Tag Archives: Kidney

Maytenus ilicifolia

Botanical Name : Maytenus ilicifolia
Family: Celastraceae
Subfamily: Celastroideae
Genus: Maytenus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Celastrales

Synonyms: Celastrus ilicinus, Gymnosporia ilicina, Maytenus ilicina
Common Names: Espinheira santa, cancerosa, cangorosa, maiteno, limaosinho
Habitat :Maytenus ilicifolia is native to Central and South America, Southeast Asia, Micronesia and Australasia, the Indian Ocean and Africa. They grow in a very wide variety of climates,
from tropical to subpolar.
Description:
Espinheira santa is a small, shrubby evergreen tree growing to 5 m in height with leaves and berries that resemble holly. It is native to many parts of South America and southern Brazil and it  is even found in city landscapes for its attractive, holly-like appearance. With over 200 species of Maytenus distributed in temperate and tropical regions throughout South America and the
West Indies, there are many Maytenus species that are indigenous to the Amazon region which have been used medicinally by indigenous tribes. It is even found in city landscapes for its
attractive, holly-like appearance….....CLICK  &   SEE  THE  PICTURES

Chemical Constituents:
Espinheira santa is a source for a group of well known chemicals (found in the leaf, bark and roots of the tree) called maytansinoids. These chemicals represent a class of substances which
have been studied since the early 1970’s for their antitumorous and anticancerous activities and are today, being developed into chemotherapy drugs. A different class of chemicals found in
espinheira santa – triterpene chemicals called cangorins – have also evidenced significant antitumorous, antileukemic, and anticancerous properties.

The main plant chemicals in espinheira santa include: atropcangorosin, cangoaronin, cangorins A thru J, cangorinine, cangorosin A & B, celastrol, dispermol, dispermone, friedelan,
friedelin, friedelinol, friedoolean, friedooleanan, ilicifolin, ilicifolinoside A thru C, kaempferol trisaccharides, kaempferol disaccharides, maitenine, maytanbutine, maytanprine, maytansine,
maytenin, maytenoic acid, maytenoquinone, pristimeriin, pristimerin, quercetin trisaccharides, quercitrin, salaspermic acid, tingenol, and tingenone

Medicinal Uses:
Leaf infusions and leaf powder in capsules or tablets are currently being used for ulcers, as an antacid, as a laxative, as a colic remedy, to eliminate toxins through the kidneys and skin, to
support kidneys, support adrenal glands, support digestive functions, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer.

Espinheira santa is widely sold in Brazilian stores and pharmacies today for stomach ulcers and cancer. With its popularity and beneficial results in South America, as well as its recent
western research, espinheira santa is slowly becoming more popular and well known in the United States. Leaf infusions and/or leaf powder in capsules or tablets are currently being used for  ulcers, as an antacid, as a laxative, as a colic remedy, to eliminate toxins through the kidneys and skin, to support kidneys, support adrenal glands, support digestive functions, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer.

Main Preparation Method: decoction or capsules
Main Actions (in order): anticancerous, antacid, antiulcerous, menstrual stimulant, detoxifier

Main Uses:
*For cancer (melanoma, carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, leukemia)
*For stomach disorders (ulcers, acid reflux, gastritis, dyspepsia, indigestion, and to tone, balance, and strengthen the gastric tract)
as a menstrual stimulant and for estrogen hormonal balancing during menopause
*For adrenal exhaustion and to support adrenal function
*For detoxification (skin, blood, kidney, stomach, adrenals)

Contraindications:
Research suggests that water extracts of espinheira santa may have estrogenic effects and reduce fertility in females. Women seeking treatment for infertility, attempting to get pregnant, or  those with estrogen positive cancers should not use this plant.

Drug Interactions: One study with mice injected with a water extract of leaves recorded barbiturate potentiation activity. However the same study notes no potentiation activity when
administered to mice orally.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with    your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maytenus
http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Maytenus_ilicifolia.htm
http://strophantin.com/index.php?id_product=413&controller=product&id_lang=1

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Ammi visnaga

Botanical Name: Ammi visnaga
Family:Apiaceae
Genus:Ammi
Species:A. visnaga
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:Apiales

Synonyms : Ammi dilatatum. Apium visnaga. Carum visnaga. Daucus visnaga.

Common names : Bisnaga, Toothpickweed, and Khella.

Habitat: Ammi visnaga is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it can be found throughout the world as an introduced species.It grows in fields and sandy places.
Description:
Ammi visnaga is an annual or biennial herb growing from a taproot erect to a maximum height near 80 centimeters. Leaves are up to 20 centimeters long and generally oval to triangular in shape but dissected into many small linear to lance-shaped segments. The inflorescence is a compound umbel of white flowers similar to those of other Apiaceae species. The fruit is a compressed oval-shaped body less than 3 millimeters long. This and other Ammi species are sources of khellin, a diuretic extract.

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It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position, succeeding in ordinary garden soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.8 to 8.3. This species is not fully winter-hardy in the colder areas of Britain, though it should be possible to grow it as a spring-sown annual. This plant is sold as toothpicks in Egyptian markets.

Propagation: Seed – sow spring in situ. ( Sow under cover Feb-March in a seed tray, module or guttering. Sow direct March-May and/or August-September.)
Edible Uses: Leaves are chewed raw for their pleasant aromatic flavour

Chemical constituents:
Khellin, a chemical obtained from Ammi visnaga gives rose red color with KOH (solid) or NaOH & 2-3 drops of water, was used at one time as a smooth muscle relaxant, but its use is limited due to adverse side effects. Amiodarone and cromoglycate are derivates of khellin that are frequently used in modern medicine.

The chemical visnagin, which is found in A. visnaga, has biological activity in animal models as a vasodilator and reduces blood pressure by inhibiting calcium influx into the cell.
Medicinal Uses:
Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic; Antispasmodic; Diuretic; Lithontripic; Vasodilator.

Visnaga is an effective muscle relaxant and has been used for centuries to alleviate the excruciating pain of kidney stones. Modern research has confirmed the validity of this traditional use. Visnagin contains khellin, from which particularly safe pharmaceutical drugs for the treatment of asthma have been made. The seeds are diuretic and lithontripic. They contain a fatty oil that includes the substance ‘khellin’. This has been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of asthma. Taken internally, the seeds have a strongly antispasmodic action on the smaller bronchial muscles, they also dilate the bronchial, urinary and blood vessels without affecting blood pressure. The affect last for about 6 hours and the plant has practically no side effects. The seeds are used in the treatment of asthma, angina, coronary arteriosclerosis and kidney stones. By relaxing the muscles of the urethra, visnaga reduces the pain caused by trapped kidney stones and helps ease the stone down into the bladder. The seeds are harvested in late summer before they have fully ripened and are dried for later use.
In Egypt, a tea made from the fruit of this species has been used as an herbal remedy for kidney stones. Laborarory rat studies show that the extract slows the buildup of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys and acts as a diuretic.
This plant and its components have shown effects in dilating the coronary arteries. Its mechanism of action may be very similar to the calcium channel-blocking drugs. The New England Journal of Medicine writes “The high proportion of favorable results, together with the striking degree of improvement frequently observed, has led us to the conclusion that Khellin, properly used, is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of angina pectoris.” As little as 30 milligrams of Khellin per day appear to offer as good a result, with fewer side effects. Rather than use the isolated compound “Khellin,” Khella extracts standardized for khellin content (typically 12 percent) are the preferred form.

A daily dose of such an extract would be 250 to 300 milligrams. Khella appears to work very well with hawthorn extracts. An aromatic herb which dilates the bronchial, urinary and blood vessels without affecting blood pressure.

Visnaga is a traditional Egyptian remedy for kidney stones. By relaxing the muscles of the ureter, visnaga reduces the pain caused by the trapped stone and helps ease the stone down into the bladder. Following research into its antispasmodic properties, visnaga is now given for asthma and is safe even for children to take. Although it does not always relieve acute asthma attacks, it do3es help to prevent their recurrence. It is an effective remedy for various respiratory problems, including bronchitis, emphysema, and whooping cough. In Andalusia in Spain, the largest and best quality visnaga were employed to clean the teeth. Khella is the source of amiodarone one of the key anti-arrhythmia medications. The usual recommendation calls for pouring boiling water over about a quarter-teaspoon of powdered khella fruits. Steep for five minutes and drink the tea after straining.

Its active constituent is khellin, a bronchiodilator and antispasmodic that makes it useful for asthma sufferers It’s best used to prevent asthma rather than to counter an attack and can be taken on a daily basis with no contraindications. Because khella builds up in the blood, its use can be decreased after a period of time. Khella is safer than ma huang (ephedra) for asthma sufferers because it’s nonstimulating and nonenervating. Unlike ma huang, it doesn’t rob the body, especially the adrenals, of energy.

Spasmolytic action of khellin and visnagin (both furanochromones) is indicated for treatment of asthma and coronary arteriosclerosis.
An extract from khella (Ammi visnaga) is so far the only herb found to be useful in vitili. Khellin, the active constituent, appears to work like psoralen drugs?it stimulates repigmentation of the skin by increasing sensitivity of remaining pigment-containing cells (melanocytes) to sunlight. Studies have used 120-160 mg of khellin per day. Khellin must be used with caution, as it can cause side effects such as nausea and insomnia.

Another use is for vitiligo (an extract from ammi visnaga appears to stimulate repigmentation of the skin by increasing sensitivity of remaining pigment containing cells, melanocytes to sunlight)

Other Uses: The fruiting pedicel is used as a toothpick whilst the seeds have been used as a tooth cleaner

Known Hazards : Skin contact with the sap is said to cause photo-sensitivity and/or dermatitis in some people. Avoid during pregnancy and lactation. Avoid if on warfarin or other blood thinning medication. Prolonged use may lead to: constipation, appetite loss, headaches, vertigo, nausea and vomiting.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammi_visnaga
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ammi+visnaga
http://www.sarahraven.com/flowers/plants/cut_flower_seedlings/ammi_visnaga.htm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

Xu Duan

Botanical Name : Dipsacus asper
Family:
Caprifoliaceae
Subfamily:
Dipsacoideae
Genus:
Dipsacus
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Dipsacales

Common Names: Xu Duan

Habitat :Xu Duan is  native to east Asia, it is grown in mountains in Japan and wild places and roadsides in China. In China, dipsacus is produced mainly in Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Yunan and Guizhou provinces.

Description:
Xu Duan is a perennial plant. It grows to about 1 m high. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
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Medicinal Uses:
Properties: Bitter, sweet and pungent in flavor, mildly warm in nature, it is related to the liver and kidney channels.

Tonifys the liver and kidney, promotes reunion of fractured bones and prevents abortion.

Being sweet and warm, it can strengthen yang and tonify the liver and kidney; owing to the pungent and warm nature, it can also promote blood circulation. As a tonic, it functions mildly and without sticky property in tonifying the kidney, preventing abortion, promoting blood circulation and curing trauma. Thus, it serves to treat syndromes of deficiency of chong and ren meridians, threatened abortion, traumatic ecchymoma and injury of muscles and bones.

The plant is used in the treatment of rheumatism. It also has a long history of folk use in the treatment of breast cancer.  The root is used to strengthen the bones and tendons and liver, stimulate blood circulation, treat weakness of the limbs, for arthritis and rheumatic complaints, and to prevent miscarriage.  Roots also used to treat lumbago, trauma as a result of a fall, rheumatic pain, excessive menstrual bleeding

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.imm.ac.cn/groups/fangws/publications/OL2006-TianXiaoyan.pdf
http://www.e2121.com/herb_db/viewherb.php3?viewid=588&setlang=
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dipsacus

Dendrobium hancockii

Botanical Name : Dendrobium hancockii
Family:Orchid
Genus: Dendrobium
Species: hancockii

Common Name : Shih Hu

Habitat :Origin: China

Description:
Plants look like a cluster of miniature 26″ bamboo canes with branching reddish purple stems, grass-like 1″ leaves, 1-1/2″ brilliant golden/yellow flowers with a velvet orange lip appear at random during winter and spring, overall a charming oriental appearance with beautiful flowers, easy grower

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Winter,Spring Blooming Bright to Full Sun; 2750-3750 Footcandles (midday shade required) Warm,Intermediate to Cool;45°F min. to 98°F max.(tolerant of extremes,favoring warm)

Medicinal Uses:
Shih hu is the Chinese dendrobium orchid, a famous chi tonic of the sages.  It is cooling and mildly sweet and salty, restoring bodily fluids and alleviating fatigue.  Large golden stems are dried and simmered with licorice or ginger to restore sexual vigor.  This Chinese kidney yin tonic affects the lower back, knees and sexual vigor. To the Chinese, the kidneys rule the bone, bone marrow, memory, hearing and brain function. The kidneys store ancestral chi and heredity, as well as having both yin and yang properties, restoring fluids and enhancing vitality. The stem is used to treats fever, cough, thirst

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.clanorchids.com/pages/dends/denhancockii.html
http://www.andysorchids.com/pictureframe.asp?pic=images/Species/3462med.jpg&PicId=3462&PicNam=Dendrobium – hancockii
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Interstitial nephritis

Alternative Names: Tubulointerstitial nephritis; Nephritis – interstitial; Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis

Definition:
Interstitial nephritis (or Tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules  in which the spaces between the kidney tubules become swollen (inflamed).The inflammation can affect the kidneys’ function, including their ability to filter waste.
This disease can be either acute, meaning it occurs suddenly, or chronic, meaning it is ongoing and eventually ends in kidney failure.

click  to see the pictures

Acute interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder in which the kidneys become unable to filter waste materials and fluid properly. This is a potentially serious condition that requires care from your doctor.

 

In chronic interstitial nephritis the kidney becomes small and granular with thickening of arteries and arterioles and proliferation of interstitial tissue. There may be functional abnormalities, such as urea retention, hematuria, and casts.

 

Symptoms:
Interstitial nephritis can cause mild to severe kidney problems, including acute kidney failure. In about half of cases, people will have decreased urine output and other signs of acute kidney failure.

Symptoms of this condition may include:

•Blood in the urine
•Fever
•Increased or decreased urine output
•Mental status changes (drowsiness, confusion, coma)
•Nausea, vomiting
•Rash
•Swelling of the body, any area
•Weight gain (from retaining fluid)

Causes:
Interstitial nephritis may be temporary (acute) or it may be long-lasting ( chronic) and get worse over time.

The following can cause interstitial nephritis:

•Allergic reaction to a drug (acute interstitial allergic nephritis)
•Analgesic nephropathy
•Long-term use of medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). This is called analgesic nephropathy
•Side effect of certain antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, methicillin, sulfonamide medications, and others)
•Side effect of medications such as NSAIDs, furosemide, and thiazide diuretics

The acute form of interstitial nephritis is common. It is most often caused by side effects of certain drugs. This disorder may be more severe and more likely to lead to chronic or permanent kidney damage in elderly people.

Complications:
Metabolic acidosis can occur because the kidneys aren’t able to remove enough acid. The disorder can lead to acute or chronic kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease.

Diagnosis:
At times there are no symptoms of this disease, but when they do occur they are widely varied and can occur rapidly or gradually.  When caused by an allergic reaction, the symptoms of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis are fever (27% of patients), rash (15% of patients),  and enlarged kidneys. Some people experience dysuria, and lower back pain. In chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis the patient can experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. Other conditions that may develop include hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure.

Blood tests:
About 23% of patients have eosinophilia.

Urinary findings:
Urinary findings include:
*Eosinophiluria: sensitivity is 67% and specificity is 83%.  The sensitivity is higher in patients with interstitial nephritis induced by methicillin or when the Hansel’s stain is used.

*Isosthenuria.

*Hematuria

*Sterile pyuria: white blood cells and no bacteria

Gallium scan
The sensitivity of an abnormal gallium scan has been reported to range from 60% to 100%.

Treatment:
Treatment focuses on the cause of the problem. Avoiding medications that lead to this condition may relieve the symptoms quickly.

Nutrition therapy consists of adequate fluid intake, which can require several liters of extra fluid.

Limiting salt and fluid in the diet can improve swelling and high blood pressure. Limiting protein in the diet can help control the buildup of waste products in the blood (azotemia) that can lead to symptoms of acute kidney failure.

If dialysis is necessary, it usually is required for only a short time.
Corticosteroids or anti-inflammatory medications can help in some cases.

Prognosis:
The kidneys are the only body system that are directly affected by tubulointerstitial nephritis. Kidney function is usually reduced; the kidneys can be just slightly dysfunctional, or fail completely.

In chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, the most serious long-term effect is kidney failure. When the proximal tube is injured, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, uric acid, and phosphate reabsorption may be reduced or changed, resulting in low bicarbonate, known as metabolic acidosis, low potassium, low uric acid known as hypouricemia, and low phosphate known as hypophosphatemia. Damage to the distal tubule may cause loss of urine-concentrating ability and polyuria.

In most cases of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, the function of the kidneys will return after the harmful drug is not taken anymore, or when the underlying disease is cured by treatment. If the illness is caused by an allergic reaction, a corticosteroid may speed the recovery kidney function; however, this is often not the case.

Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis has no cure. Some patients may require dialysis. Eventually, a kidney transplant may be needed.

Prevention:
In many cases, the disorder can’t be prevented. Avoiding or reducing your use of medications that can cause this condition can help reduce your risk.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstitial_nephritis
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000464.htm
http://www.empowher.com/condition/acute-interstitial-nephritis
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chronic+nephritis
http://www.humpath.com/spip.php?article2778&id_document=113#documents_portfolio

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