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Dehydration

Definition:
Water makes up around 75 per cent of the human body. It’s important for digestion, joint function, healthy skin and removal of waste products.
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Dehydration occurs when more fluid is lost from the body than is taken in. This causes an imbalance in important minerals, such as sodium and potassium, which are required for muscle and nerve function.

If there is a one per cent or greater loss in body weight because of fluid loss, dehydration occurs. This may be mild, moderate or severe, depending on the amount lost.

Infants and children are more susceptible to dehydration than adults because of their smaller body weights and higher turnover of water and electrolytes. The elderly and those with illnesses are also at higher risk.

Dehydration is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on how much of the body’s fluid is lost or not replenished. When severe, dehydration is a life-threatening emergency.

Who are at Risk?
Anyone’s at risk of dehydration, but some people are more at risk than others.

•Babies and young children have relatively low body weights, making them more vulnerable to the effects of fluid loss.
•Older adults tend to eat less and may forget to eat and drink during the day. With increasing age, the body’s ability to conserve water decreases and a person’s sense of thirst becomes less acute. Illness and disability are also more common, which may make it harder to eat and drink enough.
•People with long-term medical conditions, such as kidney disease and alcoholism, are more at risk of dehydration.
•Short-term, acute health problems, such as viral infections, can result in dehydration because fever and increased sweating mean more fluid is lost from the body. Such illnesses may also make you feel less inclined to eat and drink.
•People living or working in hot climates or those who take part in sports or other strenuous physical activities are at greater risk of dehydration.

Symptoms:
The body’s initial responses to dehydration are thirst to increase water intake along with decreased urine output to try to conserve water. The urine will become concentrated and more yellow in color.

As the level of water loss increases, more symptoms can become apparent. The following are further signs and symptoms of dehydration:

•dry mouth,
•the eyes stop making tears,
•sweating may stop,
•muscle cramps,
•nausea and vomiting,
•heart palpitations, and
•lightheadedness (especially when standing).

The body tries to maintain cardiac output (the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart to the body); and if the amount of fluid in the intravascular space is decreased, the body tries to compensate for this decrease by increasing the heart rate and making blood vessels constrict to try to maintain blood pressure and blood flow to the vital organs of the body. This coping mechanism begins to fail as the level of dehydration increases.

With severe dehydration, confusion and weakness will occur as the brain and other body organs receive less blood. Finally, coma and organ failure, and death eventually will occur if the dehydration remains untreated.

Causes:
Around two-thirds of the water we need comes from drinks. Up to one-third comes from food (tomatoes, cucumber, fish and poultry are good sources). Some is also provided as a result of chemical reactions within the body.
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The average adult loses around 2.5 litres of water every day through the normal processes of breathing, sweating and waste removal. If we lose more fluid than usual this tips the balance towards dehydration.

Your body may lose too much fluids from:
•Vomiting or diarrhea
•Excessive urine output, such as with uncontrolled diabetes or diuretic use
•Excessive sweating (for example, from exercise)
•Fever

You might not drink enough fluids because of:
•Nausea
•Loss of appetite due to illness
•Sore throat or mouth sores

Dehydration in sick children is often a combination of both — refusing to eat or drink anything while also losing fluid from vomiting, diarrhea, or fever.

Lifestyle factors such as drinking too much alcohol, exercise, being in a hot environment or being too busy to drink liquid can also lead to dehydration.

Diagnosis:
Dehydration is often a clinical diagnosis. Aside from diagnosing the reason for dehydration, the health care practitioner’s examination of the patient will assess the level of dehydration. Initial evaluations may include:

•Mental status tests to evaluate whether the patient is awake, alert, and oriented. Infants and children may appear listless and have whiny cries and decreased muscle tone.

•Vital signs may include postural readings (blood pressure and pulse rate are taken lying down and standing). With dehydration, the pulse rate may increase and the blood pressure may drop because the intravascular space is depleted of fluid. People taking beta blocker medications for high blood pressure, heart disease, or other indications, occasionally lose the ability to increase their heart rate as a compensation mechanism since these medications block the adrenaline receptors in the body.

•Temperature may be measured to assess fever.

•Skin may be checked to see if sweat is present and to assess the degree of elasticity (turgor). As dehydration progresses, the skin loses its water content and becomes less elastic.

•Infants may have additional evaluations performed, including checking for a soft spot on the skull (sunken fontanelle), assessing the suck mechanism, muscle tone, or loss of sweat in the armpits and groin. All are signs of potential significant dehydration.

•Pediatric patients are often weighed during routine child visits, thus a body weight measurement may be helpful in assessing how much water has been lost with the acute illness.

Laboratory testing:-
The purpose of blood tests is to assess potential electrolyte abnormalities (especially sodium levels) associated with the dehydration. Tests may or may not be done on the patient depending upon the underlying cause of dehydration, the severity of illness, and the health care practitioner’s assessment of their needs.

Urinalysis may be done to determine urine concentration – the more concentrated the urine, the more dehydrated the patient.

Treatment:-
As is often the case in medicine, prevention is the important first step in the treatment of dehydration. (Please see the home treatment and prevention sections.)

Fluid replacement is the treatment for dehydration. This may be attempted by replacing fluid by mouth, but if this fails, intravenous fluid (IV) may be required. Should oral rehydration be attempted, frequent small amounts of clear fluids should be used.

Clear fluids include:
•water,
•clear broths,
•popsicles,
•Jell-O, and
•other replacement fluids that may contain electrolytes (Pedialyte, Gatorade, Powerade, etc.)
Decisions about the use of intravenous fluids depend upon the health care practitioner’s assessment of the extent of dehydration and the ability for the patient to recover from the underlying cause.

The success of the rehydration therapy can be monitored by urine output. When the body is dry, the kidneys try to hold on to as much fluid as possible, urine output is decreased, and the urine itself is concentrated. As treatment occurs, the kidneys sense the increased amount of fluid, and urine output increases.

Medications may be used to treat underlying illnesses and to control fever, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Home Treatment:
Dehydration occurs over time. If it can be recognized in its earliest stages, and if its cause can be addressed, home treatment may be beneficial and adequate.

Steps a person can take at home to prevent severe dehydration include:

•Individuals with vomiting and diarrhea can try to alter their diet and use medications to control symptoms to minimize water loss. Clear fluids often recommended as the diet of choice for the first 24 hours, with gradual progression to a BRAT diet (bananas, rice, apples, toast) and then adding more foods as tolerated.
•Loperamide (Imodium) may be considered to control diarrhea.
•Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be used to control fever.
•Fluid replacements may be attempted by small, frequent amounts of clear fluids (see clear fluids information in previous section). The amount of fluid required to maintain hydration depends upon the individual’s weight. The average adult needs between 2 and 3 liters of fluid per day.
If the person becomes confused or lethargic; if there is persistent, uncontrolled fever, vomiting, or diarrhea; or if there are any other specific concerns, then medical care should be accessed.

Prevention:-
•Environment: Dehydration due to the weather is a preventable condition. If possible, activities should not be scheduled in the heat of the day. If they are, adequate fluids should be available, and cooler, shaded areas should be used if possible. Of course, people should be monitored to make certain they are safe. Those working in hot environments need to take care to rehydrate often.
•Exercise: People exercising in a hot environment need to drink adequate amounts of water.
•Age: The young and elderly are most at risk. During heat waves, attempts should be made to check on the elderly in their homes. During the Chicago heat wave of 1995, more than 600 people died in their homes from heat exposure.
•Heat related conditions: Know the signs and symptoms of heat cramps, heat rash, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Preventing dehydration is one step to avoid these conditions.

Carefully monitor someone who is ill, especially an infant, child, or older adult. If you believe that dehydration is developing, consult a doctor before the person becomes moderately or severely dehydrated. Begin fluid replacement as soon as vomiting and diarrhea start — DO NOT wait for signs of dehydration.

Always encourage the person to drink during an illness, and remember that a person’s fluid needs are greater when that person has fever, vomiting, or diarrhea. The easiest signs to monitor are urine output (there should be frequent wet diapers or trips to the bathroom), saliva in the mouth, and tears when crying.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/dehydration1.shtml
http://www.medicinenet.com/dehydration/page4.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000982.htm

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Smell Disorder

 

 

Introduction:
Our sense of smell & taste helps us enjoy life. We delight in the aromas of our favorite foods or the fragrance of flowers. Our sense of smell also is a warning system, alerting us to danger signals such as a gas leak, spoiled food, or a fire. Any loss in our sense of smell can have a negative effect on our quality of life. It also can be a sign of more serious health problems.

Roughly 1–2 percent of people in North America say that they have a smell disorder. Problems with smell increase as people get older, and they are more common in men than women. In one study, nearly one-quarter of men ages 60–69 had a smell disorder, while about 11 percent of women in that age range reported a problem.

Many people who have smell disorders also notice problems with their sense of taste.

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Other Names:
Loss of smell; Anosmia.

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How do we smell?
Our sense of smell—like our sense of taste—is part of our chemosensory system, or the chemical senses  or the chemosenses.Sensory cells in our nose, mouth, and throat have a role in helping us interpret smells, as well as taste flavors. Microscopic molecules released by the substances around us (foods, flowers, etc.) stimulate these sensory cells. Once the cells detect the molecules they send messages to our brains, where we identify the smell. Olfactory, or smell nerve cells, are stimulated by the odors around us–the fragrance of a gardenia or the smell of bread baking. These nerve cells are found in a small patch of tissue high inside the nose, and they connect directly to the brain. Our sense of smell is also influenced by something called the common chemical sense. This sense involves nerve endings in our eyes, nose, mouth, and throat, especially those on moist surfaces. Beyond smell and taste, these nerve endings help us sense the feelings stimulated by different substances, such as the eye-watering potency of an onion or the refreshing cool of peppermint. It’s a surprise to many people to learn that flavors are recognized mainly through the sense of smell. Along with texture, temperature, and the sensations from the common chemical sense, the perception of flavor comes from a combination of odors and taste. Without the olfactory cells, familiar flavors like coffee or oranges would be harder to distinguish....CLICK & SEE

 

Types of smell disorders:
People who experience smell disorders experience either a loss in their ability to smell or changes in the way they perceive odors. As for loss of the sense of smell, some people have hyposmia, which is when their ability to detect odor is reduced. Other people can’t detect odor at all, which is called anosmia. As for changes in the perception of odors, some people notice that familiar odors become distorted. Or, an odor that usually smells pleasant instead smells foul. Still other people may perceive a smell that isn’t present at all.You may click to see :Smell Dysfunction Glossary of Terms….
Sniff Test May Signal Disorders’ Early Stages ….

Symptoms:
Smell disorder  symptoms are : Reduced sense of smell, Anosmia, Olfactory dysfunction, Loss of smell, Lack of sense of smell in children, Paraosmia due to amebic meningitis or other types.

There are various symptoms related to “smell”. Having a particular smell or odor can be a serious symptom. There are various odor symptoms such as body odor, urine odor, stool odor, and other odor symptoms. The sense of smell can be subject to loss of smell, loss of taste, or other nose symptoms….


Considerations:

The loss of smell can occur as a result of nasal congestion or blockage of the nose and isn’t serious, but it can sometimes be a sign of a nervous system (neurological) condition.

Temporary loss of the sense of smell is common with colds and nasal allergies, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis). It may occur after a viral illness.

Some loss of smell occurs with aging. In most cases, there is no obvious or immediate cause, and there is no treatment.

The sense of smell is often lost with disorders that prevent air from reaching the part of the nose where smell receptors are located (the cribriform plate, located high in the nose). These disorders may include nasal polyps, nasal septal deformities, and nasal tumors.

Other disorders that may cause a loss of the sense of smell include:

The sense of smell also enhances your ability to taste. Many people who lose their sense of smell also complain of a loss of the sense of taste. Most can still tell between salty, sweet, sour, and bitter tastes, which are sensed on the tongue. They may not be able to tell between other flavors. Some spices (such as pepper) may affect the nerves of the face and may be felt rather than smelled.

Causes:
Smell disorders have many causes, with some more obvious than others. Most people who develop a smell disorder have experienced a recent illness or injury. Common causes of smell disorders are:

*Disorders of the endocrine system
*Head trauma
*Nervous disorders
*Nutritional disorders
*Tumors of the head or brain
*Many medications may change or decrease the ability to detect odors.
*Sinus and other upper respiratory infections
*Polyps in the nasal cavities
*Frontal head injuries
*Hormonal disturbances
*Dental problems
*Exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides and solvents
*Numerous medications, including some common antibiotics and antihistamines
*Radiation associated with the treatment of head and neck cancers
*Aging
*Other health issues that affect the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease

In the year 2009, the FDA warned consumers to stop using several popular cold remedies because they could result in the loss of smell. Smoking also can interfere with our sense of smell.

Most people who develop a smell disorder have recently experienced an illness or an injury. Common triggers are upper respiratory infections and head injuries.  Some medicines have also been associated with smell disorders. People with head and neck cancers who receive radiation treatment are also among those who experience problems with their sense of smell.

Associated conditions
* Dysosmia
* Kallmann syndrome
* Zinc deficiency
* Cadmium Poisoning
* Holoprosencephaly
* Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri
* Refsum disease
* CHARGE syndrome
* Ageusia

Diagnosis:
Both smell and taste disorders are treated by an otolaryngologist, a doctor who specializes in diseases of the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck. Some tests are designed to measure the smallest amount of odor that patients can detect. Another common test consists of a booklet of sheets that contain tiny beads filled with specific odors.In fact, an easily administered “scratch and sniff” test allows a person to scratch pieces of paper treated to release different odors, sniff them, and try to identify each odor from a list of possibilities. In this way, doctors can easily determine whether patients have hyposmia, anosmia, or another kind of smell disorder.

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An accurate assessment of your smell disorder will include, among other things, a physical examination of your ears, nose, and throat; a review of your health history, such as exposure to toxic chemicals or trauma; and a smell test supervised by a health care professional.

Risk Factors:
Like all of our senses, our sense of smell plays an important part in our lives.When smell is impaired, some people change their eating habits. Some may eat too little and lose weight while others may eat too much and gain weight. Food becomes less enjoyable and people may use too much salt to improve the taste. This can be a problem for people with certain medical conditions, such high blood pressure or kidney disease. In severe cases, loss of smell can lead to depression.

The sense of smell often serves as a first warning signal, alerting us to the smoke of a fire or the odor of a natural gas leak and dangerous fumes. Perhaps more important is that our chemosenses are sometimes a signal of serious health problems. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, malnutrition, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Korsakoff’s psychosis are all accompanied or signaled by chemosensory problems like smell disorders.

Presentation
Anosmia or smell disorder can have a number of detrimental effects. Patients with sudden onset anosmia may find food less appetizing, though congenital anosmics rarely complain about this. Loss of smell can also be dangerous because it hinders the detection of gas leaks, fire, and spoiled food. The common view of anosmia as trivial can make it more difficult for a patient to receive the same types of medical aid as someone who has lost other senses, such as hearing or sight.

Losing an established and sentimental smell memory (e.g. the smell of grass, of the grandparents’ attic, of a particular book, of loved ones, or of oneself) has been known to cause feelings of depression.

Loss of olfaction may lead to the loss of libido, though this usually does not apply to congenital anosmics.

Often people who have congenital anosmia report that they pretended to be able to smell as children because they thought that smelling was something that older/mature people could do, or did not understand the concept of smelling but did not want to appear different from others. When children get older, they often realize and report to their parents that they do not actually possess a sense of smell, often, to the surprise of their parents.

Zicam controversy
On June 16, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration sent a warning letter to Matrixx Initiatives, manufacturer of an over-the-counter nasal spray for the common cold, Zicam. The FDA cited complaints that the product caused anosmia. The manufacturer strongly denies these allegations, but has recalled the product and has stopped selling it.

Treatment:
Some people experience relief from smell disorders. Since certain medications can cause a problem, adjusting or changing that medicine may ease its effect on the sense of smell. Others recover their ability to smell when the illness causing their olfactory problem resolves. For patients with nasal obstructions such as polyps, surgery can remove the obstructions and restore airflow. Not infrequently, people enjoy a spontaneous recovery because olfactory neurons may regenerate following damage.

Home Care:
Treating the cause of the problem may correct loss of the sense of smell. Treatment can include:

*Antihistamines (if the condition is related to allergy)
*Changes in medication
*Surgery to correct blockages
*Treatment of other disorders
*Avoid using too many nasal decongestants, which can lead to recurring nasal congestion.

If you lose your sense of smell, you may have changes in taste. But, adding highly seasoned foods to your diet can help stimulate the taste sensations that you still have.

Improve your safety at home by using smoke detectors and electric appliances instead of gas ones. You may not be able to smell gas if there is a leak. Or, install equipment that detects the presence of gas fumes in the home.

There is no treatment for loss of smell due to aging.

If you have a loss of smell due to a recent viral upper respiratory infection, be patient. The sense of smell may return to normal without treatment.

Click to see:Herbs for Loss of Smell & Taste

Click to learn more about : Treatments for a Loss of Sense of Smell

Research:
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) supports basic and clinical investigations of smell and taste disorders at institutions across the nation. Some of these studies are conducted at chemosensory research centers, where scientists are making discoveries that help them understand our olfactory system and may lead to new treatments for smell disorders.

Some of the most recent research into our sense of smell is also the most exciting. In 2004, NIDCD grantee Linda B. Buck, Ph.D., together with Richard Axel, M.D., received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of a family of about 1,000 olfactory receptor genes that encode the receptors found on olfactory sensory neurons—one receptor per neuron. Recent studies on how olfactory sensory neurons recognize odors, aided by new technology, are revealing how our olfactory system detects and identifies the differences between the many chemical compounds that form odors.

Like our sense of taste, our sense of smell can be damaged by certain medicines. However, other medications, especially those prescribed for allergies, may improve the sense of smell. NIDCD-supported scientists are working to find out why this is so in an effort to develop drugs that can help restore a person’s sense of smell.

NIDCD-supported researchers have found that the loss of smell affects the choices an older person makes about eating certain foods. Food choices impact diet and overall health. They are looking at how and why this takes place in order to develop more effective ways to help older people—especially those with chronic illnesses—cope better with problems with smell and to maintain proper nutrition.

Olfactory sensory neurons—as well as sensory cells that help us taste—are the only sensory cells that our bodies regularly replace. Scientists are exploring why and how this happens in order that they might find ways to replace other damaged sensory and nerve cells.

NIDCD-supported chemosensory scientists are exploring how to:

*Promote the regeneration of sensory and nerve cells.
*Understand the effects of the environment (such as gasoline fumes, chemicals, and extremes of relative humidity and temperature) on smell and taste.
*Prevent the effects of aging on smell and taste.
*Prevent infectious agents and toxins from reaching the brain through the olfactory nerve.
*Develop new diagnostic tests for taste and smell disorders.
*Understand associations between chemosensory disorders and altered food intake in aging as well as in various chronic illnesses.
*Improve treatment methods and rehabilitation strategies.

MORE INFORMATION:-

Click For more information NIDCD Information Clearinghouse.

The NIDCD maintains a directory of organizations that can answer questions and provide printed or electronic information about hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language. This directory is available at www.nidcd.nih.gov/directory.

To find organizations with information specifically about smell disorders, click on Smell and Taste in the “Browse by Topic” list.

For more information, additional addresses and phone numbers, or a printed list of organizations, contact:

NIDCD Information Clearinghouse
1 Communication Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20892-3456
Toll-free Voice: (800) 241-1044 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              (800) 241-1044      end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055
Fax: (301) 770-8977
E-mail: nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov
NIH Publication No. 09-3231
Updated July 2009

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/symptoms/smell-impaired/overview.html
http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Disorders_Smell/overview/healthocrates20?fdid=healthocrates_a1e23a7936222b32cbffcf28f010c155
http://www.medicinenet.com/smell_disorders/article.htm
http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/sym/smell_symptoms.htm#intro

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anosmia

Some Objects in the Nose

Introduction:-Young children are more likely than older children or adults to put small objects—such as beads, dried beans, popcorn, plastic toy pieces, foam rubber, or small batteries—up their noses. If the child doesn’t tell you about it, your first clue may be a bad-smelling green or yellow discharge or blood (epistaxis) from one of the child’s nostrils. The child’s nose may also be tender and swollen.

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Some objects in the nose cause more problems than others. Disc batteries (also called button cell batteries) are more dangerous than other objects and should be removed immediately. The moist tissue in the nose can cause the battery to release strong chemicals (alkali) quickly, often in less than 1 hour. This can cause serious damage to the sensitive mucous membranes lining the nose. Seeds, such as beans or popcorn, can swell from the moistness of the nasal tissue, making removal more difficult.

An object in the nose may cause some irritation and swelling of the mucous membranes inside the nose. This swelling can cause a stuffy nose, making it difficult to breathe through the nose.

Infection can develop in the nose or in the sinuses following the insertion of an object. The longer the object is in the nose, the more likely it is that an infection will develop. The first sign of infection is usually increased drainage from the nose. It is usually from only one nostril. The drainage may be clear at first but turns yellow, green, or brown. The drainage may have an unpleasant odor. As the infection progresses, symptoms of sinusitis or another infection will develop.

An object inserted in the nose may cause a nosebleed if the object irritates the tissues in the nose. The nasal tissue can be damaged from pressure against the object. This is called pressure necrosis.

Older children and adults can also inhale objects while working closely with small objects. Nose rings and metal studs from nose piercings can also cause nose problems. A piece of glass may enter the nose during an automobile accident. You may be unaware of this because of other injuries that occur during the accident.

In Case Of Emergency:-Call emergency services immediately!
Does your child have any of the following symptoms that require emergency treatment? Call 911 or other emergency services immediately.

1.Choking. Do not perform the Heimlich maneuver if the person is still coughing or is able to speak.

2.Moderate to severe difficulty breathing occurs:

*In children.

*In adults and older children.

Symptoms:
All your actions are dependent on the symptoms. If following symptoms are there it becomes a health risk and you are advised to contact your health professional immediately:

1. If you have a nosebleed after you have removed an intact object from your nose.

2.If a disc battery stuck in the nose. Disc batteries are found in toys, calculators, hearing aids, cameras, and watches.

3.If an object or part of an object stuck in the nose after attempts to remove it.

4. If you think you have an infection after an object has been removed from the nose.

5.If you have mild to moderate difficulty breathing after removing an object from the nose.

But if a visit to a health professional is not needed immediately, you may go through the Home Treatment for self-care information as given below:-

Home Treatment:-

First follow these steps to remove an object from the nose:

1.Breathe through your mouth since the nose is blocked.

2.Pinch closed the side of the nose that doesn’t have the object in it and try to blow the object out of the blocked side. You may need to help a child pinch his or her nose.

3.Blow your nose forcefully several times. This may blow the object out of the nose.

4.If the object is partially out of the nose, you may be able to remove it. Hold still and remove the object with your fingers or blunt-nosed tweezers. Be careful not to push the object farther into the nose. If a child resists or is not able to hold still, do not attempt to remove the object.

5.Some minor bleeding from your nose may occur after the object is removed. This usually is not serious and should stop after firmly pinching your nose shut for 10 minutes. See how to stop a nosebleed.

You may be able to remove an object from a child’s nose using the “kiss technique.” Do not try this if you are uncomfortable with it, your child says it hurts, or if your child becomes upset by your attempts:

1.Apply pressure to close the child’s unaffected nostril. You can do this or the child can help by holding his or her finger on the unaffected side of the nose.

2.Blow a puff of air into the child’s mouth. The positive pressure of this puff will help push the object out of the child’s nose. You may need to repeat this activity several times.

Home treatment after removing an object from the nose.

Some tenderness and nasal stuffiness are common after removing an object from the nose. Home treatment will often relieve a tender, stuffy nose and make breathing easier.

1.Drink extra fluids for 2 to 3 days to keep mucus thin.

2.Breathe moist air from a humidifier, hot shower, or sink filled with hot water.

3.Increase the humidity in your home, especially in the bedroom.

4.Take an oral decongestant or use a decongestant nasal spray. Oral decongestants are not as helpful as nasal sprays in children. Do not use a decongestant nasal spray for longer than 3 days. Overuse of decongestant sprays may cause the mucous membranes to swell up more than before (rebound effect). Avoid products containing antihistamines, which dry the nasal tissue.

5.Check the back of your throat for postnasal drip. If streaks of mucus appear, gargle with warm water to prevent a sore throat.

6.Elevate your head at night by sleeping on an extra pillow. This will decrease nasal stuffiness.

Medicine you can buy without a prescription Try a nonprescription medicine to help treat your fever or pain:

1.Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol or Panadol

2.Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs):

*Ibuprofen, such as Advil or Motrin
*Naproxen, such as Aleve or Naprosyn
*Aspirin (also a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), such as Bayer or Bufferin

Some Safety tips:- Be sure to follow these safety tips when you use a nonprescription medicine: Carefully read and follow all directions on the medicine bottle and box.

1.Do not take more than the recommended dose.

2.Do not take a medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to it in the past.

3.If you have been told to avoid a medicine, call your doctor before you take it.

4.If you are or could be pregnant, do not take any medicine other than acetaminophen unless your doctor has told you to.

5.Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than age 20 unless your doctor tells you to.

Symptoms to Watch carefully During Home Treatment:

Use the Check Your Symptoms section to evaluate your symptoms if one or more of the following symptoms occur during home treatment:

1.A nosebleed cannot be stopped with home treatment. See the topic Nosebleeds.

2.An infection develops.

3.Symptoms become more severe or more frequent.

Prevention:

Small children love to explore their surroundings. They are also curious about their bodies. To prevent children from inserting objects into their noses:

1.Caution children not to put any object into a body opening.

2.Supervise young children, especially children younger than age 4, to reduce the risk that they will put objects in their noses or other body openings.

3.Keep all objects small enough to be swallowed or inserted into body openings away from small children.

4.Store all disc batteries in a safe place out of the reach of children. Properly dispose of used disc batteries out of the reach of children.

5.Older children or adults should be cautious when working with small objects or if they have nose piercings.

Sources: MSN Health & Fitness

Down With a Cold ?

At some time or another, everyone — even a robust fitness freak — gets felled by the common cold, developing sniffles, sneezing, puffy eyes, fever, body ache and malaise. Children start to develop colds during their first year, the frequency of which may increase to up to six times a year. This leaves the mothers with the feeling that the child is “always ill”. The average adult gets three to four colds a year.

Almost 40 per cent of outpatient medical consultations in a general practice deals with colds and their complications. This is not surprising, as colds are unavoidable infections. They are caused by viruses, 80 per cent of which belong to the rhinovirus family. Not only are there more than a hundred members in this group alone, but the types also mutate at a rapid rate. This makes immunity practically non-existent, or at best short lived. To make matters worse, there is no vaccine available, except for flu or influenza.

Colds are highly contagious. The spread is rapid as the virus, contained in nasal secretions, can be propelled forcefully into the environment by coughing and sneezing. It can also be transferred from the nose to the hands of infected people. Patients can then transfer the virus to door knobs, telephones, banisters, switches and other such objects. The virus can remain dormant but viable for 18 hours or more until it finds a susceptible host. Any person touching the contaminated surface has a 50 per cent chance of picking up the infection.

Infection increases during the rainy season and winter months. People tend to huddle together under umbrellas or shelters. Windows may be kept closed. The close contact and lack of ventilation provide ideal conditions for the spread of the cold virus. Contrary to popular myths, colds are not aggravated by washing the hair at night, eating ice cream or using air-conditioning.

The infection incubates for a day or two before symptoms appear. It may then last a variable period of time, usually 5-14 days. If there is no recovery within two weeks, there may be secondary bacterial infection and complications like sinusitis, ear infection, bronchitis and pneumonia may have set in.

Smokers develop colds more frequently than non-smokers do. Their colds are more severe, take longer to subside and are more likely to be complicated by secondary infection. This is because the cilia — fine protective hairs that line the respiratory passages — are paralysed by nicotine. They, therefore, clear accumulated mucous sluggishly and inefficiently. Also, smokers’ lungs are likely to be scarred, distorted, have a reduced blood supply and function sub-optimally, making elimination of the infection difficult.

Man has reached the moon but a cure for the common cold remains elusive. We still rely on “grandma’s recommendations” of hot drinks like ginger tea, lime juice with honey, rice gruel and chicken soup. These do soothe the irritated throat. Also, resting helps. It reduces the pain in the muscles and bones. Steam inhalations liquefy the secretions and help them to drain, providing relief.

Stuffed and blocked nasal passages can be cleared with saline (not chemical) nose drops. Aspirin and paracetamol reduce fever and pain. Anti histamines reduce itching in the nose and throat and dry up dripping nasal secretions. The older first-generation anti histamines (Avil, Benadryl) are very effective but they cause sedation. The second-generation non-sedating products (loratidine, cetrizine) are less effective.

Many health supplements are advocated to boost immunity and reduce the frequency and severity of attacks. Many are of doubtful efficacy and have not been studied scientifically. Zinc supplements, however, have been proven to be useful. They can be used as lozenges, syrups or tablets. Not more than 10-15 mg a day of elemental zinc should be taken.

Antibiotics do not work and administering them is futile and inappropriate. They do not shorten the course of the infection. Nor do they prevent complications. Antiviral medications used against the influenza and herpes viruses are ineffective against the rhinovirus. If the cold just refuses to go away and there are no bacterial complications, it may not be a cold at all. It may be an idiosyncratic allergic reaction to something inhaled or ingested from the environment. Mosquito coils, liquid repellents, room fresheners and incense sticks are particularly notorious.

The best advice for someone with a cold — “wait it out”.

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Better Ways to Fight Cold & Flu

The herb Echinacea, utilized by Native Americans for centuries, is a popular remedy for preventing or reducing the severity of the common cold. Hundreds of studies, primarily conducted in Germany, have provided information on the herb’s chemical and pharmacological characteristics, yet few studies have actually proven its ability to reduce cold severity.

To evaluate the effectiveness of dried, whole-plant echinacea capsules for early treatment of the common cold, approximately 150 students in the early stages of a cold were divided to take either a placebo or echinacea. The echinacea group took an encapsulated mixture of unrefined echinacea root and herbs in one-gram doses, six times on the first day of illness and three times per day on subsequent days, for up to 10 days. The placebo group took capsules containing alfalfa, which has no proven ability to boost the immune system, at the same frequency.

No difference was observed between the echinacea and placebo groups for any cold symptoms, including cough, sore throat, runny/stuffy nose or headaches. Average duration of the cold was approximately six days in both groups. Also, cold severity measures were “nearly identical” in those taking echinacea or placebo pills.

Although this is certainly not the last word on echinacea, since some previous research contradicts this study, it shows that otherwise healthy people might not obtain as much benefit from the herb as older adults who have frequent colds or viral illnesses. The best advice is to reduce your chances of getting a cold in the first place: wash your hands frequently with soap and water, and boost your immune system by eating lots of fruits and vegetables and getting plenty of sleep.

It’s cold and flu season, and the sounds of coughing, sneezing and runny noses can be heard in nearly every home, office and shopping mall across the country. But don’t run to the doctor and stock up on prescriptions just yet.

Colds, flus, most sore throats and acute bronchitis are caused by viruses, and antibiotics do not help fight viruses. Your prescription medication won’t fight the virus, make you feel better, yield a quicker recovery or keep others from getting sick. In fact, because of the potentially serious side effects, taking antibiotics to treat a virus can do more harm than good.

In addition to failing to solve your problem, taking unnecessary antibiotics can result in an increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. This means the next time you really need an antibiotic for a bacterial infection, it may not work.

When the scratchy throat, sinus headache and sniffles get to be too much to handle this season, resist the urge to reach for the easy answer. Talk to your doctor about natural alternatives for treating your cold or flu.

For more information, go to http://www.toyourhealth.com/mpacms/tyh/article.php?id=971

Sources:http://www.toyourhealth.com