Tag Archives: New Zealand

Albizia procera

Botanical Name: Albizia procera
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Genus: Albizia
Species: Albizia procera
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Spermatophyta
Subphylum: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd. Mimosa elata Roxb. Mimosa procera Roxb.

Common Names: White Siris, Tall Albizia, Forest Siris, Albizia procera, Brown Albizia. And Silver Bark Rain Tree.
Bengali Name: Sada Sirish.

Other Names :
Akleng-parang, Bellate, Doon siris, Karo, Karunthagara, Kinhai, Konda vagei, Koroi, Raom tree, Soros-tree, Safed Siris, Silver bark rain tree, Tella chinduga, Tram kang, Weru, White siris, Women’s Tongues.

International Common Names:
English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia

Local Common Names:
Bangladesh: silkorai
Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India
Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru
Malaysia: oriang
Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit
Nepal: seto siris
Papua New Guinea: brown albizia
Philippines: akleng parang

Trade name: Forest siris
Habitat : Albizia procera is native to E. Asia – Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. It grows in monsoon forest, mixed deciduous forest, savannah woodlands, pyrogenic grassland, roadsides and dry gullies, to stunted, seasonal swamp forest. It is commonly found in open secondary forest.

Dscription:
Albizia procera is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. It has a 9 m long straight or crooked bole 35-60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth, pale grey-green, yellowish-green or brown with horizontal grooves, sometimes flaky in thin, small scales. The underside of the bark is green, changing to orange just below the surface; inner bark pinkish or straw-coloured. It is described and illustrated in many texts, including Brandis (1972), Verdcourt (1979), Nielsen (1985), ICFRE (1995), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Valkenburg (1997). The compound leaves have 2-5 (-8) pairs of sub-opposite pinnae, with a petiole 5.5-12 cm long with a large, brown, oblong gland near the base; gland narrowly elliptical, 4-10 mm long, flat and disc-like or concave with raised margins. The pinnae are 12-20 cm long, with elliptical glands below the junction of the 1-3 distal pairs of petiolules, 1 mm in diameter. Leaflets are in 5-12 pairs on each pinna, opposite, asymmetrically ovate to sub-rhomboid, 2-4.5 (-6) cm x 1-2.2 (-3.3) cm, base asymmetrical, often emarginate, apex rounded or sub-truncate, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or finely pubescent, rarely glabrous above (Valkenburg, 1997). The inflorescence is a large terminal panicle, to 30 cm long, with sessile, white or greenish-white, sessile flowers in small 15-30 flowered heads, 13 mm in diameter on stalks 8-30 mm long; the corolla funnel-shaped, 6-6.5 mm long, with elliptical lobes. The fruit is a flat, papery pod, dark red-brown, linear-oblong, 10-25 cm long by 2-3 cm broad with distinctive long points at both ends and distinctive marks over each seed. It contains 6-12 brown, ellipsoid seeds, 7.5-8 mm x 4.5-6.5 mm and 1.5 mm thick that are arranged more or less transversely in the pod (Valkenburg, 1997). At maturity the pod splits open to release the seeds which are smooth, greenish brown with a leathery testa. It is frost tender. and are pollinated by Insects.It can fix Nitrogen.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones at elevations from sea level to around 1,500 metres. It tolerates areas with a mean annual temperature ranging from a minimum of 1 – 18 up to 37 – 46?c and a mean annual rainfall of 100 – 5,000 mm. Plants are susceptible to frost[. Grows well on fertile soils, but is also able to succeed on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils. Trees can succeed in both moderately saline and alkaline soils. Established plants are drought tolerant. Adult plants succeed in full sun and light shade, though young trees require more shade. Succeeds in areas with a pronounced dry season. Because of its aggressive growth, the tree is a potential weed. This is particularly true in the Caribbean, where it grows faster than many native species. If the area is not burned, A. Procera will colonize alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) grassland. Trees can attain a mean annual increment in diameter of 1 – 4 cm; attaining a dbh of 40-60 cm in 30 years. Spacing of 2-3 x 0.5 m in pure stands results in canopy closure in about 3 years. Due to the light crown, regular weeding and control of the undergrowth are required. Therefore the tree is often mixed with other species. Mixed planting and pruning in open stands can improve stem form and give a bushy crown. Seedlings, saplings and larger trees all coppice vigorously when damaged. Farmers sometimes leave the trees untouched when clearing land for crops, since the trees cast only a light shade, add nitrogen to the soil and conserve water. They also function as a cash reserve since the wood is sought after by local wood carvers. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. The application of phosphorus fertilizer can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation, particularly on infertile soils. Found In: Africa, Asia, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Caribbean, China, Cuba, East Africa, East Timor, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Jamaica, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, North Africa, North America, Pacific, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome & Principe, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, South America, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Uganda, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.

Propagation:
Fresh seed has a rapid germination rate of 90-100%. Seeds that have been stored for 4 – 5 months or longer should be soaked in boiling water for 5 seconds, then removed from direct heat and soaked in cool water overnight, and then sown immediately. This doubles the germination rate. Manual scarification of the seed coat before boiling seeds could also assist germination. Direct sowing in the field has proved more successful than planting out from a nursery, provided there is an abundance of soil moisture and that weeding and loosening of the soil are done regularly. Line sowing to facilitate weeding has given great success. Healthy seedlings produce a thick, long taproot. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Clean seed can be stored at room temperature for 10 months with minimal loss of viability. However, germination can drop to below 50% after storage. Seeds survive 10 years or more at room temperature. Viability is maintained for more than 3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 13 + or – 2% mc. Plants can be propagated quite successfully by stem or root cuttings provided that this is not done during the peak of the rainy or the dry season. Vegetative propagation also occurs through layering. Root suckers are readily produced when roots are exposed.

Edible Uses :
Edible portion: Leaves, Pods, Vegetable . The cooked leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In times of scarcity the bark can be ground into a powder, mixed with flour and eaten.
Medicinal Uses:
White siris is commonly used in traditional medicines. Some research has been carried out into the medical activities of the plant and a number of active compounds have been recorded. All parts of the plant are reported to show anti-cancer activity. The roots contain alpha-spinasterol and a saponin that has been reported to possess spermicidal activity at a dilution of 0.008%. A decoction of the bark is given for the treatment of rheumatism and haemorrhage. It is also considered useful in treating problems of pregnancy and for stomach-ache. The leaves are poulticed onto ulcers.

Other Uses:
The tree is widely planted for its good soil-binding capacity. It is occasionally cultivated as shade tree for tea and coffee plantations, where it also acts as a wind and firebreak. It is popular for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils. Its ability to grow on dry, sandy, stony and shallow soils makes it a useful species for reforestation of difficult sites. Good survival and rapid early growth have been reported in reforestation trials on both saline and alkaline soils, which are widely cultivated in agroforestry systems. Other Uses The bark can provide tanning material. It is used in India for tanning and dyeing. However, its low tannin content (12-17%), considerable weight loss in drying, and difficult harvesting have limited its importance. When injured, the stem exudes large amounts of a reddish-brown gum that is chemically similar to, and used as a substitute for, gum arabic (obtained from Acacia senegal and other species). The leaves are known to have insecticidal and piscicidal properties. The branches (twigs) are used by tea planters as stakes for laying out tea gardens. These are found to split well. The species is popular along field borders. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if the pods of the related species A. Lebbeck can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare, then this species could as well. The timber has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown with light and dark bands. Due to the broadly interlocked nature of the grain, it is more suitable for use in large sections where a bolder effect is desired, such as in large-sized panels and tabletops. It seasons and polishes well. The wood is used chiefly for construction, furniture, veneer, cabinet work, flooring, agricultural implements, moulding, carts, carriages, cane crushers, carvings, boats, oars, oil presses and rice pounders. It is resistant to several species of termites. The chemical analysis of the wood indicates that it is a suitable material for paper pulp. Bleached pulp in satisfactory yields (50.3%) can be prepared from A. Procera wood by the sulphate process. It is suitable for writing and printing paper (mean fibre length is 0.9 mm, mean fibre diameter is 0.021 mm). The calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. An excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel.

Known Hazards: The seeds contain proceranin A, which is toxic to mice and rats when administered parenterally and orally; the interperitoneal LD50 for mice is 15 mg/kg body weight. Hydrocyanic acid has been identified as occurring in the tree.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Albizia+procera
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/4021

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Nuphar lutea

Botanical Name: Nuphar lutea
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nuphar
Species: N. lutea
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Nymphaeales

Synonyms: Nuphar lutea advena. (Ait.)Kartesz.&Gandhi.

Common Names: Yellow Water-lily, Brandy-Bottle, Common Spatterdock, Yellow pond-lily, Varigated yellow pond-lily
Habitat:Nuphar lutea is native to Southeastern N. America – Labrador and Nova Scotia, south to Florida, Texas and Utah.It grows in ponds, lakes, sluggish streams and rivers, springs, marshes, ditches, canals, sloughs, and tidal waters from sea level to 450 metres.
Description:
Nuphar lutea is a perennial aqqatic plant. The plant grows with its roots in the sediment and its leaves floating on the water surface; it can grow in water up to 5 metres deep.It is usually found in shallower water than the white water lily, and often in beaver ponds
It is in flower from Jul to August.Since the flooded soils are deficient in oxygen, aerenchyma in the leaves and rhizome transport oxygen to the rhizome. Often there is mass flow from the young leaves into the rhizome, and out through the older leaves. The rhizomes are often consumed by muskrats. The flower is solitary, terminal, held above the water surface; it is hermaphrodite, 2–4 cm diameter, with five or six large bright yellow sepals and numerous small yellow petals largely concealed by the sepals. Flowering is from June to September, and pollination is entomophilous, by flies attracted to the alcoholic scent. The flower is followed by a green bottle-shaped fruit, containing numerous seeds which are dispersed by water currents. The species is less tolerant of water pollution than water-lilies in the genus Nymphaea.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.

Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It can grow in water.
Cultivation:
A water plant requiring a rich soil and a sunny position. It is best if grown in still water that is up to 60cm deep but it also tolerates slow moving water. Succeeds in light shade. A very ornamental plant. Nuphar advena is extremely variable and intergrades with N . orbiculata , N . ulvacea , and N . sagittifolia in areas where their ranges overlap.

Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse in pots submerged under 25mm of water. Prick out into individual pots as soon as the first true leaf appears and grow them on in water in a greenhouse for at least two years before planting them out in late spring. The seed is collected by wrapping the developing seed head in a muslin bag to avoid the seed being lost. Harvest it 10 days after it sinks below the soil surface or as soon as it reappears. Division in May. Each portion must have at least one eye. Submerge in pots in shallow water until established.
Edible Uses: 
Root – raw or cooked. The root can be soaked in water in order to remove a bitter taste. After long boiling, it has a taste like sheep’s liver. The root can also be dried and ground into a powder then used as a thickener in soups, or can be added to cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be roasted, then ground into a powder and eaten raw or used to thicken soups etc. The seed can also be toasted like popcorn.

Medicinal Uses:
The rhizomes are used medicinally. They are currently being investigated for their physiological effects. In small doses these constituents have a cardiotonic action and they are included in certain pharmaceutical preparations prescribed in Europe. They affect the central nervous system and in large amounts they may cause paralysis. Yellow Water lily is not used in herbal medicine but tinctures are used in homeopathy. It should be used only under medical supervision. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of ‘sexual irritability’, blood diseases, chills etc. The root is poulticed and applied to swellings, inflammations, cuts etc. The root contains steroids and is a folk remedy for infertility.

The pulverized dried rhizomes have been used to arrest bleeding. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea etc. A poultice made from the roots is used in the treatment of swellings, boils, tumours, inflamed skin etc.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuphar_lutea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Nuphar+lutea
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

Asplenium bulbiferum

 

Botanical Name : Asplenium bulbiferum
Family: Aspleniaceae
Genus: Asplenium
Species: A. bulbiferum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales

Synonym: Asplenium Mother fern

Common Names :Mother spleenwort,Hen and chicken fern, in the M?ori language, Pikopiko, Mouku or Mauku, Parsley Fern

Habitat:Asplenium bulbiferum is native to Australia, New Zealand. It grows in the riversides in lowland and lower montane forest in New Zealand.

Description:
Asplenium bulbiferum is an evergreen Fern growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) at a slow rate.The fern is bright green, finely-cut fronds emerge from a single crown. Evergreen foliage has a graceful, arching habit that provides excellent contrast in the shady landscape.The ferns grow small bulbils on top of their fronds. Once grown to about 5 cm (2 in), these offspring fall off and, provided the soil they land in is kept moist, develop a root system and grow into new ferns. This additional means of reproduction can be employed with greater ease than propagation by spores. The related species A. viviparum has a similar mode of reproduction….CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Requires a moist humus-rich soil in semi-shade. Plants are probably not hardy outdoors in Britain but may be worth trying in very sheltered positions. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Naturalizing, There are no flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Spores – best sown as soon as they are ripe on the surface of a humus-rich sterilized soil. Keep the compost moist, preferably by putting a plastic bag over the pot. Germinates in spring. Spring sown spores germinate in 1 – 3 months at 15°c. Pot on small clumps of plantlets as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse. Keep them humid until they are well established. When they are at least 15cm tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. This plant can also be propagated by means of small bulblets that form on the sides of leaves in the growing season. Pot these bulblets up when they detach easily from the parent plant and grow on in the greenhouse for at least the first winter.

Edible Uses: Root – cooked. Young fronds – cooked. Used before they uncurl, they taste somewhat like a slightly bitter asparagus.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Other uses:  Landscape Uses:Container, Ground cover, Massing, Specimen, Woodland garden.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asplenium_bulbiferum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asplenium+bulbiferum
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/55521/

Rhizophora mangle

Botanical Name : Rhizophora mangle
Family: Rhizophoraceae
Genus: Rhizophora
Species: R. mangle
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common Name: Red mangrove

Habitat : Red mangroves are found in subtropical and tropical areas in both hemispheres, extending to approximately 28°N to S latitude.(Tropical America from Bermuda through West Indies to Florida. Northern Mexico south to Brazil and Ecuador including Galapagos Islands and north-western Peru. Western Africa from Senegal to Nigeria; Angola, Melanesia, Polynesia (Little, 1983).) They thrive on coastlines in brackish water and in swampy salt marshes. Because they are well adapted to salt water, they thrive where many other plants fail and create their own ecosystems, the mangals. Red mangroves are often found near white mangroves (Laguncularia racemosa), black mangroves (Avicennia germinans), and buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus). Through stabilisation of their surroundings, mangroves create a community for other plants and animals (such as the mangrove crab). Though rooted in soil, mangrove roots are often submerged in water for several hours or on a permanent basis. The roots are usually sunk in a sand or clay base, which allows for some protection from the waves.

Rhizophora mangle grows on aerial prop roots, which arch above the water level, giving stands of this tree the characteristic “mangrove” appearance. It is a valuable plant in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas coastal ecosystems. In its native habitat it is threatened by invasive species such as the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius). The red mangrove itself is considered an invasive species in some locations, such as Hawaii, where it forms dense, monospecific thickets. R. mangle thickets, however, provide nesting and hunting habitat for a diverse array of organisms, including fish, birds, and crocodiles.

Description:
Red mangroves are easily distinguishable through their unique prop roots system and viviparous seeds. The prop roots of a red mangrove suspend it over the water, thereby giving it extra support and protection. They also help the tree to combat hypoxia by allowing it a direct intake of oxygen through its root structure.

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Tree 5–20(-30) m tall, 20–50(-70) cm in diameter with arching stilt roots 2–4.5 m high. Bark gray or gray-brown, smooth and thin on small trunks, becoming furrowed and thick; inner bark reddish or pinkish. Leaves opposite or elliptical, acute at tip and base, entire, without visible veins, thick, leathery, glabrous, 6–12 cm long, 2.5–6 cm wide, shiny green upper surface, yellow-green, black-dotted underneath. Petiole 1.5–2 cm long. Stipules paired, leaving ring scar. Flowers mostly 2–4 on forked stalk 4–7 cm long in leaf axil, pale yellow, ca 2 cm across. Bell-shaped hypanthium ca 5 mm long with 4 widely spreading, narrow, leathery, pale yellow sepals 12 mm long; petals 4, 1 cm long, curved downward, whitish but turning brown, cottony on inner side; stamens 8, stalkless. Ovary inferior conical, 2-celled with 2 ovules each cell; style slender; stigma 2-lobed. Berry, ovoid, 3 cm long, dark brown. Seed 1, viviparous, becoming cigar-shaped, to 25 cm long and 12 mm in diameter (Little, 1983). They are a darker shade of green on the tops than on the bottoms. The tree produces pale pink flowers in the spring.

Cultivation:
Since natural regeneration is so good, this species is not often cultivated, but it has been planted, for example, to stabilize the banks of brackish aquaculture enclosures. Direct seeding yields ca 90% survival in Rhizophora and Avicennia. Air-layering and the planting of propagules have both been successful in Florida (NAS, 1980a).
Chemical Constituents:
Per 100 g, the leaf is reported to contain, 10.7 g protein, 3.4 g fat, 77.0 g total carbohydrate, 14.5 g fiber, and 8.9 g ash (Duke and Atchley, 1983 in ed). Per 100 g, the leaf meal is reported to contain 5.6 g H2O, 7.5 g protein, 3.6 g fat, 59.3 g NFE, 13.9 g fiber, 10.1 g ash, 1.350 mg Ca, 140 mg P, 15.2 mg Fe, 650 mg K, 600 mg b-carotene equivalent, 88 mg Mg, 30 mg Mn, 3.5 mg Cu, 0.52 mg Co, 4.3 mg Zn, 54 mg I, 13 mg thiamine, 19 mg riboflavin, 240 mg niacin, 32 mg folic acid, 5.3 mg pantothenic acid, and 46.0 mg choline (Morton, 1965). I suspect that the vitamins are off by a magnitude or two. Something is wrong with the amino acid figures as well, but perhaps the proportions are worth repeating, arginine 1.1 : lysine 0.9 : methionine 0.421 cystine 0.301 : glycine 0.801. Another analysis of the leaf tablets shows, per 100 g, 790 mg S, 8.3 mg Cu, 920 mg Na, 8.3 mg B, 224 mg chlorophyll, 0.68 mg folic acid, 5.2 ppm cobalt, and 144 ppm F (Morton, 1965). Fresh leaves contain 65.6% moisture and ca 0.1% chlorophyll. Dry bark contains 10–40% tannin, aerial roots ca 10.5%

Medicinal Uses:
The red bark of the South American mangrove tree has been used for many years by the natives as a febrifuge but more recently it has been claimed that it is a specific in leprosy. They administer a beginning dose of one fluidrachm (3.75 mils) of the fluidextract twice a day which is gradually increased until the patient is taking a fluidounce and a half (45 mils) daily.

Folk Medicine:
Red mangrove is a folk remedy for angina, asthma, backache, boils, ciguatera, convulsions, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, elephantiasis, enuresis, epistaxis, eye ailments, fever, filariasis, hemoptysis, hemorrhage, inflammation, jaundice, leprosy, lesions, leucorrhea, malignancies, scrofula, short wind, sores, sorethroat, syphilis, tuberculosis, uterorrhagia, and wounds. One Cali doctor reported a cure of throat cancer, with gargles of mangrove bark The bark of the tree is boiled (1 handful of chopped bark in 1 gallon of water for 10 minutes) and used as a hot bath for very stubborn or serious sores, skin conditions, leprosy and swellings.

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Other Different Uses:
Timber of the mangrove is used for cabinetry, construction, piling, poles, posts, shipbuilding, and wharves. Duke (1972) notes that in Panama it is being studied for its telephone pole potential. In the Choco it is being exploited for the pulp industry. Cattle will eat mangrove leaf meal after CaCO3 has been added to raise the pH. Morton (1965) even describes a wine made from mangrove leaf and raisin.Amerindians ate the starchy interior of the fruit and hypocotyl during hard times (Morton, 1965). Dried hypocotyls have been smoked like cigars. Dried leaves have been used in Florida as a tobacco substitute. African children use the dried fruits as whistles (Irvine, 1961). In Costa Rica, concentrated bark extracts are used to stain floors and furniture, a habit shared with Africa’s Ashantis. Cuna Indians make fishing lines from the brown branches. Although some have speculated that Rhizophora plantings can be used to extend or preserve precarious shores. Hou resurrects a quote suggesting the contrary “mangrove follows the silting up of a coastal area rather than precedes and initiates the accumulation of mud or other soil…it establishes itself merely on accrescent coasts” (Hou, 1958). Morton (1965), however, notes that the American Sugar Company introduced it in 1902 as a soil retainer on the mud flats of Molokai. According to Garcia-Barriga (1975) Kino de Colombia, resin from the red mangrove, has several medicinal uses.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhizophora_mangle
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Rhizophora_mangle.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Osmunda cinnamonea

Botanical Name : Osmunda cinnamonea
Family: Osmundaceae
Genus: Osmundastrum
Species: O. cinnamomeum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida /
Order: Osmundales

Common Name : Cinnamon Fern

Habitat : Osmunda cinnamonea is native to the Americas and eastern Asia, growing in swamps, bogs and moist woodlands.

In North America it occurs from southern Labrador west to Ontario, and south through the eastern United States to eastern Mexico and the West Indies; in South America it occurs west to Peru and south to Paraguay. In Asia it occurs from southeastern Siberia south through Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan to Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.

Description:
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum is a deciduous herbaceous plant  (FERN)  which produces separate fertile and sterile fronds. The sterile fronds are spreading, 30–150 cm (0.98–4.92 ft) tall and 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in) broad, pinnate, with pinnae 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) long and 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in) broad, deeply lobed (so the fronds are nearly, but not quite, bipinnate). The fertile spore-bearing fronds are erect and shorter, 20–45 cm (7.9–17.7 in) tall; they become cinnamon-colored, which gives the species its name. The fertile leaves appear first; their green color slowly becomes brown as the season progresses and the spores are dropped. The spore-bearing stems persist after the sterile fronds are killed by frost, until the next season. The spores must develop within a few weeks or fail.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : 

The Osmundastrum cinnamomeum fern forms huge clonal colonies in swampy areas. These ferns form massive rootstocks with densely matted, wiry roots. This root mass is an excellent substrate for many epiphytal plants. They are often harvested as osmunda fiber and used horticulturally, especially in propagating and growing orchids. Cinnamon Ferns do not actually produce cinnamon; they are named for the color of the fertile fronds.

Cultivation & propagation :
Osmunda cinnamonea is best grown on sandy or alluvial soils in swamps low woods and thickets in Eastern N. America. Spores quickly lose their viability (within 3 days) and are best sown as soon as they are ripe on the surface of a humus-rich sterilized soil in a lightly shaded place in a greenhouse. Keep the compost moist, preferably by putting a plastic bag over the pot. Plants develop very rapidly, pot on small clumps of plantlets as soon as they are large enough to handle and keep humid until they are well established. Do not plant outside until the ferns are at least 2 years old. Cultivars usually come true to type. Division of the rootstock in the dormant season. This is a very strenuous exercise due to the mass of wiry roots.
Edible Uses:
The young unexpanded fronds are eaten as a nibble or cooked in soups. The taste is saihe latent buds can be eaten in early spring, they rival chestnuts in size and flavour.d to resemble asparagus. The young shoots are seen as a “spring tonic” to cleanse the body with fresh green food after a long winter eating mainly stored foods.  The taste is said to resemble asparagus. The young shoots are seen as a ‘spring tonic’ to cleanse the body with fresh green food after a long winter eating mainly stored foods. The latent buds can be eaten in early spring, they rival chestnuts in size and flavour.
Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the root has been rubbed into affected joints as a treatment for rheumatism. The root has been chewed, a small portion swallowed and the remainder applied to a snakebite. The following reports do not state which part of the plant is being used, though it is most likely that the root is being referred to. The plant is analgesic, antirheumatic and galactogogue. A decoction is used internally in the treatment of headaches, joint pain, rheumatism, colds etc, and also to promote the flow of milk in a nursing mother.
Known hazards : Although we have found no reports of toxicity for this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable. Many ferns also contain thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmundastrum_cinnamomeum
http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/o/osmunda-cinnamomea=cinnamon-fern.php
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Osmunda+cinnamomea