Tag Archives: Insulin resistance

Cholangitis

Definition:
Cholangitis is an infection of the common bile duct, the tube that carries bile from the liver to the gallbladder and intestines. Bile is a liquid made by the liver that helps digest food.

CLICK & SEE

Cholangitis can be life-threatening, and is regarded as a medical emergency. Characteristic symptoms include yellow discoloration of the skin or whites of the eyes, fever, abdominal pain, and in severe cases, low blood pressure and confusion. Initial treatment is with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, but there is often an underlying problem (such as gallstones or narrowing in the bile duct) for which further tests and treatments may be necessary, usually in the form of endoscopy to relieve obstruction of the bile duct.
Symptoms:
The following symptoms may occur:

*Pain on the upper right side or upper middle part of the abdomen. It may also be felt in the back or below the right shoulder blade. The pain may come and go and feel sharp, cramp-like, or dull.

*Fever and chills

*Dark urine and clay-colored stools

*Nausea and vomiting

*Yellowing of the skin (jaundice), which may come and go
Physical examination findings typically include jaundice and right upper quadrant tenderness.Charcot’s triad is a set of three common findings in cholangitis: abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. This was assumed in the past to be present in 50–70% of cases, although more recently the frequency has been reported as 15–20%.Reynolds’ pentad includes the findings of Charcot’s triad with the presence of septic shock and mental confusion. This combination of symptoms indicates worsening of the condition and the development of sepsis, and is seen less commonly still.

In the elderly, the presentation may be atypical; they may directly collapse due to septicemia without first showing typical features. Those with an indwelling stent in the bile duct (see below) may not develop jaundice.

Causes:
Cholangitis is most often caused by a bacterial infection. This can occur when the duct is blocked by something, such as a gallstone or tumor. The infection causing this condition may also spread to the liver.

Bile duct obstruction, which is usually present in acute cholangitis, is generally due to gallstones. 10–30% of cases, however, are due to other causes such as benign stricturing (narrowing of the bile duct without an underlying tumor), postoperative damage or an altered structure of the bile ducts such as narrowing at the site of an anastomosis (surgical connection), various tumors (cancer of the bile duct, gallbladder cancer, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the duodenum), anaerobic organisms such as Clostridium and Bacteroides (especially in the elderly and those who have undergone previous surgery of the biliary system). Parasites which may infect the liver and bile ducts may cause cholangitis; these include the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides and the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. In people with AIDS, a large number of opportunistic organisms has been known to cause AIDS cholangiopathy, but the risk has rapidly diminished since the introduction of effective AIDS treatment. Cholangitis may also complicate medical procedures involving the bile duct, especially ERCP. To prevent this, it is recommended that those undergoing ERCP for any indication receive prophylactic (preventative) antibiotics.

The presence of a permanent biliary stent (e.g. in pancreatic cancer) slightly increases the risk of cholangitis, but stents of this type are often needed to keep the bile duct patent under outside pressure

Diagnosis:
Routine blood tests show features of acute inflammation (raised white blood cell count and elevated C-reactive protein level), and usually abnormal liver function tests (LFTs). In most cases the LFTs will be consistent with obstruction: raised bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase. In the early stages, however, pressure on the liver cells may be the main feature and the tests will resemble those in hepatitis, with elevations in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase.

Blood cultures are often performed in people with fever and evidence of acute infection. These yield the bacteria causing the infection in 36% of cases, usually after 24–48 hours of incubation. Bile, too, may be sent for culture during ERCP (see below). The most common bacteria linked to ascending cholangitis are gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli (25–50%), Klebsiella (15–20%) and Enterobacter (5–10%). Of the gram-positive cocci, Enterococcus causes 10–20%.

You may have the following tests to look for blockages:

*Abdominal ultrasound

*Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

*Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

*Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTCA)

*You may also have the following blood tests:

#Bilirubin level
#Liver enzyme levels
#Liver function tests
#White blood count (WBC)
Treatment:
Quick diagnosis and treatment are very important.Antibiotics to cure infection is the first treatment done in most cases. ERCP or other surgical procedure is done when the patient is stable.Patients who are very ill or are quickly getting worse may need surgery right away.

Cholangitis requires admission to hospital. Intravenous fluids are administered, especially if the blood pressure is low, and antibiotics are commenced. Empirical treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics is usually necessary until it is known for certain which pathogen is causing the infection, and to which antibiotics it is sensitive. Combinations of penicillins and aminoglycosides are widely used, although ciprofloxacin has been shown to be effective in most cases, and may be preferred to aminoglycosides because of fewer side effects. Metronidazole is often added to specifically treat the anaerobic pathogens, especially in those who are very ill or at risk of anaerobic infections. Antibiotics are continued for 7–10 days. Drugs that increase the blood pressure (vasopressors) may also be required to counter the low blood pressure.
Prognosis:
Acute cholangitis carries a significant risk of death, the leading cause being irreversible shock with multiple organ failure (a possible complication of severe infections). Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have led to a reduction in mortality: before 1980, the mortality rate was greater than 50%, but after 1980 it was 10–30%. Patients with signs of multiple organ failure are likely to die unless they undergo early biliary drainage and treatment with systemic antibiotics. Other causes of death following severe cholangitis include heart failure and pneumonia.

Risk Factors:
Risk factors include a previous history of gallstones, sclerosing cholangitis, HIV, narrowing of the common bile duct, and, rarely, travel to countries where you might catch a worm or parasite infection.

Risk factors indicating an increased risk of death include older age, female gender, a history of liver cirrhosis, biliary narrowing due to cancer, acute renal failure and the presence of liver abscesses. Complications following severe cholangitis include renal failure, respiratory failure (inability of the respiratory system to oxygenate blood and/or eliminate carbon dioxide), cardiac arrhythmia, wound infection, pneumonia, gastrointestinal bleeding and myocardial ischemia (lack of blood flow to the heart, leading to heart attacks).

Prevention:
Treatment of gallstones, tumors, and infestations of parasites may reduce the risk for some people. A metal or plastic stent that is placed in the bile system may be needed to prevent the infection from returning.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000290.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascending_cholangitis

Advertisements

Acanthosis nigricans

Definition:
Acanthosis nigricans is a fairly common skin pigmentation disorder.It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin. It is usually found in body folds, such as the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the armpits, groin, navel, forehead, and other areas.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Types:
This is conventionally divided into benign and malignant forms., although may be divided into syndromes according to cause.

*Benign This may include obesity-related, hereditary, and endocrine forms of acanthosis nigricans.

*Malignant. This may include forms that are associated with tumour products and insulin-like activity, or tumour necrosis factor.

An alternate classification system still used to describe acanthosis nigricans was proposed in 1994 by dermatologist Schwartz. This classification system delineates acanthosis nigricans syndromes according to their associated syndromes, including benign and malignant forms, forms associated with obesity and drugs, acral acanthosis nigricans, unilateral acanthosis nigricans, and mixed and syndromic forms.

Acanthosis nigricans may be a sign of a more serious health problem such as pre-diabetes. The most effective treatments focus on finding and resolving medical condition at the root of the problem. Fortunately, these skin patches tend to disappear after successfully treating the root condition.

Signs and symptoms:
Acanthosis nigricans may present with thickened, relatively darker areas of skin on the neck, armpit and in skin folds.These patches may also appear on the groin, elbows, knees, knuckles, or skin folds. Lips, palms, and soles of the feet.

Causes:
It typically occurs in individuals younger than age 40, may be genetically inherited, and is associated with obesity or endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, or Cushing’s disease.

This occurs when epidermal skin cells begin to rapidly reproduce. This abnormal skin cell growth is most commonly triggered by high levels of insulin in the blood. In rare cases, the increase in skin cells may be caused by medications, cancer, or other medical conditions, as describe below.

*Too Much Insulin
The most frequent trigger for acanthosis nigricans is too much insulin in your bloodstream. Here’s why.

When you eat, your body converts carbohydrates into sugar molecules such as glucose. Some of this glucose is used for energy while the rest is stored. In order to use the glucose for energy, insulin must also be used. The insulin enables the glucose to enter the cells.

Overweight people tend to develop resistance to insulin over time. So although the pancreas is making insulin, the body cannot use it properly. This creates a buildup of glucose in the bloodstream, which can result in high levels of both blood glucose and insulin in your bloodstream.

Excess insulin causes normal skin cells to reproduce at a rapid rate. For those with dark skin, these new cells have more melanin. This increase in melanin produces a patch of skin that is darker than the skin surrounding it. Thus, the presence of acanthosis nigricans is a strong predictor of future diabetes. If this is indeed the cause, it is relatively easy to correct with proper diet, exercise, and blood sugar control.

*Medications:
Acanthosis nigricans can also be triggered by certain medications such as birth control pills, human growth hormones, thyroid medications, and even some body-building supplements. All of these medications can cause changes in insulin levels. Medications used to ease the side effects of chemotherapy have also been linked to acanthosis nigricans. In most cases, the condition clears up when the medications are discontinued.

Some Other Causes:(Potential but rare)

#stomach cancer (gastric adenocarcinoma)
#adrenal gland disorders such as Addison’s disease
#disorders of the pituitary gland
#low levels of thyroid hormones
#high doses of niacin

Diagnosis:
Acanthosis nigricans is typically diagnosed clinically.It is easy to recognize by sight. The doctor may want to check for diabetes or insulin resistance as the root cause. These tests may include blood glucose tests or fasting insulin tests. Your doctor may also review all your medications to see if they are a contributing factor.

It is important to inform the doctor of any dietary supplements, vitamins, or muscle-building supplements you may be taking in addition to your prescription medications.

In rare cases, the doctor may perform other tests such as a small skin biopsy to rule out other possible causes.

Treatment :
People with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes and, although rare, cancer. Controlling blood glucose levels through exercise and diet often improves symptoms. Acanthosis nigricans maligna may resolve if the causative tumor is successfully removed.

Cosmetic treatments exist for cases that are especially unsightly or embarrassing. Dark patches may be covered up with cosmetics or lightened with prescription skin lighteners. Although these treatments are not as effective as treating the root cause of the condition, they can provide some relief. Available skin lighteners include Retin-A, 20 percent urea, alpha hydroxy acids, and salicylic acid.

Prognosis:
Acanthosis nigricans often fades if the underlying cause can be determined and treated  properly.

 

Prevention:
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle & exercisIng regularly can usually prevent Acanthosis nigricans. Losing weight, controlling your diet, and, perhaps adjusting any medications that are contributing to the condition are all crucial steps. Healthier lifestyle choices will also reduce your risks for many other types of illnesses.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.healthline.com/health/acanthosis-nigricans#Definition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acanthosis_nigricans

Enhanced by Zemanta

A Herald of Diabetes

The young woman who walked in for a consultation had a scarf wound around her neck. “I came to show you this,” she said, taking it off. There was a dark patch on the back of her neck with ridges and bumps, the skin raised and velvety. “I have already tried fairness creams,” she said. “They only make it worse.”
CLICK & SEE
The diagnosis was easy. She had a peculiar skin lesion known as acanthosis nigricans.

click & see

The cosmetically disfiguring and aesthetically displeasing lesions usually occur on the neck (where they are clearly visible), armpit, groin, knees or elbows, in short areas with skin folds. Very rarely, it can be found on the fingers or around the lips or in the nipple area. It can occur at any age and in both men and women. It is seen in children and even in babies. The lesions appear gradually and do not itch or pain. This means that they remain unnoticed until they have spread over a large area. Initially it looks like dirt so people try to scrub it off, damaging the skin in the process. Others try to camouflage it unsuccessfully with talcum powder and make up.

Nearly 20 per cent of the population has acanthosis nigricans and the numbers are rising rapidly because obesity is the commonest risk factor. More and more people are becoming overweight in India and the world.

An inactive lifestyle causes weight gain and these two factors together cause relative insulin resistance, which results in elevated glucose levels, an abnormal lipid profile and high blood pressure. These changes are grouped together as the “metabolic syndrome X”. Acanthosis nigricans is one of the early markers of this syndrome. The American diabetic association classified it as a risk factor for the development of diabetes in 2000. In children and adolescents, symptoms of syndrome X or frank diabetes begin to appear within two years of the appearance of acanthosis nigricans.

The disease can also be hereditary and in typical inherited acanthosis nigricans, skin lesions are confined to one half of the body. They spread and increase till a certain age and then remain stationery or regress. In other families the lesions, though present in almost all family members, are not really hereditary. The biggest difference is that they are present on both sides of the body. The family usually has an inactive lifestyle, members are obese and go on to develop diabetes.

Medications can also cause these skin changes as a side effect. The most common offenders are hormones — like oral contraceptive pills (OCP), hormone replacement therapy (HRT), insulin, pituitary extract, growth hormone or systemic corticosteroids. Unfortunately, pituitary extract or steroids may be added to unregulated “natural herbal supplements” or “tonics” so the person may not even know that he or she is ingesting such substances. Sulpha drugs (antibiotic)and nicotinic acid (for high cholesterol) can also cause these.

Certain types of acanthosis nigricans are peculiar to women. It is associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome and appears at adolescence. Such girls are obese and have irregular periods and facial hair.

If you develop acanthosis nigricans, it is worthwhile consulting a physician. Although you may be obese, and that is the commonest cause of these skin changes, some investigations and tests need to be done. This is because the skin changes can (though this is rare) be associated with cancer, particularly in the abdomen. It can appear before any other obvious sign of a tumour. It can also be a part of the spectrum of autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, Sjögren syndrome, or Hashimoto thyroiditis.

There really is no specific treatment for the skin changes in acanthosis nigricans. The disease itself is harmless. The main danger lies in the complications associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Tackling the underlying problem makes the skin lesions fade. Here is what you can do to tackle it:

• If it is due to medication or health supplements, stop taking them.

• Reduce your weight with diet and exercise. Try to reach your ideal body weight (height in meter squared multiplied by 23).

• Eat more protein, fresh fruits and vegetables. Starches and sugars provide empty calories and aggravate insulin resistance.

• Sweat trapped in the folds can make the lesions malodorous. Bathe twice a day with a medicated soap like Neko if that is the case.

Evening primrose oil or fish oil supplements may help.

• Some prescription creams or lotions help lighten the affected areas. These contain modified vitamin A products and are often prescribed for acne.

• Fairness creams do not help.

• Surgical dermal abrasion can be done.

Source:  The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

 

Metabolic Syndrome

Alternative Names: metabolic syndrome X, cardiometabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven’s syndrome (named for Gerald Reaven), and CHAOS (in Australia).

Definition:
Suddenly, it’s a health condition that everyone’s talking about. While it was only identified less than 20 years ago, metabolic syndrome is as widespread as pimples and the common cold. According to the American Heart Association, 47 million Americans have it. That’s almost a staggering one out of every six people.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURE

Indeed, metabolic syndrome seems to be a condition that many people have, but no one knows very much about. It’s also debated by the experts — not all doctors agree that metabolic syndrome should be viewed as a distinct condition.

So what is this mysterious syndrome — which also goes by the scary-sounding name Syndrome X — and should you be worried about it?

Understanding Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is not a disease in itself. Instead, it’s a group of risk factors — high blood pressure, high blood sugar, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and abdominal fat.

Obviously, having any one of these risk factors isn’t good. But when they’re combined, they set the stage for grave problems. These risk factors double your risk of blood vessel and heart disease, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes. They increase your risk of diabetes by five times.

Many people who have either diabetes, high blood pressure or obesity also have one or more of the other conditions, although it may have gone unrecognised.

Individually, each of these conditions can lead to damage to the blood vessels, but together they’re far more likely to do harm. People with these conditions in combination become much more likely to experience heart disease, stroke and other conditions related to problems with the blood vessels.

When a person has such a combination, they’re said to have metabolic syndrome. This is also sometimes called insulin-resistance syndrome (because one of the features is a very high level of the hormone insulin in the blood, which the body doesn’t react to or is ‘resistant’ to) or syndrome X.

There are currently two major definitions for metabolic syndrome provided by the International Diabetes Federation  and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program, respectively. The revised NCEP and IDF definitions of metabolic syndrome are very similar and it can be expected that they will identify many of the same individuals as having metabolic syndrome. The two differences are that IDF state that if BMI > 30 kg/m2, central obesity can be assumed, and waist circumference does not need to be measured. However, this potentially excludes any subject without increased waist circumference if BMI < 30, whereas, in the NCEP definition, metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed based on other criteria, and the IDF uses geography-specific cut points for waist circumference, while NCEP uses only one set of cut points for waist circumference, regardless of geography. These two definitions are much closer to each other than the original NCEP and WHO definitions.

Metabolic syndrome is also becoming more common. But the good news is that it can be controlled, largely with changes to your lifestyle.

Symptoms:
The problems found in metabolic syndrome include:


•Central obesity – fat is laid down around the abdomen rather than spread evenly around the body

•Abnormal fat levels in the blood – specifically, high levels of triglycerides and low levels of HDL (or ‘good’) cholesterol, which can lead to arteriosclerosis (fatty plaques) on the walls of blood vessels

•High blood pressure

•Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance – an inability to use insulin properly or control blood sugar levels very well, which is a very important factor in metabolic syndrome

Prothrombotic state – an increased tendency to make tiny clots in the blood

Proinflammatory state – an increased tendency to inflammation

Having one component of metabolic syndrome means you’re more likely to have others. And the more components you have, the greater are the risks to your health.

Causes:
Experts aren’t sure why metabolic syndrome develops. It’s a collection of risk factors, not a single disease. So it probably has many different causes. Some risk factors are:

*Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body use glucose — a simple sugar made from the food you eat — as energy. In people with insulin resistance, the insulin doesn’t work as well so your body keeps making more and more of it to cope with the rising level of glucose. Eventually, this can lead to diabetes. Insulin resistance is closely connected to having excess weight in the belly.

*Obesity — especially abdominal obesity. Experts say that metabolic syndrome is becoming more common because of rising obesity rates. In addition, having extra fat in the belly — as opposed to elsewhere in the body — seems to increase your risk.

*Unhealthy lifestyle. Eating a diet high in fats and not getting enough physical activity can play a role.

*Hormonal imbalance. Hormones may play a role. For instance, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) — a condition that affects fertility — is related to hormonal imbalance and metabolic syndrome.

If you’ve just been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, you might be anxious. But think of it as a wake-up call. It’s time to get serious about improving your health. Making simple changes to your habits now can prevent serious illness in the future.

Risk Factors:
The following factors increase your chances of having metabolic syndrome:

*Age. The risk of metabolic syndrome increases with age, affecting less than 10 percent of people in their 20s and 40 percent of people in their 60s. However, warning signs of metabolic syndrome can appear in childhood.

*Race. Hispanics and Asians seem to be at greater risk of metabolic syndrome than other races are.

*Obesity. A body mass index (BMI) — a measure of your percentage of body fat based on height and weight — greater than 25 increases your risk of metabolic syndrome. So does abdominal obesity — having an apple shape rather than a pear shape.

*History of diabetes. You’re more likely to have metabolic syndrome if you have a family history of type 2 diabetes or a history of diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).

*Other diseases.A diagnosis of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease or polycystic ovary syndrome — a similar type of metabolic problem that affects a woman’s hormones and reproductive system — also increases your risk of metabolic syndrome.

Complications:
Having metabolic syndrome can increase your risk of developing these conditions:

*Diabetes. If you don’t make lifestyle changes to control your insulin resistance, your glucose levels will continue to increase. You may develop diabetes as a result of metabolic syndrome.

*Cardiovascular disease.High cholesterol and high blood pressure can contribute to the buildup of plaques in your arteries. These plaques can cause your arteries to narrow and harden, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Diagnosis:
Although  doctor does not typically look  for metabolic syndrome, the label may apply if you have three or more of the traits associated with this condition.

Several organizations have criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. These guidelines were created by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) with modifications by the American Heart Association. According to these guidelines, you have metabolic syndrome if you have three or more of these traits:

*Large waist circumference, greater than 35 inches (89 centimeters, or cm) for women and 40 inches (102 cm) for men. Certain genetic risk factors, such as having a family history of diabetes or being of Asian descent — which increases your risk of insulin resistance — lower the waist circumference limit. If you have one of these genetic risk factors, waist circumference limits are 31 to 35 inches (79 to 89 cm) for women and 37 to 39 inches (94 to 99 cm) for men.

*A triglyceride level higher than 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 1.7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or you’re receiving treatment for high triglycerides.

*Reduced HDL (“good”) cholesterol — less than 40 mg/dL (1 mmol/L) in men or less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) in women — or you’re receiving treatment for low HDL.

*Blood pressure higher than 120 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) systolic or higher than 80 mm Hg diastolic, or you’re receiving treatment for high blood pressure.

*Elevated fasting blood sugar (blood glucose) of 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) or higher, or you’re receiving treatment for high blood sugar.

Treatment:
The first line treatment is change of lifestyle (e.g., Dietary Guidelines for Americans and physical activity). However, if in three to six months of efforts at remedying risk factors prove insufficient, then drug treatment is frequently required. Generally, the individual disorders that comprise the metabolic syndrome are treated separately. Diuretics and ACE inhibitors may be used to treat hypertension. Cholesterol drugs may be used to lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, if they are elevated, and to raise HDL levels if they are low. Use of drugs that decrease insulin resistance, e.g., metformin and thiazolidinediones, is controversial; this treatment is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

A 2003 study indicated that cardiovascular exercise was therapeutic in approximately 31% of cases. The most probable benefit was to triglyceride levels, with 43% showing improvement; but fasting plasma glucose and insulin resistance of 91% of test subjects did not improve.   Many other studies have supported the value of increased physical activity and restricted caloric intake (exercise and diet) to treat metabolic syndrome.

Restricting the overall dietary carbohydrate intake is more effective in reducing the most common symptoms of metabolic syndrome than the more commonly prescribed reduction in dietary fat intake

Controversy:
The clinical value of using “metabolic syndrome” as a diagnosis has recently come under fire. It is asserted that different sets of conflicting and incomplete diagnostic criteria are in existence, and that when confounding factors such as obesity are accounted for, diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome has a negligible association with the risk of heart disease.

These concerns have led to the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes to issue a joint statement identifying eight major concerns on the clinical utility of the metabolic syndrome.

It is not contested that cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster together, but what is contested is the assertion that the metabolic syndrome is anything more than the sum of its constituent parts.

Lifestyle and home remedies:
You can do something about your risk of metabolic syndrome and its complications — diabetes, stroke and heart disease. Start by making these lifestyle changes:

Lose weight. Losing as little as 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can reduce insulin levels and blood pressure, and decrease your risk of diabetes.

Exercise. Doctors recommend getting 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, every day.

Doing Yoga :Doing Yoga exercise, meditation etc. under the guideline of a good yoga teacher

Stop smoking.Smoking cigarettes increases insulin resistance and worsens the health consequences of metabolic syndrome. Talk to your doctor if you need help kicking the cigarette habit.

Eat fiber-rich foods. Make sure you include whole grains, beans, fruits and vegetables in your grocery cart. These items are packed with dietary fiber, which can lower your insulin levels.

Prevention:
Various strategies have been proposed to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome. These include increased physical activity (such as walking 30 minutes every day),   and a healthy, reduced calorie diet.   There are many studies that support the value of a healthy lifestyle as above. However, one study stated that these potentially beneficial measures are effective in only a minority of people, primarily due to a lack of compliance with lifestyle and diet changes.   The International Obesity Taskforce states that interventions on a sociopolitical level are required to reduce development of the metabolic syndrome in populations.

.
Although much more research has to be done to work out the relationship between different factors in metabolic syndrome, and how drug treatments might be used to help people, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk.

Lifestyle changes can make a big difference, preventing or delaying the development of serious disease. Losing weight and getting active are the top priority. But make sure you get proper advice and support – research has shown that people who join a weight-loss group, for example, are more likely to lose weight and keep it off.

In terms of getting fit, join a gym or find a sport you enjoy. You’re more likely to stick at it if you like what you’re doing.

Some preventive treatments are also available from your GP. It’s important to keep your blood pressure under control, and blood fat (cholesterol) and blood sugar (glucose) at healthy levels. But some blood pressure treatments, such as diuretics and beta blockers, can actually make metabolic syndrome worse.

A 2007 study of 2,375 male subjects over 20 years suggested that daily intake of a pint (~568 ml) of milk or equivalent dairy products more than halved the risk of metabolic syndrome. Some subsequent studies support the authors’ findings, while others dispute them.

Check with your doctor if you’re concerned. Drugs to control blood fat and cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels, are often needed.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/metabolicsyndrome1.shtml
http://www.webmd.com/heart/metabolic-syndrome/metabolic-syndrome-what-is-it
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/metabolic%20syndrome/DS00522
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolic_syndrome
http://www.healthfocus.net.au/what-is-metabolic-syndrome/

http://www.myoptumhealth.com/portal/ADAM/item/Weight+control+and+diet

The Benefits of Exercising Before Breakfast

A new study suggests that exercising in the morning, before eating, can significantly lessen the ill effects of a poor holiday diet.
.....click & see
Researchers recruited healthy, active young men and fed them a bad diet for six weeks. A group of them that exercised before breakfast gained almost no weight and showed no signs of insulin resistance. What’s more, they burned the fat they were taking in more efficiently.

According to the New York Times:
“Working out before breakfast directly combated the two most detrimental effects of eating a high-fat, high-calorie diet. It also helped the men avoid gaining weight.”


Resources:

New York Times December 15, 2010
Journal of Physiology Nov 1, 2010;588(Pt 21):4289-302

Posted by: Dr. Mercola | January 04 2011

Enhanced by Zemanta