowers attract beneficial insects such as lacewings and parasitic wasps. These prey on various insect pests, especially aphis. Special Features:Attracts birds, Attractive foliage, North American native, Edible, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers.

Propagation :
Seed – sow in mid spring in situ. An earlier start can be made by sowing 2 – 3 seeds per pot in a greenhouse in early spring. Use a fairly rich compost. Thin to the strongest seedling, give them an occasional liquid feed to make sure they do not become nutrient deficient and plant them out in late spring or early summer. Seed, harvested at 12% moisture content and stored, will retain its viability for several years

Edible Uses:
Seed – raw or cooked. A delicious nut-like flavour, but very fiddly to extract due to the small size of the seed. Commercially there are machines designed to do this. Rich in fats, the seed can be ground into a powder, made into sunflower butter or used to make seed yoghurt. When mixed with cereal flours, it makes a nutritious bread. Cultivars with up to 50% oil have been developed in Russia. The oil contains between 44 – 72% linoleic acid. The germinated seed is said to be best for seed yoghurt, it is blended with water and left to ferment. The sprouted seed can be eaten raw. A nutritional analysis of the seed is available. Young flower buds – steamed and served like globe artichokes. A mild and pleasant enough flavour, but rather fiddly. Average yields range from 900 – 1,575 kg/ha of seed, however yields of over 3,375 kg/ha have been reported. A high quality edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is low in cholesterol, and is said to be equal in quality to olive oil. Used in salads, margarines, or in cooking. The roasted seed is a coffee and drinking chocolate substitute. Another report says the roasted hulls are used. The leaf petioles are boiled and mixed in with other foodstuffs.
Medicinal Uses:
A tea made from the leaves is astringent, diuretic and expectorant, it is used in the treatment of high fevers. The crushed leaves are used as a poultice on sores, swellings, snakebites and spider bites. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. A tea made from the flowers is used in the treatment of malaria and lung ailments. The flowering head and seeds are febrifuge, nutritive and stomachic. The seed is also considered to be diuretic and expectorant. It has been used with success in the treatment of many pulmonary complaints. A decoction of the roots has been used as a warm wash on rheumatic aches and pains.
Powdered leaves of the prairie sunflower are said to work well with the healing of sores and swellings.

Other Uses:
Blotting paper; Dye; Fibre; Fuel; Green manure; Herbicide; Kindling; Microscope; Oil; Paper.

An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. Some varieties contain up to 45% oil. The oil is also used, often mixed with a drying oil such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to make soap, candles, varnishes, paint etc, as well as for lighting. The oil is said to be unrivalled as a lubricant. A blotting paper is made from the seed receptacles. A high quality writing paper is made from the inner stalk. The pith of the stems is one of the lightest substances known, having a specific gravity of 0.028. It has a wide range of applications, being used for purposes such as making life-saving appliances and slides for microscopes. The dried stems make an excellent fuel, the ash is rich in potassium. Both the dried stems and the empty seed receptacles are an excellent kindling. A fibre from the stem is used to make paper and a fine quality cloth. A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers. A purple-black dye is obtained from the seed of certain varieties that were grown by the Hopi Indians of S.W. North America. Sunflowers can be grown as a spring-sown green manure, they produce a good bulk of material. Root secretions from the plant can inhibit the growth of nearby plants[

Known Hazards: The growing plant can accumulate nitrates, especially when fed on artificial fertilizers. The pollen or plant extracts may cause allergic reactions.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthus_annuus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helianthus+annuus

Zanthoxylum alatum

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum alatum
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily:Toddalioideae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms :Zanthoxylum armatum.

Common Names: Winged Prickly Ash, Tooyh ache tree

Other vernacular names:
Bengali: Gaira.
Hindi: Darman, Darmar (as Z. alatum), Tejbal, Tejpal, Tejphal, Tumru.
Kannada: Dhiva, Jimmi, Tumburudu.
Malayalam: Thumbunalari, Tumpunal, Tumpuni.
Tamil: Tumpunalu.
Telagu: Gandhalu, Konda kasimi.
Burmese: Gawra kha nan nan, Teza bo.
Nepalese: Timbur, Timur.
Sanskrit: Tejohwa, Tejpal, Tumburu, Tumburuh.
Chinese: Ci zhu ye hua jiao, Qin jiao, Huan hua zhen, Bai zong guan, Shan hua jiao. Zhu ye jiao.
Japanese: Fuyu zanshou.
German: Nepalpfeffer.

Habitat:Zanthoxylum alatum is native to E. Asia – China to the Himalayas. It grows in the forest undergrowth and hot valleys to 1800 metres in the Himalayas.

Description:
Zanthoxylum alatum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). The tree is almost entirely smooth, with a strong aromatic smell. Bark is corky, with conspicuous young stems with thick conical prickles raising rising from a corky base. Spines are shining and sharp, growing on branchlets. Leaves are alternate, usually with 2 to 6 pairs of leaflets. Petioles and rachis are narrowly winged. Leaflets are elliptic-lanceolate, 2 to 8 centimeters long and 1 to 1.8 centimeters wide. Flowers are small, yellow, usually unisexual, borne in dense lateral panicles. Fruit is usually a solitary carpel dehiscing ventrally, about 3 millimeters in diameter, tubercled, red, and strongly aromatic.

The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. This species is closely related to Z. planispinum. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The seed is ground into a powder and used as a condiment. A pepper substitute, it is widely used in the Orient. A light roasting brings out more of the flavour. The seed is an ingredient of the famous Chinese ‘five spice’ mixture. The fruit is rather small but is produced in clusters which makes harvesting easy. Each fruit contains a single seed. Young leaves are used as a condiment.
Medicinal Uses:

The seeds and the bark are used as an aromatic tonic in the treatment of fevers, dyspepsia and cholera. The fruits, branches and thorns are considered to be carminative and stomachic. They are used as a remedy for toothache.

Other Uses: 
Miscellany; Teeth; Wood.

The fruit contains 1.5% essential oil. The fruit is used to purify water. Toothbrushes are made from the branches[146, 158]. Wood – heavy, hard, close grained. Used for walking sticks.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+alatum

Panax pseudoginseng

Botanical Name: Panax pseudoginseng
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Panax
Subgenus:Panax
Section:Pseudoginseng
Species:P. pseudoginseng
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Aralia bipinnatifida. Aralia pseudoginseng. Panax schin-seng.

Common Names:Ginseng, Japanese ginseng, Pseudoginseng, Nepal ginseng, and Himalayan ginseng

Habitat :Panax pseudoginseng is native to E. Asia – China to the Himalayas and Burma It grows in the forests and shrubberies, 2100 – 4300 metres in C. Nepal in the Himalayas. Moist shady places at elevations of 2000 – 3300 metres in Nepal.

Description:
Panax pseudoginseng is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in) at a slow rate. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil…...CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Requires a moist humus rich soil in a shady position in a woodland. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. Nomenclature of this genus is rather confused with some botanists recognising P. ginseng as a variable plant that includes this species. Other botanists divide it into 4 or even 5 distinct species, giving this plant specific status. This plant has been grossly over-collected from the wild for its use as a medicinal plant and it is rapidly approaching extinction in most parts of its range. The sub-species P. pseudo-ginseng notoginseng. (Burkill.)Hoo.&Tseng. is the form used medicinally in China[176], this plant is given a separate entry in this database.
Propagation:
Seed – sow in a shady position in a cold frame preferably as soon as it is ripe, otherwise as soon as the seed is obtained. It can be very slow and erratic to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a shady position in the greenhouse or frame for at least their first winter. Make sure the pots are deep enough to accommodate the roots. Plant out into their permanent positions in late summer. Division in spring.

Edible Uses:… Drink; Tea……Young leaves and shoots – cooked as a vegetable. The roots are chewed, used as a flavouring in liqueurs or made into a tea.

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Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Aphrodisiac; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Haemostatic; Hypoglycaemic; Stimulant.

The roots and the flowers are antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, hypoglycaemic and stimulant. The root is used internally in the treatment of indigestion, vomiting, coronary heart disease and angina. The roots are also used both internally and externally in the treatment of nosebleeds, haemorrhages from the lungs, digestive tract and uterus, and injuries. The roots are harvested in the autumn, preferably from plants 6 – 7 years old, and can be used fresh or dried. The flowers are used to treat vertigo and dizziness.

Known Hazards: Avoid during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Avoid if on anticoagulants or ticlodipine (for blood clot formation)

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panax_pseudoginseng
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Panax+pseudoginseng

Viburnum mullaha

 

Botanical Name : Viburnum mullaha
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Domain: Eukaryotes
Kingdom :Plants
Division: Vascular plants
Class: Dicotyledonous angiosperms
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms : V. stellulatum.

Common Names:

Habitat :Viburnum mullaha is native to E. AsiaHimalayas. It grows in the forests and shrubberies, especially in moist localities in the undergrowth of oak and fir, to 3000 metres.

Description:
Viburnum mullaha is a tall deciduous Shrub growing 10-15′ tall and 8-10′ across. Medium green leaves are a broad oval, tapering to the pedicel and deeply dentate along the top half. White flowers in 2-3″ wide cymes in May. Fruit is egg-shaped, yellow at first, changing to red and slightly hairy.
It is frost tender. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile…CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Edible Uses:..Fruit  – raw or cooked. Acid tasting.

Medicinal Uses:
Stimulant; Stomachic.

The crushed fruit is eaten as a stimulant. The juice of the fruit is used to treat indigestion.

Other Uses:…Dye; Wood…..A dye is obtained from the fruit. Wood – moderately hard. The straight branches are used for walking sticks

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_mullaha
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+mullaha
http://www.classicviburnums.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/plants.plantDetail/plant_id/7136/whichname/genus/index.htm

Artemisia laciniata

Botanical Name: Artemisia laciniata
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribes: Anthemideae
Subtribe: Artemisiinae
Order: Asterales
Genus: Artemisia
Species: Artemisia laciniata
Common Name : Siberian wormwood

Habitat:
Artemisia laciniata is native to Europe to E. Asia. Found at elevations of 2,400 – 3,600 metres in the Himalayas.

Description:
Artemisia laciniata is a perennial herb.Growing 5–15 cm (not cespitose), sometimes mildly aromatic. Stems 1–3, erect, reddish brown, simple, strigillose to spreading-hairy, or glabrous. Leaves basal (in rosettes, petioles to 12 cm) and cauline, greenish; blades (basal) 2. 3-pinnate, relatively deeply lobed (cauline sessile, 1–2-pinnately lobed to entire), faces sparsely hairy to pilose. Heads (10–70, spreading to nodding, peduncles 0 or to 10 mm) in spiciform arrays 2–5 × 0.5–1 or 8–18 × 1–4 cm. Involucres globose, 3–5 × 4–8 mm. Phyllaries (greenish or yellowish) elliptic (margins hyaline, brownish), glabrous or sparsely hairy. Florets: pistillate 6–8; bisexual 20–50; corollas yellowish or yellow to reddish-tinged, 1–2 mm, hairy (hairs tangled). Cypselae oblong, 0.5–1 mm, glabrous.

CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a warm sunny dry position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse, making sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Basal cuttings in late spring. Harvest the young shoots when about10 – 15cm long, pot up in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse or cold frame and plant them out when well rooted. Very easy.

Edible Uses: Parboiled and used as a food. No more details are given,it ts assumed that the report refers to the leaves.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Artemisia_laciniata
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101022
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+laciniata