Tag Archives: Madhya Pradesh

Rohu or Rui

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Botanical Name: Labeo rohita
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Labeo
Species: L. rohita
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes

Common Names: , Rui, or Roho labeo, Rohu

Description:
Thev Rohu is a species of fish of the carp family, found in rivers in South Asia. It is a large omnivore and extensively used in aquaculture. It is a large, silver-coloured fish of typical cyprinid shape, with a conspicuously arched head. Adults can reach a length of up to 2 m (6.6 ft) and a weight of up to 45 kg (99 lb).This fish is available throughout northern and central India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar and Pakistan, and has been introduced into some of the rivers of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. It inhabits the freshwater section of rivers to a depth of ~550 m.

Rohu reach sexual maturity between two and five years of age. They generally spawn during the monsoon season, keeping to the middle of flooded rivers above tidal reach. The spawning season of rohu generally coincides with the southwest monsoon. Spawn may be collected from rivers and reared in tanks and lakes.

As Food:
Rohu is very commonly eaten in Bangladesh ; Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Indian states of Tripura, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.[citation needed] A recipe for fried Rohu fish is mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. In this recipe, the fish is marinated in asafoetida and salt after being skinned. It is then dipped in turmeric mixed in water before being fried.

The Maithil Brahmins and the Kayastha community of Mithila region of India and Nepal treats it as one of their most sacred foods, to be eaten on all auspicious occasions. Rohu is the most commonly used fish in Pakistan and is usually eaten fried, or in a sauce with spices.

The roe of rohu is also considered a delicacy in Bhojpur, Andhra Pradesh, Nepalis Oriyas and Bengalis. It is deep fried and served hot as an appetizer as part of a Bihari, Oriya and Bengali meal. It is also stuffed inside a pointed gourd to make potoler dolma which is considered a delicacy. Rohu is also served deep fried in mustard oil, as kalia, which is a rich gravy made of a concoction of spices and deeply browned onions and tok, where the fish is cooked in a tangy sauce made of tamarind and mustard. Rohu is also very popular in northern India and Pakistan, as in the province of Punjab. In Lahore it is a speciality of Lahori cuisine in “Lahori fried fish” where it is prepared with batter and spices. It is also a very popular food fish in Iraq.

Health Benefits:
Rohu fish is as beneficial as eating other fishes such as mackerel, salmon or tuna. Here are some of the health benefits of eating rohu fish.

Vitamin C:
Rohu is a river fish. It is considered to be a rich source of vitamin C, which is essential for maintaining a good health. It keeps diseases like cold and cough at bay and prevents other diseases related to it.

Mineral source:
Iron, zinc, iodine, potassium, calcium and selenium are just a few names. The list consists of many more such essential minerals that are found in fish. The quantity may vary from one variety to another but the fact cannot be denied that fish is a rich source of minerals required by the body.
Protein rich:
This Fish protein is one of the best forms of protein available. It is said that sea fish has a greater content of protein. But the river fishes are not far behind. Living inland where river fish like rohu and katla are more common, it is always a good idea to bank upon the fish protein as much as possible. Be it a child or an adult, this protein is needed for growth and good health of tissues.

Low fat:
Rohu is rich in protein but low in fat – what could be better than this? When you get benefits without piling up layers of fat, you know you have the ideal dish.

Heart friendly:
Omega 3 fatty acid is known for being heart friendly. We hear cooking oils being advertised of its content of Omega 3 fatty acids, but it is a fact that the best natural source of this is none other than the fish. So, that’s one of the reasons one should start eating rohu fish today.

Brain booster :
Fish and brains are always mentioned together. Eating fish benefits the entire body, including the brain. A fish eater is seen to have better memorising and analysing skills along with fewer occasions of mood swings.
Cancer chaser :
One deadly disease that is affecting people across the world is cancer. Be it any form, the mere name of cancer is heart wrenching. Antioxidants in fish are believed to be helpful in fighting cancer to a great extent. It could be river fish or sea fish but the idea is to have more of it.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohu
http://www.boldsky.com/health/nutrition/2014/health-benefits-of-rohu-fish-carp-fish/cancer-chaser-pf67831-049909.html

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Boswellia serrata

Botanical name : Boswellia serrata
Family: Burseraceae
Genus: Boswellia
Species: B. serrata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Name : Salai guggal,Shallaki. (Boswellia serrata is Indian frankincense or Salai referred to in Sanskrit as shallaki.)

Habitat :Boswellia serrata  is native to India & Pakisthan.It  is a species characteristic of the tropical dry deciduous forests and occurs in very dry teak forests or in dry mixed deciduous forests in association with species such as Terminalia spp., Anogeissus latifolia and Acacia leucophloea. It is characteristically found on the slopes and ridges of hills, as well as on flat terrain, attaining a larger size on fertile soils. It is resistant to drought and resists fire better than other species in its zone of occurrence. The tree is also frost hardy and serves as a nurse tree for other species.

Description:
Boswellia serrata is a moderate-sized to large, deciduous tree with a light, spreading crown and somewhat drooping branches. It usually has a short bole, 3-5 m in length, sometimes longer if grown in a fully stocked forest. Ordinarily, it attains a girth of 1.2-1.8 m and a height of 9-15 m. Bark is very thin, greyish-green, ashy or reddish with a chlorophyll layer beneath the thin outer layer, which peels off in thin, papery flakes. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipinnate, 20-45 cm in length, crowded towards the ends of the branches; leaflets 17-31 cm, opposite, 2.5-8 cm x 0.8-1.5 cm, basal pairs often smallest, sessile, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, crenate, very variable in size. Flowers white, in stout racemes, 10-20 cm long, shorter than the leaves, crowded towards the ends of branches, but not terminal. Calyx persistent, pubescent outside, 5 to 7-toothed; teeth small, deltoid. Petals 5-7 erect, free, 0.5 cm long. Fruits 1.3 cm long, trigonous, with three valves and three heart-shaped, 1-seeded pyrenes, winged, along with the margins. The specific name, serrata, comes from serra (a saw) referring to the toothed leaf-margins.

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Medicinal Uses:
Properties:.
Shallaki has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that can reduce the pain and inflammation of joints. The salai guggal gum is used as a diaphoretic and astringent. Other products: B. serrata has been recorded in West Bengal as a new lac host.
Shallaki or Boswellia serrata is an herbal extract well known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-arthritic activities. Shallaki is effective in the treatment of the common ailments

* Rheumatoid arthritis (In Ayurvedic medicine Indian frankincense (Boswellia serrata) has been used for hundreds of years for treating arthritis.)

* Osteoarthritis (Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, particularly for osteoarthritis of the knee.)

* Cervical spondylosis

* Ankylosing spondylitis

* Lumbar spine

Rheumatic Disorders :

Boswellia (Boswelya, Salai Guggul) is an Ayurvedic herb that contains anti-inflammatory triterpenoids called boswellic acid. Boswellic acids are effective in anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents, for both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue rheumatism, and low back pain.

Boswellia has a beneficial effect by suppressing the growth of the inflamed tissue, as well as preventing the breakdown of the surrounding connective tissue.

Boswellia Serrata’s anti-inflammatory properties can help to reduce aching and stiffness, especially when associated with low back pain. Although research indicates that boswellia is best taken orally for this purpose, creams appear to be soothing as well.

Inflammatory bowel :
Boswellia may improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis, including abdominal pains, loose stools, and mucus and blood in the stools.

Boswellia may also be beneficial in asthmatics and may also reduce fluid retention associated with brain tumours. This fluid build-up is associated with the action of certain inflammatory chemicals (leukotrienes). Boswellia inhibits the production of these chemicals. Reduction of fluid retention around brain tumours has a beneficial effect on reducing the associated brain damage.

Boswellia gum has been also used for the treatment of diabetes, skin and blood diseases, fever, cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, dysentery, diseases of the testes, and myriad of other disorders.

Positive effects of Boswellia in some chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease have been reported. A Boswellia extract marketed under the name Wokvel has undergone human efficacy, comparative, pharmacokinetic studies.Some see Boswellia serrata as a promising alternative to NSAIDs, warranting further investigation in pharmacological studies and clinical trials.

Boswellia serrata is used in the manufacture of the supposed anti-wrinkle agent “Boswelox“, which has been criticised as being ineffective.

Topical Application:
Boswellia serrata has been recently developed for topical use in a patent-pending formula in Sano Relief Gel.

Potential for anti-cancer activity:
Boswellic acid, an extract from Boswellia serrata, has been studied for anti-neoplastic activity, especially in experimental primary and secondary brain tumors, indicating potential efficacy from in vitro and limited clinical research. Boswellic acid is also undergoing an early-stage clinical trial at the Cleveland Clinic.[12]

Research on Boswellia serrata:
Shallaki has anti-Inflammatory and anti-arthritic property that can reduce the pain and inflammation of the joints of the body. efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis of knee – a randomized double blind placebo controlled study by Kimmatkar N, Thawani N, et al. at MS Orthopaedics, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Nagpur, India, Phytomedicine 2003 Jan; 10 (1) ; 3-7

Active constituents:
Boswellic acid and other pentacyclic triterpene acids are present. Beta-boswellic acid is the major constituent.

Mechanism of action:
Animal studies performed in India show ingestion of a defatted alcoholic extract of Boswellia decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and migration, decreased primary antibody synthesis and almost totally inhibited the classical complement pathway.

Other Uses:
Fodder: It is not readily browsed by cattle, although in India, it is considered a substitute fodder for buffaloes. Fuel: The wood is a good fuel. Charcoal made from it is particularly favoured for iron smelting. Fibre: B. serrata has recently come into prominence as a raw material for pulp paper and newsprint. Experiments show that writing and printing papers of suitable strength can be prepared when 25-40% long-fibred bamboo pulp is mixed in the finish. The bark can also be used for cordage. Timber: It is used in cheap furniture, ammunition boxes, mica boxes, packing cases, cement barrels, well construction, water pipes, matches, plywood and veneers. Gum or resin: The tree yields a yellowish-green gum-oleoresin known as ‘salai guggal’ from wounds in the bark. This gum has an agreeable scent when burnt. A mature tree yields about 1-1.5 kg of gum a year. It is said to be a good substitute for imported Canada balsam. It is also tapped for resin called ‘lobal’, which is used as incense.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Resources:
http://www.allayurveda.com/herb_month_may2009.asp
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boswellia_serrata
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/products/afdbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=353

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Brassica cernua

 

Botanical Name : Brassica cernua
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym :Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. juncea

Common Name : Chinese cabbage, pak choi, pakchoi, Pe-tsai, petsai, wong bok, wongbok, Chinese salad, Chou chinois (Fr), kapisi, kapeti ni jaina (Fiji), kapisi siaina (Tonga, Tuvalu),
Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Jie Cai (in Mandarin) or Kai Choi (in Cantonese), or leaf mustard is a species of mustard plant.

Habitat :Brassica cernua is native to Eastern Asia. Places in India where it grows are  Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Brassica cernua is a  perennial, biennial, often grown as an annual herb.It is a succulent herb forming rosettes, of open or tight vegetative heads followed by flowering stalks reaching 20-50 cm in height. Leaves are succulent and light green.May be harvested after 40-60 or 50-90 days, depending on variety. (Eswaran) 25-45 days for leaves and 100-110 days for seeds.

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Edible Uses:
The leaves are eaten fresh, boiled, fried, or fermented. Some varieties produce seeds that can be pressed for oil.

Cultivation:
It can in the tropics be grown at elevations up to 1500 m, but at elevations below 500 m heading is less likely to occur. A difference of 5-6°C in day and night temperatures appears to increase the vigour of the plant. Temperatures below 16°C promote flowering, particularly in daylengths of 13 hours or more. Drought stress in the heading stage prevents head formation. It is easely damaged by high winds. Leaf yields between 5 and 70 t/ha or 0.5-7 kg/m? may be obtained depending on length of growing period, plant desity, environmental conditions and cultivars. Photosynthesis pathway C3.

Medicinal Uses:
The seeds treat pain in nerves, arthritis, pneumonia

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=547
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.tuinkrant.com/plantengids/groenten/29947.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_juncea

Sense and Lens

When those born blind get their vision, they have difficulty correlating the real to the ‘felt’. T.V. Jayan on the outcome of a project for visually challenged children in rural India.

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The participants were asked to feel a building block and then match the object felt with two blocks, one square and the other circular.

Blind children from India’s hinterland have found themselves a place in history by helping researchers resolve a profound and long-standing problem that perplexed philosophers and neuroscientists for over three centuries.

Posed for the first time in 1688 by Irish scientist and politician William Molyneux, the question is elegantly simple: can a person who has been blind from birth but gained sight in adulthood visually discriminate between objects that were previously identifiable only by touch?

The answer seems to be a definite “no”. That’s the conclusion of a team of Indian and American scientists after their studies involving blind children in rural India whose eyesight was restored surgically. In other words, a person’s ability to learn the correspondence between how an object looks and how it feels is not innate; it needs to be learnt. The study appeared yesterday in Nature Neuroscience.

 

The five children, aged between eight and 17, who participated in the study are part of a project launched by Pawan Sinha, a brain and cognitive sciences professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the US.

The Molyneux question has been the subject of much debate in philosophy and neuroscience over the past three centuries, says MIT’s Richard Held, the first author of the paper. It’s important for two reasons, he says. Philosophically speaking, it touches upon the core of the “nature versus nurture” debate. It also addresses a deep scientific question: do the various senses of a living organism share an innate common space?

Though efforts to answer the question began not long after it was first posed, it had thus far remained unresolved. The primary reason for this is that in the West, a majority of curable congenital blindness cases are detected in infancy and treated as early as possible. But the scientists working with Project Prakash — which Sinha launched in 2004 — however, had an opportunity to take a fresh look at the problem. They had been working with children with vision disabilities in rural India as part of the humanitarian venture. The country is said to have the highest number of blind children in the world — more than one million.

Most cases of blindness in India are caused by vitamin A deficiency, cataracts, retinal or optical dystrophies, or microphthalmos (poorly developed eyes). About half the cases are treatable or preventable, but many never receive medical care, especially in rural areas.

Under the project, the scientists have so far screened more than 20,000 children in some of the most backward villages in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. “Over 700 children have been treated for conditions ranging from severe refractive error to congenital blindness,” says Sinha, a co-author of the study. The medical care was provided at New Delhi’s eye hospital, Shroff’s Charity Eye Hospital, a project partner.

For their study, the scientists chose five children who were blind from birth owing to a congenital cataract or an opaque cornea. After surgery — a cataract removal or a corneal transplant — the participants were asked to feel a building block and then match the object felt with one or two blocks (of two different shapes — one square and the other circular). The children were unable to match the blocks they felt with what they only saw. Significantly, their performance improved substantially five days later, although they didn’t receive any kind of training.

This rapid improvement was surprising, says Yuri Ostrovsky, another MIT researcher associated with the study. He points out that many visual tasks, such as face perception, can take six to 12 months to learn after sight is restored. “The outcome has been a surprise — one that has important implications for theories regarding how the brain learns to acquire a coherent account of the complex environment,” Held told KnowHow.

Sinha, who holds a BTech from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, says the project has been an eye opener in more ways than one. It served a dual purpose: providing sight to blind children and advancing fundamental science. This, along with earlier findings from Project Prakash, shows that the human brain retains an impressive ability to launch programmes of visual learning well after the normal period of their deployment has passed.

“It has helped clear several myths regarding vision. Most eye doctors hesitate to treat older patients because they believe the brain is incapable of learning to see after age six or seven,” Sinha told KnowHow. “Our work has broken this dogma.”

The results of the study are significant for basic neuroscience as well as paediatric ophthalmology and implementation of later-stage blindness treatment programmes.

Here’s hoping there will be light for all.
You may click to see :Those Who Once Were Blind Can Learn To See, Study Shows

Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Bengal hemp

 

Botanical Name : Crotalaria juncea L.

Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae)
Genus :Crotalaria L. – rattlebox
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Crotalarieae.
Kingdom :  Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom:   Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Division :  Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Superdivision :   Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order :   Fabales
Species:    Crotalaria juncea L. – sunn h


Synonyms
: Crotalaria benghalensis Lam.,Crotalaria fenestrata Sims,Crotalaria ferestrata Sims,Crotalaria porrecta Wall.,Crotalaria sericea Willd.,Crotalaria tenuifolia Roxb.,Crotalaria viminea Wall.


Common Names :-

Cambodia: kâk’tung
China: shu ma, tai yang ma (Taiwan)
English: brown hemp, Indian-hemp, Madras-hemp, sann-hemp, sunn crotalaria, sunn-hemp,Bengal hemp
French: cascavelle, chanvre du Bengale, chanvre indien, crotolaire jonciforme, grand sonnette, grand tcha-tcha (Creole), sonnette, tcha-tcha (Creole)
German: bengalischer hanf, bombay hanf, sanhanf
India: saab, san, sunn, sannai, sanpat, sonai, tag, vakku, janumu, ghore sun, shon, shonpat
Indonesia: orok-orok lembut
Kenya: mito
Laos: th´üang, thwax chu
Nepal: san
Philippines:
putok-putukan, karay-kagay
Portuguese: cânhamo-da-Índia, crotalaria
Russia: krotalyariya sitnikovaya
Spanish: cáñamo san
Sri Lanka: hana
Tamil: sanal, sannappu
Thailand: po-thuang
Vietnamese:
cây mu?ng
Taiwan : Tai yang ma

Habitat :Exact native range obscure, although considered native to:
South Asia: Bangladesh; Bhutan; India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Yanan.)

Cultivated throughout the dry and wet tropics particularly in India, Bangladesh, and Brazil; also to a lesser extent in the subtropics and even cool temperate steppe.

Description:
Erect, herbaceous, laxly branched annual shrub, (1 -) 2 – 3 (- 4) m tall, with a deep strong tap root, and well-developed lateral roots bearing numerous multi-branched and lobed nodules, up to 2.5 cm in length.  Stem cylindrical, ribbed, pubescent to about 2 cm diameter, branching from about 60 cm, minimised with dense plantings.  Leaves simple, sparsely appressed-pubescent above, more densely so below, stipules acicular, 2 – 3 mm long, caducous; petiole about 5 mm long with pulvinus, blades bright green in colour, linear elliptic to oblong, entire, acute, sometimes sub-obtuse, 4 – 12 (- 15) cm long, 0.5 – 3 cm broad; spirally arranged on the stem.  Inflorescence a lax indeterminate, terminal raceme (10 -) 15 – 25 (- 30 cm) long comprising 10 – 20 flowers, with very small linear bracts.  Pedicels 3 – 5 mm long; corolla bright or deep yellow; standard erect, sub-orbicular to short oblong, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, sometimes streaked reddish or purple on dorsal surface; wings slightly shorter than keel; keel abruptly curved, the beak narrow and twisted at apex, c. 10 mm long; stamens 10, almost free to base (5 with short filaments and long narrow anthers, and 5 with long filaments and small rounded anthers); calyx 5-lobed, sepals pointed, tomentose, 11 – 20 mm long, 3 lower sepals united at base separating in fruit.  Pods tomentose, inflated, cylindrical, 2.5 – 4 (- 6) cm long, 1 -2 cm diameter, grooved along the upper surface, with a short pointed beak, light brown when ripe, 6 – 12-seeded.  Seed heart-shaped, with narrow end strongly incurved, flattened, (3 -) 4 – 6 mm long, greyish olive, dark grey, dark brown to black, loosened in the pod at maturity; 17,000 to 35,000 per kg (depending on production conditions and genotype).

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Cultivation:
Grows on most well-drained soils.  For fibre, it is best on fairly light textured soil (sandy loam or loam) of at least moderate fertility, but for other purposes, it will also grow well on clay soils and tolerates low fertility, providing soils are well-drained.

Plants remain succulent for 6 to 8 weeks after sowing, at which time flowering begins and stems begin to lignify.  When grown for forage, C. juncea can be harvested 4 times, starting 6 – 8 weeks after sowing, and then every 4 weeks.  This is also the best time to incorporate it as a green manure.  More mature plants are set back by harvesting and may die or take some time for even partial recovery.


Constituents :
Leaves contain an abundance of mucilage, a little solid fat and a resin soluble in ether.

Properties
*Leaves are considered refrigerant, demulcent, emetic, purgative, emmenagogue and abortive.
*Root is astringent.
*Seeds are corrective of blood.

Medicinal Uses:
Folkloric
*Infusion of bitter leaves are used externally and internally for gastric and bilious fevers accompanied by skin diseases like impetigo and psoriasis. Also used as emmenagogue.
*Root is used for colic and as astringent in epistaxis.
*Seeds used to purify the blood.
*Powdered seeds, mixed with oil, used to make the hair grow.

Studies
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Ulcerogenic: Study showed CJ extract significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. It also possessed anti-ulcerogenic property which may be due to an appetite suppresant effect.
• Toxicological Studies on Seeds: Study showed the administration of a dose of 200 mg/kg of extracts of seeds on liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals of adult rats caused significant alterations. Organ net weight decreased, histology showed disintegration necrosis and degeneration in the liver, renal tubular cell degeneration and exfoliation, zona glomerulosa hypertrophy in the adrenals, and splenic increase in megakaryotic cells and lymphocytes.
• Antispermatogenic / Hormonal Effects: Study evaluated the antifertility activity of various extracts of Crotalaria juncea seeds in male mice. Results showed decrease in testis and accessory organ weights, with spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm counts were reduced. The ethanol extract showed the most potent antispermatogenic activity. Study concludes that various extracts arrest spermatogenesis and are likely to have antiandrogenic activity.

Other Uses:
While finding some application as a forage, it is primarily grown for production of bast fibres used in the manufacture of twine and cord, high quality paper and pulp; also used as a green manure or cover crop and as a break crop to reduce weed and nematode populations.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Crotalaria_juncea.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.com/BengalHemp.html