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Potentilla nepalensis

Botanical Name: Potentilla nepalensis
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. nepalensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms:
*Potentilla nepalensis willmottiae
*Potentilla willmottiae
*Potentilla ‘Miss Wilmott’

Common Names: Cinquefoil, Nepal Cinquefoil

Habitat :Potentilla nepalensis is native to E. Asia and W. Himalayas, from Pakistan to Nepal. It grows on grazing grounds and cultivated areas, 2100 – 2700 metres from Pakistan to C. Nepal.

Description:
Potentilla nepalensis is a perennial herb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) at a medium rate. This plant forms low mounds of deep green strawberry-like leaves composed of broad leaflets. The cup-shaped 5-petalled flowers may be cherry red or deep pink, with a darker center, about 2.5 cm in width. They bloom July to August. Bloom Color: Pink, Red. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Irregular or sprawling. It is not frost tender.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Alpine garden, Border, Container, Ground cover, Rock garden, Specimen. A very tolerant and easily grown plant, surviving considerable neglect. It grows best in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:..…Root – cooked. Starchy.
Medicinal Uses:……The root is depurative. The ashes are mixed with oil and applied to burns.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_nepalensis
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+nepalensis

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Panax pseudoginseng

Botanical Name: Panax pseudoginseng
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Panax
Subgenus:Panax
Section:Pseudoginseng
Species:P. pseudoginseng
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Aralia bipinnatifida. Aralia pseudoginseng. Panax schin-seng.

Common Names:Ginseng, Japanese ginseng, Pseudoginseng, Nepal ginseng, and Himalayan ginseng

Habitat :Panax pseudoginseng is native to E. Asia – China to the Himalayas and Burma It grows in the forests and shrubberies, 2100 – 4300 metres in C. Nepal in the Himalayas. Moist shady places at elevations of 2000 – 3300 metres in Nepal.

Description:
Panax pseudoginseng is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.7 m (2ft 4in) at a slow rate. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil…...CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Requires a moist humus rich soil in a shady position in a woodland. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. Nomenclature of this genus is rather confused with some botanists recognising P. ginseng as a variable plant that includes this species. Other botanists divide it into 4 or even 5 distinct species, giving this plant specific status. This plant has been grossly over-collected from the wild for its use as a medicinal plant and it is rapidly approaching extinction in most parts of its range. The sub-species P. pseudo-ginseng notoginseng. (Burkill.)Hoo.&Tseng. is the form used medicinally in China[176], this plant is given a separate entry in this database.
Propagation:
Seed – sow in a shady position in a cold frame preferably as soon as it is ripe, otherwise as soon as the seed is obtained. It can be very slow and erratic to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a shady position in the greenhouse or frame for at least their first winter. Make sure the pots are deep enough to accommodate the roots. Plant out into their permanent positions in late summer. Division in spring.

Edible Uses:… Drink; Tea……Young leaves and shoots – cooked as a vegetable. The roots are chewed, used as a flavouring in liqueurs or made into a tea.

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Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Aphrodisiac; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Haemostatic; Hypoglycaemic; Stimulant.

The roots and the flowers are antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, hypoglycaemic and stimulant. The root is used internally in the treatment of indigestion, vomiting, coronary heart disease and angina. The roots are also used both internally and externally in the treatment of nosebleeds, haemorrhages from the lungs, digestive tract and uterus, and injuries. The roots are harvested in the autumn, preferably from plants 6 – 7 years old, and can be used fresh or dried. The flowers are used to treat vertigo and dizziness.

Known Hazards: Avoid during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Avoid if on anticoagulants or ticlodipine (for blood clot formation)

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panax_pseudoginseng
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Panax+pseudoginseng

Viburnum erubescens

 Botanical Name : Viburnum erubescens
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Order: Dipsacales
Species: Viburnum erubescens

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;

Common name: Reddish Viburnum • Nepali Name: Ashaare

Habitat :Viburnum erubescens is native to E. Asia – China to the Himalayas and Sri Lanka. It grows in forests and shrubberies, 1500 – 3300 metres, from Uttar Pradesh to S.W. China.

Description:
Viburnum erubescens is a loose, upright, graceful deciduous shrub growing 10′ by 8′. It is distinguished by its lax drooping long-stalked branched clusters of white, cream or or pink tubular flowers, borne with the leaves at the ends of short branchlets

The var. gracilipes has larger leaves and flower panicles than the species and is more common in cultivation. Leaves are ovate to elliptic, toothed in the upper part, 3-6 cm long, dark green, with a reddish tinge. Leaves are glossy green, 2-4″ long and half as wide with a distinct reddish pedicel and central vein on the underside. Leaves emit a fetid odor when crushed. Inflorescence is a loose, pendant, panicle about 3-4″ wide and 2″ long. Fragrant flowers occuring in early June are pinkish in the bud, opening white with a pink tinge. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October.Flowers have a slender tube 5 mm long, with rounded spreading petals, 2 mm. Anthers are dark purple. The species name erubescens means becoming red, and comes from erubesco, which means, to redden, to blush. Fruits are ¼” wide, transitioning from green to red to black, 8mm long……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations.  It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Not all forms of this species are hardy in Britain. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. The flowers are deliciously scented. A polymorphic species. The sub-species V. erubescens gracilipes. Rehd. fruits freely in Britain.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring[80]. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months.

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. A sweet flavour but there is very little flesh in relation to the size of the single large seed.

Medicinal Uses:
The juice of the roots is used in the treatment of coughs.

Other Uses: …Miscellany; Wood…….Wood is soft to hard, close and even grained. The wood is hardest in the cooler parts of its range, the Himalayan form is a possible Boxwood (Buxus spp) substitute.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_erubescens
http://www.classicviburnums.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/plants.plantDetail/plant_id/7077/index.htm
http://flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Reddish%20Viburnum.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+erubescens

Himalayan Fir (Abies spectabilis)

 

Botanical Name: Abies spectabilis – (D.Don.)Spach.
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Species: A. spectabilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Common names: East Himalayan fir (Vidakovic 1991).

Taxonomic notes:
Syn: Pinus spectabilis D. Don 1825; Pinus webbiana Wall ex D. Don in Lambert 1828; A. webbiana (Wall ex D. Don) Lindl. 1833; Picea webbiana (Wall ex D. Don) Loudon 1838 (Farjon 1998); A. chiloensis Hort.; A. chilrowensis Hort.; A. densa Griff. (Vidakovic 1991). Silba (1986) describes a variety densa, while Vidakovic (1991) describes a variety brevifolia.

“This species hybridizes freely with A. pindrow forming intermediate populations in the altitudinal middle zone of their common distribution” (Vidakovic 1991).

Sinónimos:
*Pinus spectabilis D.Don
*Pinus webbiana Wall. ex D.Don
*Picea webbiana Loudon ex D.Don
*Abies webbiana Wall. ex D.Don
*Abies chiloensis Hort.
*Abies chilrowensis Hort.
*Abies densa Griff.

Habitat :-Himalayan Fir   is native to E. Asia –  Himalayas from Afghanistan to Nepal.  Hindu Kush; Tibet; India: Karakoram & Kashmir Himalaya; Nepal (Farjon 1998); Sikkim and Bhutan at 2500-4000 m (Vidakovic 1991).   It grows in the forests in Nepal between 2700 – 3900 metres. Moist open areas.
It commonly occurs as a canopy dominant species in very wet forest, accompanied by species of Rhododendron including R. companuletum, R. lepedetum, and R. anthapogen, as well as Betula utilis .

Description:
An evergreen tree attaining in the E. Himalaya a height of 60 m. Crown broadly conical grows at a slow rate.
” Branches horizontally spreading. Bark dark gray, rough and scaly. Shoots red-brown, deeply grooved, pubescent in the grooves. Buds large, globose, resinous. Needles on the upper side of the shoot arranged in several ranks, leaving a V-shaped depression between them, 2-6 cm long, with emarginate apex; upper surface dark green and glossy, with 2 broad stomata bands beneath. Cones cylindrical, 14-20 cm long and about 7 cm thick, violet-purple when young, later brown; seed scales 1.5-2 cm wide; bract scales concealed” (Vidakovic 1991).

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(See Wu and Raven 1999 ) for a more recent and detailed description.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.


Cultivation:

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. This species is unsatisfactory in south-eastern Britain due to damage by late frosts, trees rarely live more than 40 years and have a poor thin crown. Trees grow far better in the milder and moister western side of the country. Young trees are very slow to establish because they are often damaged by late frosts, it is best to grow the young trees in high shade to get them through this time[1, 185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Action &  Uses:-

Antiperiodic; Astringent; Carminative; Expectorant; Stomachic; Tonic.

The leaves are astringent, carminative, expectorant, stomachic and tonic. The leaf juice used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis etc. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used to treat colds, rheumatism and nasal congestion. The leaf juice is antiperiodic.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Essential; Fuel; Incense; Wood.

An essential oil is obtained from the plant, though the report does not give yields or uses. The dried leaves, mixed with other ingredients, are used in making incense. The wood is used for construction and thatching roofs. It is also used for fuel.

Scented Plants:-
Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves are aromatic.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+spectabilis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_spectabilis
http://www.conifers.org/pi/ab/spectabilis.htm
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_spectabilis

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Arjun (Terminalia arjuna)

Botanical Name:Terminalia arjuna
Family:    Combretaceae
Genus:    Terminalia
Species:    T. arjuna
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Myrtales

Common Names: Arjuna or Arjun tree in English,  Thella Maddi in Telugu and Marudha Maram in Tamil.

Habitat : Arjuna is  native  to Indian Subcontinent.  The arjuna is usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in West Bengal and south and central India.  It grows all over India,Burma,Bangladesh and Srilanka.

Description:
Arjuna is a large sized deciduous tree. Height of this plant is around 60-80ft with spreading branches. Bark smooth and flower is sessile type with often buttressed trunk, smooth grey bark, and drooping branchlets. Leaves; sub opposite, hard, oblong or elliptic, 10-20 cm long. Terminalia Arjuna Flowers; yellowish white. Fruits; 2.5-5 cm long, obvoid-oblong, with 5-7 equal, hard, leathery appearance, thick narrow wings, their striations curving upwards. Terminalia Arjuna Flowers in March to June and fruits in September to November.

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Cultivation Method: after collection of nature fruits dried into sunlight & then stored up to 6-12 months. Seeds are pretreated by soaking in water for 48 hrs before sowing in beds. 8-9 months old seedlings are better to transplant in the field.
Useful Parts: Every parts useful medicinal properties Arjun holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Yunani Systems of medicine. According to Ayurveda it is alexiteric, styptic, tonic, anthelmintic, and useful in fractures, uclers, heart diseases, biliousness, urinary discharges, asthma, tumours, leucoderma, anaemia, excessive prespiration etc. According to Yunani system of medicine, it is used both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges. It is used as expectorant, aphrodisiac, tonic and diuretic.
Chemical Constituents: A glucoside – arjunetin – has been isolated from bark. Recently new flavance – arjunone has been isolated from fruits alongs with cerasidin, ?-sitosterol, friedlin, methyl oleanolate, gallic, ellagic and arjunic acids.
Principal Constituents ß-sitosterol, ellagic acid, and arjunic acid.

Ayurvedic Formulations: Arujanarishta, Arjunghrita, Arjunakhsirpak, Arvindasava, Devadarvy – arishta etc.
Medicinal uses: Arjuna (Kakubhah) is cooling and checks heart diseases, Haemorrhagic consumption and poisons (Toxaemia). It is useful in obesity (Medas) and in Diabetic wounds. It is astringent and checks Kapha and Pitta. As an astringent, it is used in tooth powders. Action:– Cardiac tonic.

Ayurvedic Uses:– It is a reputed heart tonic of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. It is observed large doses to depress the heart. Small doses taken over a long period with sugar and ghee steadily improves the condition of the heart giving it strength. It is used as a powder either alone or in combination with other herbs. This pure dried Arjun bark can be made into a tea by steeping for 10 minutes in hot water. The bark can be re used 3 times if carefully dried between use.Powdered from bark is used as astringent, cardiac tonic & asthma. Leaf juice is used to cure blood dysentery.
The bark of tree is a cardiac stimulant and has a cooling and tonic effect. It is useful in arresting secretion or bleeding. It helps to relieve fever. It is also useful in removing calculi or stones formed in the urinary system, in promoting flow of bile and in the healing of wounds. Asthma, acne, diarrhea or dysentery, earache.

The bark is useful as an anti-ischemic and cardioprotective agent in hypertension and ischemic heart diseases, especially in disturbed cardiac rhythm, angina or myocardial infarction. The bark powder possesses diuretic, prostaglandin enhancing and coronary risk factor modulating properties. It apparently has a diuretic and a general tonic effect in cases of cirrhosis of the liver.
Other Uses: Recommended for reclamation of saline, alkaline soils and deep ravines. Used for agro and social forestry. Timber is locally used for carts, agricultural implements, water troughs, traps, boat building, house building, electric poles, tool-handles, jetty-piles and plywood. Fodder is useful for tassar silkworm. It is one of the major tannin yielding trees. Bark (22 to 24%), leaf (10 to 11%) and fruit (7 to 20%) contains tannins.

The arjuna is one of the species whose leaves are fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk (tussah), a wild silk of commercial importanc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_arjuna
www.mapbd.com and amazon.com,
http://www.bicco.com/herb_photo.html
http://www.bssmworld.com/herbal_health/terminalia_arjuna.htm

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