Tag Archives: Nasal spray

Capsicum baccatum

Botanical Name : Capsicum baccatum
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Capsicum
Species: C. baccatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Common Name:Locoto

Capsicum baccatum is a species of chili pepper that includes the following cultivar and varieties:

*Aji amarillo, or amarillo chili
*Peppadew
*Lemon drop
*Bishop’s Crown
*Brazilian Starfish
*Wild Baccatum
……
You may click to see  pictures of different paper
Habitat :  The Capsicum baccatum species, particularly the Ají amarillo chili (Aji is the caribean word for chili and/or peppers that the Spaniards colonizers extended to most of Central and South America), is typically associated with Peruvian cuisine, and is considered part of its condiment trinity together with red onion and garlic. Aji amarillo literally means yellow chili; however, the yellow color appears when cooked, as the mature pods are bright orange.

Today the Ají amarillo is mainly seen in South American markets and in Latin American food stores around the world where Peruvian and Bolivian expatriates are numerous. The wild baccatum species (C. baccatum var. baccatum) is most common in Bolivia with outlier populations in Peru (rare) and Paraguay, northern Argentina, and southern Brazil.

Description:
Pepper varieties in the Capsicum baccatum species have white or cream colored flowers, and typically have a green or gold corolla. The flowers are either insect or self-fertilized. The fruit pods of the baccatum species have been cultivated into a wide variety of shapes and sizes, unlike other capsicum species which tend to have a characteristic shape. The pods typically hang down, unlike a Capsicum frutescens plant, and can have a citrus or fruity flavor.

Edible Uses:
Aji amarillo is one of the ingredients of Peruvian cuisine and Bolivian cuisine as a condiment, especially in many dishes and sauces. In Peru the chilis are mostly used fresh, and in Bolivia dried and ground. Common dishes with aji amarillo are the Peruvian stew Aji de Gallina (“Chili of Hen”), Huancaina sauce and the Bolivian Fricase Paceno, among others.

The Moche culture often represented fruits and vegetables in their art, including Ají amarillo peppers.

Medicinal Uses;
The hot and pungent fruit is antihemorrhoidal when taken in small amounts, antirheumatic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, digestive, irritant, rubefacient, sialagogue and tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of the cold stage of fevers, debility in convalescence or old age, varicose veins, asthma and digestive problems. Externally it is used in the treatment of sprains, unbroken chilblains, neuralgia, pleurisy etc

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-48270835/stock-photo-starfish-on-brown-paper-background.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsicum_baccatum

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Some Objects in the Nose

Introduction:-Young children are more likely than older children or adults to put small objects—such as beads, dried beans, popcorn, plastic toy pieces, foam rubber, or small batteries—up their noses. If the child doesn’t tell you about it, your first clue may be a bad-smelling green or yellow discharge or blood (epistaxis) from one of the child’s nostrils. The child’s nose may also be tender and swollen.

….

Some objects in the nose cause more problems than others. Disc batteries (also called button cell batteries) are more dangerous than other objects and should be removed immediately. The moist tissue in the nose can cause the battery to release strong chemicals (alkali) quickly, often in less than 1 hour. This can cause serious damage to the sensitive mucous membranes lining the nose. Seeds, such as beans or popcorn, can swell from the moistness of the nasal tissue, making removal more difficult.

An object in the nose may cause some irritation and swelling of the mucous membranes inside the nose. This swelling can cause a stuffy nose, making it difficult to breathe through the nose.

Infection can develop in the nose or in the sinuses following the insertion of an object. The longer the object is in the nose, the more likely it is that an infection will develop. The first sign of infection is usually increased drainage from the nose. It is usually from only one nostril. The drainage may be clear at first but turns yellow, green, or brown. The drainage may have an unpleasant odor. As the infection progresses, symptoms of sinusitis or another infection will develop.

An object inserted in the nose may cause a nosebleed if the object irritates the tissues in the nose. The nasal tissue can be damaged from pressure against the object. This is called pressure necrosis.

Older children and adults can also inhale objects while working closely with small objects. Nose rings and metal studs from nose piercings can also cause nose problems. A piece of glass may enter the nose during an automobile accident. You may be unaware of this because of other injuries that occur during the accident.

In Case Of Emergency:-Call emergency services immediately!
Does your child have any of the following symptoms that require emergency treatment? Call 911 or other emergency services immediately.

1.Choking. Do not perform the Heimlich maneuver if the person is still coughing or is able to speak.

2.Moderate to severe difficulty breathing occurs:

*In children.

*In adults and older children.

Symptoms:
All your actions are dependent on the symptoms. If following symptoms are there it becomes a health risk and you are advised to contact your health professional immediately:

1. If you have a nosebleed after you have removed an intact object from your nose.

2.If a disc battery stuck in the nose. Disc batteries are found in toys, calculators, hearing aids, cameras, and watches.

3.If an object or part of an object stuck in the nose after attempts to remove it.

4. If you think you have an infection after an object has been removed from the nose.

5.If you have mild to moderate difficulty breathing after removing an object from the nose.

But if a visit to a health professional is not needed immediately, you may go through the Home Treatment for self-care information as given below:-

Home Treatment:-

First follow these steps to remove an object from the nose:

1.Breathe through your mouth since the nose is blocked.

2.Pinch closed the side of the nose that doesn’t have the object in it and try to blow the object out of the blocked side. You may need to help a child pinch his or her nose.

3.Blow your nose forcefully several times. This may blow the object out of the nose.

4.If the object is partially out of the nose, you may be able to remove it. Hold still and remove the object with your fingers or blunt-nosed tweezers. Be careful not to push the object farther into the nose. If a child resists or is not able to hold still, do not attempt to remove the object.

5.Some minor bleeding from your nose may occur after the object is removed. This usually is not serious and should stop after firmly pinching your nose shut for 10 minutes. See how to stop a nosebleed.

You may be able to remove an object from a child’s nose using the “kiss technique.” Do not try this if you are uncomfortable with it, your child says it hurts, or if your child becomes upset by your attempts:

1.Apply pressure to close the child’s unaffected nostril. You can do this or the child can help by holding his or her finger on the unaffected side of the nose.

2.Blow a puff of air into the child’s mouth. The positive pressure of this puff will help push the object out of the child’s nose. You may need to repeat this activity several times.

Home treatment after removing an object from the nose.

Some tenderness and nasal stuffiness are common after removing an object from the nose. Home treatment will often relieve a tender, stuffy nose and make breathing easier.

1.Drink extra fluids for 2 to 3 days to keep mucus thin.

2.Breathe moist air from a humidifier, hot shower, or sink filled with hot water.

3.Increase the humidity in your home, especially in the bedroom.

4.Take an oral decongestant or use a decongestant nasal spray. Oral decongestants are not as helpful as nasal sprays in children. Do not use a decongestant nasal spray for longer than 3 days. Overuse of decongestant sprays may cause the mucous membranes to swell up more than before (rebound effect). Avoid products containing antihistamines, which dry the nasal tissue.

5.Check the back of your throat for postnasal drip. If streaks of mucus appear, gargle with warm water to prevent a sore throat.

6.Elevate your head at night by sleeping on an extra pillow. This will decrease nasal stuffiness.

Medicine you can buy without a prescription Try a nonprescription medicine to help treat your fever or pain:

1.Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol or Panadol

2.Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs):

*Ibuprofen, such as Advil or Motrin
*Naproxen, such as Aleve or Naprosyn
*Aspirin (also a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), such as Bayer or Bufferin

Some Safety tips:- Be sure to follow these safety tips when you use a nonprescription medicine: Carefully read and follow all directions on the medicine bottle and box.

1.Do not take more than the recommended dose.

2.Do not take a medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to it in the past.

3.If you have been told to avoid a medicine, call your doctor before you take it.

4.If you are or could be pregnant, do not take any medicine other than acetaminophen unless your doctor has told you to.

5.Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than age 20 unless your doctor tells you to.

Symptoms to Watch carefully During Home Treatment:

Use the Check Your Symptoms section to evaluate your symptoms if one or more of the following symptoms occur during home treatment:

1.A nosebleed cannot be stopped with home treatment. See the topic Nosebleeds.

2.An infection develops.

3.Symptoms become more severe or more frequent.

Prevention:

Small children love to explore their surroundings. They are also curious about their bodies. To prevent children from inserting objects into their noses:

1.Caution children not to put any object into a body opening.

2.Supervise young children, especially children younger than age 4, to reduce the risk that they will put objects in their noses or other body openings.

3.Keep all objects small enough to be swallowed or inserted into body openings away from small children.

4.Store all disc batteries in a safe place out of the reach of children. Properly dispose of used disc batteries out of the reach of children.

5.Older children or adults should be cautious when working with small objects or if they have nose piercings.

Sources: MSN Health & Fitness

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Nose Bleeds(Epistaxis)

 

Nosebleeds or Epistaxis are more often annoying than a serious health threat, although they can indicate the presence of other underlying illnesses.Most nosebleeds can be treated at home. They are messy and can be embarrassing, but most do not need professional medical attention. It is the relatively common occurrence of hemorrhage from the nose, usually noticed when the blood drains out through the nostrils. There are two types: anterior (the most common), and posterior (less common, more likely to require medical attention). Sometimes in more severe cases, the blood can come up the nasolacrimal duct and out from the eye. Fresh blood and clotted blood can also flow down into the stomach and cause nausea and vomiting. It accounts for only 0.001% of all deaths in the U.S.

You may click to see the picture...

What are they?
Most nosebleeds start in the lower part of the septum, the semi-rigid wall that separates the two channels of the nose.It contains blood vessels that can be broken by a blow to the nose or the edge of a sharp fingernail.With these nosebleeds – known as anterior nosebleeds – bleeding can occur from one side of the nose (epistaxis) or both (epistaxis bilateral).They can usually be treated easily at home and do not require medical attention.More rarely, posterior nosebleeds start when bleeding begins high and deep within the nose.Blood flows down the back of the mouth and throat even when the patient is sitting up or standing.This more severe type of nosebleed needs immediate medical attention.

Click to see picture of  nasal anatomy

Causes:
The cause of nosebleeds can generally be divided into two categories, local and systemic factors, although it should be remembered that a significant number of nosebleeds occur with no obvious cause.

Local factors:

* Anatomical deformities, such as septal spurs or Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome
* Chemical inhalant
* Inflammatory reaction (eg. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis and environmental irritants)
* Foreign bodies
* Intranasal tumors (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adult, and nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in adolescent males)
* Nasal prong O2 which tends to dry the nasal mucosa
* Nasal sprays, particularly prolonged or improper use of nasal steroids
* Surgery (such as septoplasty and endoscopic sinus surgery)
* Trauma (usually a sharp blow to the face)
* Nose-picking
* Low relative humidity of air breathed occurring especially during winter seasons.
* Otic barotrauma from descent in aircraft or scuba diving.

Systemic factors:

* Drugs – Aspirin, Fexofenadine/Allegra/Telfast, warfarin, ibuprofen, clopidogrel, isotretinoin, desmopressin and others
* Alcohol (due to vasodilation)
* Allergies
* Blood dyscrasias
* Heart failure (due to an increase in venous pressure)
* Hematological malignancy
* Hypertension
* Infectious diseases
* Narcotics, particularly insufflated cocaine
* Pregnancy
* Vascular disorders
Nosebleeds are caused by the rupture of a small blood vessel called a capilliary in the nose.The most common cause of this is injury – a good bash to the nose will result in bleeding.

Nosebleeds are due to the rupture of a blood vessel within the richly perfused nasal mucosa . Rupture may be spontaneous or initiated by trauma. An increase in blood pressure (eg due to general hypertension) or local blood flow (for example following a cold or infection) will increase the likelihood of a spontaneous nosebleed. Anticoagulant medication and disorders of blood clotting can promote and prolong bleeding. Spontaneous epistaxis is more common in the elderly as the nasal mucosa (lining) becomes dry and thin and blood pressure tends to be higher. The elderly are also more prone to prolonged nose bleeds as their blood vessels are less able to constrict and control the bleeding. The vast majority of nose bleeds occur in the anterior (front) part of the nose from the nasal septum. This area is richly endowed with blood vessels (Kiesselbach’s plexus). This region is also known as Little’s area. Bleeding further back in the nose is known as a posterior bleed and is usually due to rupture of the sphenopalatine artery or one of its branches. Posterior bleeds are often prolonged and difficult to control. They can be associated with bleeding from both nostrils and with a greater flow of blood into the mouth.
The other main cause is dryness of the inside of the nose. A dry climate or heated indoor air irritates and dries out nasal membranes, causing crusts that may itch and then bleed when picked.
Other causes of nosebleeds are colds, high altitude, allergies and medications.Nosebleeds can also result from a calcium deficiency.Occasionally, nosebleeds may indicate other disorders such as bleeding disorders, cancer, high blood pressure or disease of the arteries.They can also indicate hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome.This is a disorder involving a vascular growth similar to a birthmark in the back of the nose.

Treatment
Doctors advise people with lower-septum nosebleeds to sit up straight and pinch the nostrils together firmly for 10 minutes.An ice pack can also be applied to the nose and cheeks.The pressure should then be relieved to see if the nose is still bleeding.If it is, patients are advised to pinch the nostrils for another 10 minutes.

If the nosebleed was caused by atmospheric dryness, the patient should breathe steamy air. After bleeding stops, petroleum jelly can be applied just inside the nose to prevent further bleeding.
Once bleeding has stopped, the sufferer should avoid any strenuous activity for 12 hours. Nor should they blow their nose, as this may dislodge blood clots and cause bleeding to start again.If bleeding does not stop after 30 minutes of direct pressure, patients should see a doctor.If blood runs down the back of the throat when pressure is applied to the nose, it could be a higher-septum nosebleed and require a visit to the doctor.Patients should also seek professional help if nosebleeds occur more than once a week.

The flow of blood normally stops when the blood clots, which may be encouraged by direct pressure applied by pinching the soft fleshy part of the nose. This applies pressure to Little’s area, the source of the majority of nose bleeds and promotes clotting. Pressure should be firm and be applied for at least 10 minutes while keeping the head in the neutral position[citation needed] and spitting out any blood which flows into the mouth. There is no benefit to pinching the bridge of the nose or to tilting the head backwards or forwards. Swallowing excess blood can irritate the stomach and cause vomiting. Local application of an ice pack to the forehead or back of the neck or sucking an ice cube has seen widespread practice, but has been shown to not have any statistically significant effects on nasal mucosal blood flow. In the past, it was commonly thought that the ice would help by promoting constriction of local blood vessels and thus reducing blood flow to slow down the bleed. Do not pack the nose with tissues or gauze.

The local application of a vasoconstrictive agent has been shown to reduce the bleeding time in benign cases of epistaxis. The drugs oxymetazoline or phenylephrine are widely available in over-the-counter nasal sprays for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, and may be used for this purpose.

Other products available promote coagulation include Coalgan (in Europe) or NasalCEASE (in the US). These are a calcium alginate mesh that is inserted in the nasal cavity to accelerate coagulation.

If these simple measures do not work then medical intervention may be needed to stop bleeding, possibly by an otolaryngologist (ENT doctor). In the first instance this can take the form of chemical cautery of any bleeding vessels or packing of the nose with ribbon gauze or an absorbent dressing (called Anterior nasal packing). Such procedures are best carried out by a medical professional. Chemical cauterisation is most commonly conducted using local application of silver nitrate compound to any visible bleeding vessel. This is a painful procedure and the nasal mucosa should be anaesthetised first, preferably with the addition of topical adrenaline to further reduce bleeding. If bleeding is still uncontrolled or no focal bleeding point is visible then the nasal cavity should be packed with a sterile dressing, which by applying pressure to the nasal mucosa will tamponade the bleeding point. Ongoing bleeding despite good nasal packing is a surgical emergency and can be treated by endoscopic evaluation of the nasal cavity under general anaesthesia to identify an elusive bleeding point or to directly ligate (tie off) the blood vessels supplying the nose. These blood vessels include the sphenopalatine, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries. More rarely the maxillary or external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra-arterial embolization using a catheter placed in the groin and threaded up the aorta to the bleeding vessel by an interventional radiologist. Continued bleeding may be an indication of more serious underlying conditions.

Chronic epistaxis resulting from a dry nasal mucosa can be treated by spraying saline in the nose three times per day, lubricating the nose with ointment/creams like vasoline and installing a humidifer in the bedroom.

Application of a topical antibiotic ointment to the nasal mucosa has been shown to be an effective treatment for recurrent epistaxis. One study found it to be as effective as nasal cautery in the prevention of recurrent epistaxis in patients without active bleeding at the time of treatment (both had a success rate of approximately 50 percent.)

Nosebleeds are rarely dangerous unless prolonged and heavy. Nevertheless they should not be underestimated by medical staff. Particularly in posterior bleeds a great deal of blood may be swallowed and thus blood loss underestimated. The elderly and those with co-existing morbidities, particularly of blood clotting should be closely monitored for signs of shock.

Recurrent nosebleeds may cause anemia due to iron deficiency.

Cauterisation is the minor surgical procedure used to stop heavy nosebleeds.It involves destroying tissue with an electric current, a hot iron, or caustic chemicals.This seals the ruptured blood vessel and prevents further bleeding.This page contains basic information. If you are concerned about your health, you should consult a doctor.

You may click to see:->Natural Cures for Nose Bleed

>Nose Bleed Prevention Tips

>Natural Remedies for Nose Bleeds

> Home Remedy for Nose Bleed

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/262462.stm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistaxis

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