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Rohu or Rui

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Botanical Name: Labeo rohita
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Labeo
Species: L. rohita
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes

Common Names: , Rui, or Roho labeo, Rohu

Description:
Thev Rohu is a species of fish of the carp family, found in rivers in South Asia. It is a large omnivore and extensively used in aquaculture. It is a large, silver-coloured fish of typical cyprinid shape, with a conspicuously arched head. Adults can reach a length of up to 2 m (6.6 ft) and a weight of up to 45 kg (99 lb).This fish is available throughout northern and central India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar and Pakistan, and has been introduced into some of the rivers of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. It inhabits the freshwater section of rivers to a depth of ~550 m.

Rohu reach sexual maturity between two and five years of age. They generally spawn during the monsoon season, keeping to the middle of flooded rivers above tidal reach. The spawning season of rohu generally coincides with the southwest monsoon. Spawn may be collected from rivers and reared in tanks and lakes.

As Food:
Rohu is very commonly eaten in Bangladesh ; Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Indian states of Tripura, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.[citation needed] A recipe for fried Rohu fish is mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. In this recipe, the fish is marinated in asafoetida and salt after being skinned. It is then dipped in turmeric mixed in water before being fried.

The Maithil Brahmins and the Kayastha community of Mithila region of India and Nepal treats it as one of their most sacred foods, to be eaten on all auspicious occasions. Rohu is the most commonly used fish in Pakistan and is usually eaten fried, or in a sauce with spices.

The roe of rohu is also considered a delicacy in Bhojpur, Andhra Pradesh, Nepalis Oriyas and Bengalis. It is deep fried and served hot as an appetizer as part of a Bihari, Oriya and Bengali meal. It is also stuffed inside a pointed gourd to make potoler dolma which is considered a delicacy. Rohu is also served deep fried in mustard oil, as kalia, which is a rich gravy made of a concoction of spices and deeply browned onions and tok, where the fish is cooked in a tangy sauce made of tamarind and mustard. Rohu is also very popular in northern India and Pakistan, as in the province of Punjab. In Lahore it is a speciality of Lahori cuisine in “Lahori fried fish” where it is prepared with batter and spices. It is also a very popular food fish in Iraq.

Health Benefits:
Rohu fish is as beneficial as eating other fishes such as mackerel, salmon or tuna. Here are some of the health benefits of eating rohu fish.

Vitamin C:
Rohu is a river fish. It is considered to be a rich source of vitamin C, which is essential for maintaining a good health. It keeps diseases like cold and cough at bay and prevents other diseases related to it.

Mineral source:
Iron, zinc, iodine, potassium, calcium and selenium are just a few names. The list consists of many more such essential minerals that are found in fish. The quantity may vary from one variety to another but the fact cannot be denied that fish is a rich source of minerals required by the body.
Protein rich:
This Fish protein is one of the best forms of protein available. It is said that sea fish has a greater content of protein. But the river fishes are not far behind. Living inland where river fish like rohu and katla are more common, it is always a good idea to bank upon the fish protein as much as possible. Be it a child or an adult, this protein is needed for growth and good health of tissues.

Low fat:
Rohu is rich in protein but low in fat – what could be better than this? When you get benefits without piling up layers of fat, you know you have the ideal dish.

Heart friendly:
Omega 3 fatty acid is known for being heart friendly. We hear cooking oils being advertised of its content of Omega 3 fatty acids, but it is a fact that the best natural source of this is none other than the fish. So, that’s one of the reasons one should start eating rohu fish today.

Brain booster :
Fish and brains are always mentioned together. Eating fish benefits the entire body, including the brain. A fish eater is seen to have better memorising and analysing skills along with fewer occasions of mood swings.
Cancer chaser :
One deadly disease that is affecting people across the world is cancer. Be it any form, the mere name of cancer is heart wrenching. Antioxidants in fish are believed to be helpful in fighting cancer to a great extent. It could be river fish or sea fish but the idea is to have more of it.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohu
http://www.boldsky.com/health/nutrition/2014/health-benefits-of-rohu-fish-carp-fish/cancer-chaser-pf67831-049909.html

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Acalypha Indica

Botanical Name:Acalypha Indica
Family:- Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Acalyphoideae

Common names:-
Hindi:- khokali,kuppi ,Sanskrit:-Arittamanjari,Eng:Indian accalypha, Bengali:-Muktajhuri;Sveta-basanta,Guj:-Vanchi Kanto, Mab:-Khokli,Khajoti. Tamil:– Kuppaimeni.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Acalypha
Species: A. indica
Parts Used: Leaves, roots,stalks(young shoot) & flowers.

Habitat :It occurs throughout tropical Africa and South Africa, in India and Sri Lanka, as well as in Yemen and Pakistan.

Description:
An annual herb, up about 75cm high. Leaves 3-8cm long ,ovate, thin usually 3-nerved;margins of the leaves toothed; leafstalks longer than leaves. flowers auxiliary erect spikes; female flower supported by conspicuous wedge-shaped bracts: male flower : minute , borne towards the top of their spike. Fruits small, hairy, concealed in the bracts.

You may click to see pictures of  Acalypha Indica

 

Constituents:Alkaaloids “acalypus” & “acalyphine”

Action: Cathartic,Anthelmintic,expectorant,emetic,anodyne and hypnotic

Medicinal uses :-
The whole plant of this herb collected in its flowering stages; and dried, constituents the drugs Acalypha.

The properties of this drug resemble those of Ipecac.it is useful in broncitis
,asthma, pneumonia and rheumatism, its roots and leaves have laxative properties. juice of leaves is considered an efficient emetic, that is ,a medicine for causing vomiting. A product of fresh leaves is useful on ulcers.

In Siddha medicine this plant is held in high esteem. “meni” in Tamil means “body” and “kuppai” means “rubbish”. That is when the body becomes a sort of rubbish due to diseases especially due to sexual contacts this plant can be used to rejuvenate the body. The Tamil siddhars has found that “kuppai meni” contains the metal gold which is responsible for this rejuvenation. In fact a table-spoon of the juice of the leaves kuppai meni can expel the flem from the chest which even 100$ wirth medicine cannot do.

Other Uses:-It has possibly been introduced elsewhere as a weed. In West and East Africa the plant is used medicinally. In West Africa the leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. It is also browsed by cattle.

You may click to see different uses :

Disclaimer:The information presented herein ,  is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://green-source.blogspot.com/search/label/ACALYPHA%20INDICA%20%20%7C%20khokahli
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acalypha_indica_Blanco2.266.png
http://openmed.nic.in/2001/01/Microsoft_Word_-_Acalypha.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acalypha_indica

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Guduchi (Tinospora cardifolia)

Botanical Name : Tinospora cardifolia
Family Name: Menispermaceae
Vernacular Names: Sans Guruchi; Hind: Amrita
SANSKRIT NAME:Guduchi,Madhuparni,Amrita,Chinnaruha,
Vatsadaani,Tantrika,Kundalini,Chakralakshanika
LOCAL NAMES: (in India) Giloya, Guduchi (Hindi), Gulancha(Bengali),Tippaatigo (Telugu), Shindilakodi (Tamil), Gulavel (Marathi),Galo (Gujarati),Amrita balli(kannada).

Habitat : Found throughout tropical India, ascending to an altitude of 1000 ft

Description:A big climber (glabrous).Climbs on large trees.Stems:-Fleshy.Roots:-long thread like, aerial,arise from branches.

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Bark Thin, greyish or creamy white in colour,When peeled fleshy stem is exposed.
Leaves: Cordate(heart shaped), membranous,juicy. Flowers:- Bloom during summer
Male flower:-Small,yellow or green coloured occur in clusters.
Female flower Occur singly.
Fruits:Pea shaped,fleshy,shiny turn red when boiled.Occur in winter
Seeds:- curved,pea sized. Flowers and fruits . .

Cultivation : It grows well in almost all types of soils and under varying climatic conditions.

Chemical Constituents: alkaloid – Berberine and a glucosoid – Giloin.
Sesquiterpene tinocordifolin, Sesquiterpene glucoside tino cordifolioside, tinosponone, tinosrfioside, sordioside furanoid diterpene;

Medicinal Uses : It is useful in burning sensation hyperdipsia, helminthiasis, dyspepsia, flatulence, gout, vomiting, skin diseases, leprosy, erysipelas, anemia, cough, asthma, jaundice, seminal weakness, uropathy and splenopathy.

Studies on induced oedema and arthritis and on human arthritis proved anti-inflammatory potency of the water extract of plant. It also has antipyretic action.This drug relaxes the intestinal and uterine smooth muscles.It is proved effective in prevention of fibrosis and in stimulating regeneration in hepatic tissue

As per Ayurveda:The plant is guru, ushnaveerya, tikta, kasaya, antipyretic, beneficial in burning swnsation, pain, vomiting, dyscrasia, vitiated vata, polyuria, anaemia and vertigo

Parts used: Leaves and stem.

Therapeutic uses :
The stem is bitter, astringent, sweet, thermogenic, antispasmodic, anti inflammatory , antipyretic, digestive, carminative, appetizer, stomachic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, galacto-purifier, useful in vitiated, vata, burning sensation, dyspepsia, flatulence, intermittent fever, inflammations, gout, vomiting, cardiac debility, jaundice, anaemia, seminal weakness, asthma, cough, uropathy, splenopathy, skin diseases and general debility.

Stem-juice is valued in high fever and also given in jaundice either alone or mixed with honey.

Decoction of the stem is used for rheumatic fever and vomiting due to excessive bile secretion; slow fever associated with cough is arrested by the administration of its decoction mixed with Piper longum (fruits) and honey.

Stem, pasted with a little ginger, is prescribed in urticaria.

In combination with the stem of Piper nigrum and honey it is useful to control heart palpitation due to flatulency; stem-juice found beneficial in elephantiasis

A kind of starch, called ‘Palo’, prepared from the aqueous extract of dried stem, is considered to have antacid, antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric properties.

Leaves of the plant are rich in protein, calcium and phosphorus with no toxic effect and as such prescribed in fever. Aqueous extract of the plant is a fabrifuge.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#eranda
http://www.ayurhelp.com/plants/guduchi.htm
http://apmab.ap.nic.in/products.php?&start=10

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Daruharidra (Berberis aristata)

Botanical Name : Berberis aristata
Family: Berberidaceae
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Ranunculales
Genus:
Berberis
Species:
B. aristata

Common name: Chitra
Other Common Names:   Darlahad [H], Hint Amberparisi [E], Indian Lycium [E], Nepal Barberry [H], Ophthalmic Barberry [H] (From various places around the Web, may not be 100% correct.) Barberry, Nepal
Vernacular Name: Sans; Daruharidra; Hind: Darhald; Eng : Indian barberry
Synonyms: Berberis coriaria (Lindl.), Berberis chitria (Hort.)

Sanskrit Synonyms:
Darunisha, Peeta, Daruharidra, Darvi, Peetadru, Peetachandana, Hemakanti, Kashta Rajani, Peetaka, Peetahva, Hemakanta,Hemavarnavati, – All these synonyms explain about turmeric-like yellow coloured stem.
Katankati, Katankateri, Parjanya, Pachampacha, Kusumbhaka,
Habitat :E. Asia – Himalayas in Nepal.(Shrubberies to 3500 metres)Woodland, Dappled Shade, Shady Edge.

Description:

Daruharidra is an evergreen erect spiny shrub, ranging between 2 and 3 meters in height. It is a woody plant, with bark that appears yellow to brown from the outside and deep yellow from the inside. The bark is covered with three-branched thorns, which are modified leaves, and can be removed by hand in longitudinal strips. The leaves are arranged in tufts of 5-8 and are approximately 4.9 centimeters long and 1.8 centimeters broad. The leaves are deep green on the dorsal surface and light green on the ventral surface. The leaves are simple with pinnate venation. The leaves are leathery in texture and are toothed, with several to many small indentations along the margin of the leaf.
It is a woody plant, with bark that appears yellow to brown from the outside and deep yellow from the inside. The bark is covered with three-branched thorns, which are modified leaves, and can be removed by hand in longitudinal strips. The leaves are arranged in tufts of 5-8 and are approximately 4.9 centimeters long and 1.8 centimeters broad. The leaves are deep green on the dorsal surface and light green on the ventral surface. The leaves are simple with pinnate venation. The leaves are leathery in texture and are toothed, with several to many small indentations along the margin of the leaf.

The flowering season begins in mid-March and lasts throughout the month of April. The yellow flowers that develop are complete and hermaphroditic. The average diameter of a fully opened flower is 12.5 millimeters. The flowers form a racemose inflorescence, with 11 to 16 flowers per raceme, arranged along a central stem. The flower is polysepalous, with 3 large and 3 small sepals, and polypetalous, with 6 petals in total. The male reproductive structure, the androecium, is polyandrous and contains 6 stamens, 5 to 6 millimeters long. There is one female reproductive structure, the gynoecium, which is 4 to 5 millimeters long and is composed of a short style and a broad stigma. The plant produces bunches of succulent, acidic, edible berries that are bright red in color and have medicinal properties. The fruits start ripening from the second week of May and continue to do so throughout June. The berries are approximately 7 millimeters long, 4 millimeters in diameter and weigh about 227 milligrams.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES………>….(01).…….(1)…....(2).………(3)……

Cultivation :   Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil. Plants are very hardy, they survived the severe winters of 1986-1987 without problems in most areas of Britain.

Plants can be pruned back quite severely and resprout well from the base. The fruits are sometimes sold in local markets in India. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Most plants cultivated under this name are B. chitria., B. coriaria., B. glaucocarpa. and, more commonly, B. floribunda.

Propagation:  Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in late winter or early spring.  Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate. Stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for at least their first winter. Once they are at least 20cm tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so be careful not to overwater them and keep them well ventilated.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very difficult, if not impossible. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, preferably with a heel, October/November in a frame . Very difficult, if not impossible.

Edible Uses:  Fruit – raw or cooked. A well-flavoured fruit, it has a sweet taste with a blend of acid, though there is a slight bitterness caused by the seeds. The fruit is much liked by children. It is dried and used like raisins in India. The fruit contains about 2.3% protein, 12% sugars, 2% ash, 0.6% tannin, 0.4% pectin. There is 4.6mg vitamin C per 100ml of juice.The fruit is about 7mm x 4mm – it can be up to 10mm long. Plants in the wild yield about 650g of fruit in 4 pickings.

Flower buds – added to sauces.

Composition:  Fruit (Fresh weight) :In grammes per 100g weight of food:Protein: 2.3 Carbohydrate: 12 Ash: 2

Medicinal Uses:  Alterative; Antibacterial; Antiperiodic; Bitter; Cancer; Deobstruent; Diaphoretic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Tonic.

The dried stem, root bark and wood are alterative, antiperiodic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, laxative, ophthalmic and tonic (bitter). An infusion is used in the treatment of malaria, eye complaints, skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and jaundice.

Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery]. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

As per Ayurveda:
It is tikta, katu, ushnaveerya; applied in the treatment of septic wounds and polyuria, pruritus, erysipelas and diseases of skin, eye and ear; antidotal

 Therapeutic uses: Paste of root-bark finds external application for healing ulcers. Extract prepared from root-bark is used as a local application in affected parts of the eyelids and in chronic ophthalmia.The tincture of the root is used against intermittent fever and considered to be advantageous over quinine and cinchona since it does not produce deafness or cardiac depression.

The decoction is particularly useful in the enlargement of liver and spleen associated with malarial fever. It is also used for fever accompanied by diarrhoea. Root combined with opium, rocksalt and alum is considered to be an useful anti-inflammatory agent.

In bleeding piles, application of powdered root mixed with butter is beneficial. “Rasauf’ of the rootprepared withis found useful in stomatitis and leucorrhoea.

Decoction of stem mixed with that of curcuma longa is recommended in’gonorrhoea.

Bark juice is useful in jaundice.

Fruits are edible and prescribed as a mild laxative for children.

 Other Uses:A yellow dye is obtained from the root and the stem. An important source of dyestuff and tannin, it is perhaps one of the best tannin dyes available in India. The wood is used as a fuel.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

 

Resources:
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Berberis+aristata
http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#bringraj
http://www.motherherbs.com/berberis-aristata.html
http://www.ayurgold.com/clinical_studies/indian_barberry

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_aristata

 

 

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Natural Drugs Set for Major Role

Natural drugs, especially of plant origin, are expected to play a major role in the healthcare programme in the 21st Century, a leading scientist has said.

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“The revival of interest in plant-based drugs and other herbal products is mainly because of the widespread belief that ‘green medicine’ is healthier than the synthetic products,” said veteran scientist P Pushpangadan in a paper titled ‘Health Food and Nutraceuticals – Traditional Wisdom’.

“This is mainly due to the increasing evidences of the health hazards associated with the harmful side effects of many synthetic drugs and the indiscriminate use of modern medicines such as antibiotics, steroids,” said the paper, which will be presented at the ongoing Annam – National Food and Agro-biodiversity festival on Monday.

Pushpangadan is the director general of Amity Institute for Herbal and Biotech Products Development, and has previously served as director of the National Botanical Research Institute till 2006.

The preference for green food and medicine has resulted in the rapid growth of plant-based drugs, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, functional foods and even cosmaceuticals.

The scientist said in the 1980s, this led to the rapid spurt of demand for health products such as herbal tea, ginseng and products of traditional medicine.

Health improvement and disease preventive strategies in treatment, prevalent in oriental systems, especially Indian (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Amchi) and the Chinese systems of medicine are finding increasing acceptance all over the world.

“Because of this sweeping ‘green wave’ a large number of herbal drugs and plant-derived herbal products are sold in the health food shops all over the developed countries. According to some healthcare experts, there will be more dieticians rather than physicians in coming years,” Pushpangadan said.

Sources: The Times Of India

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