Tag Archives: North America

Allium suaveolens

 

Botanical Name: Allium suaveolens
Family : Amaryllidaceae
Genus : Allium
Species: Allium suaveolens
Domain:Eukaryotic
Kingdom: Plantae
Division:Tracheophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order:Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Endotis pyrenaica Raf.
*Allium suaveolens subsp. serotinum
*Allium suaveolens was. appendiculatum
*Allium serotinum Lapeyr.
*Allium appendiculatum Ramond ex Pers.

Habitat: Allium suaveolens is native to S. and C. Europe. It grows on damp meadows and moors.

Description:
Allium suaveolens is an evergreen bulb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to August.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Succeeds in heavy soils and in light shade. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Closely related to A. senescens, differing mainly in having keeled leaves. It has the same uses as that species. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses: Repellent.…..The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_suaveolens
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+suaveolens

Potentilla erecta

Botanical Name: Potentilla erecta
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. erecta
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Tormentilla erecta, Potentilla laeta, Potentilla tormentilla

Common Names: Tormentil, Erect cinquefoil, Rough-Fruited Cinquefoil, Erect cinquefoil

Habitat :Potentilla erecta is native to Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa, W. Asia, Siberia. It grows on grassland, heath, bog, fens, mountain tops and open woods, especially in light acid soils.

Description:
Potentilla erecta is a low, clump-forming perennial plant with slender, procumbent to arcuately upright stalks, growing 10–30 centimetres (3.9–11.8 in) tall and with non-rooting runners. It grows wild predominantly in Scandinavia, Europe, and western Asia mostly on acid soils in a wide variety of habitats, such as mountains, heaths, meadows, sandy soils and dunes.

This plant is flowering from May to August/September. There is one yellow, 7–11 millimetres (0.28–0.43 in) wide flower, growing at the tip of a long stalk. There are almost always four notched petals, each with a length between 3 and 6 mm. Four petals are rather uncommon in the rose family. The petals are somewhat longer than the sepals. There are 20–25 stamens.

The radical leaves have a long petiole, while the leaves on the flowering stalks are usually sessile or with short petioles. The glossy leaves are alternate, ternate, consisting of three obovate leaflets with serrate margins. The paired stipules are leaflike and palmately lobed.
There are 2–8 dry, inedible fruits.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers a light acid soil, disliking heavy and strongly calcareous soils. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses: Tea.
The roots are extremely rich in tannin, long boiling converts this into a gum and it can then be eaten. An emergency food, it is only eaten when all else fails. A tea is made from the rhizomes.

Medicinal Uses:

Antibiotic; Antidiarrhoeal; Astringent; Enuresis; Haemostatic; Hypoglycaemic; Odontalgic.

Containing more tannin than oak bark, all parts of tormentil are strongly astringent, finding use wherever that action is required. This plant is considered to be one of the safest native astringents and it is widely used in herbal medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throats etc. The whole plant, and especially the root, is antibiotic, strongly astringent, haemostatic and hypoglycaemic. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, ulcerative colitis etc. Externally, the plant makes a good styptic for cuts etc., and a strongly made decoction has been recommended as a wash for mouth ulcers, infected gums, piles and inflamed eyes. Extracts are used to treat chapping of the anus and cracked nipples. The plant’s effectiveness as a toothache remedy is undeniable and it has also been of benefit in treating bed-wetting by children.
Other Uses:
Cosmetic; Dye; Tannin.

A red dye is obtained from the roots. The plant, and especially the root, is rich in tannin. It s used cosmetically as a compress to tone up flabby skin. The root contains up to 20% tannin.
Known Hazards : Gastrointestinal symptoms if doses over 1g. Interferes with iron absorption & other minerals when taken internally. Avoid if inflammatory or ulcerative bowel disease. Avoid if pregnant or lactating.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_erecta
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+erecta

Myrica californica

Botanical Name: Myrica californica
Family: Myricaceae
Genus: Myrica
Species: M. californica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fagales

Synonyms: Gale californica

Common Names: California bayberry, California wax myrtle, California Barberry

Habitat : Myrica californica is native to the Pacific Ocean coast of North America from Vancouver Island south to California as far south as the Long Beach area. It grows in the Ocean sand dunes and moist hill sides near the coast, usually on acid soils and tolerating poorly drained soils.

Description:
Myrica californica is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in) at a medium rate. It has serrated, sticky green leaves 4-13 cm long and 0.7-3 cm broad, which emit a spicy scent on warm days. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flower’s inflorescence is arranged in a spike 0.6-3 cm long, in range of colors from green to red. The fruit is a wrinkled purple berry 4-6.5 mm diameter, with a waxy coating, hence the common name wax myrtle. This species has root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, allowing it to grow in relatively poor soils.

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The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Hedge, Screen, Seashore, Specimen. Prefers a moist soil. Grows well in an open position in a well-drained soil in sun or light shade. Thrives in any ordinary garden soil according to one report whilst another says that it thrives in an acid soil. Prefers a lime-free loamy or peaty soil. Plants can be cut back to the ground in severe winters in many parts of Britain, but they are well suited to the milder parts of the country where they are fast-growing and produce fruit within 5 years from seed. They succeed and fruit well on a south facing wall at Kew. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. The fruit is covered with a deposit of wax that has a balsamic odour. Many species in this genus have a symbiotic relationship with certain soil micro-organisms, these form nodules on the roots of the plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Fragrant foliage, Attracts butterflies, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed germinates more freely if given a 3 month cold stratification and then sown in a cold frame. Germination is usually good. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up and overwinter in a cold frame then plant out in late spring or early summer. Fair to good percentage. Layering in spring

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter with a large seed. There is very little edible flesh and the flavour of this is poor.

Medicinal Uses:  The bark and root bark is used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and infections.
Other Uses:
Dye; Wax; Wood.

A wax covering on the fruit is extracted by scalding the fruit with boiling water and immersing them for a few minutes, the wax floats to the surface and is then skimmed off. The fruit is then boiled in water to extract the wax from the pulp and once more the wax is skimmed off. It is then strained through a muslin cloth and can be used to make aromatic candles. Candles made from this wax are quite brittle but are less greasy in warm weather. They are slightly aromatic and do not smoke when put out, making them much more pleasant to use that wax or tallow candles. The wax is also used in making soaps. To date (07/12/95) plants growing on our Cornish trial grounds have fruited freely but have not produced much wax. They produced somewhat more after the hot summer of 1995, but there was still not enough to make extraction worthwhile. A grey-brown and a maroon-purple dye are obtained from the fresh or dried berries. Wood – heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, close grained
Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, there is a report for some members of this genus that some of the constituents of the wax might be carcinogenic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrica_californica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Myrica+californica

Iris missouriensis

Botanical Name: Iris missouriensis
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Series: Longipetalae
Species: I. missouriensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Iris arizonica Dykes
*Iris haematophylla var. valametica Herb. ex Hook.
*Iris longipetala var. montana Baker
*Iris missouriensis f. alba H.St.John
*Iris missouriensis var. albiflora Cockerell
*Iris missouriensis f. angustispatha R.C.Foster
*Iris missouriensis var. arizonica (Dykes) R.C.Foster
*Iris missouriensis var. pelogonus (Goodd.) R.C.Foster
*Iris missuriensis M.Martens
*Iris montana Nutt. ex Dykes
*Iris pariensis S.L.Welsh
*Iris pelogonus Goodd.
*Iris tolmieana Herb.
*Limniris missouriensis (Nutt.) Rodion.

Common Names: Rocky Mountain Iris

Habitat : Iris missouriensis is native to native to western North America. Its distribution is varied; it grows at high elevations in mountains and alpine meadows and all the way down to sea level in coastal hills.
Description:
Iris missouriensis is an erect herbaceous rhizomatous perennial  flowering plant .It is  20 to 40 cm high, with leafless unbranched scapes (flowering stems) and linear basal leaves, 5 to 10 mm wide, similar in height to the scapes. The inflorescence usually consists of one or two flowers, exceptionally three or four. Each flower has three light to dark blue, spreading or reflexed sepals lined with purple and three smaller upright blue petals.
It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a moist soil, growing well in a moist border, but intolerant of stagnant water. Easily grown in a sunny position so long as the soil is wet in the spring. A polymorphic species. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done after flowering. Another report says that it is best done in spring or early autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses:…..The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Medicinal Uses:

Analgesic; Diuretic; Emetic; Odontalgic; Poultice; Salve; Stomachic.

Rocky Mountain iris was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat various complaints, but especially as an external application for skin problems. It was for a time an officinal American medicinal plant, but is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The root is emetic and odontalgic. An infusion has been used in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints, stomach aches etc. The pulped root is placed in the tooth cavity or on the gum in order to bring relief from toothache. A decoction of the root has been used as ear drops to treat earaches. A poultice of the mashed roots has been applied to rheumatic joints and also used as a salve on venereal sores. Caution is advised in the use of this plant, see the notes above on toxicity. A paste of the ripe seeds has been used as a dressing on burns.

Some Plateau Indian tribes used the roots to treat toothache.
The Navajo used a decoction of this plant as an emetic.The Zuni apply a poultice of chewed root to increase strength of newborns and infants.
This iris is listed as a weed in some areas, particularly in agricultural California. It is bitter and distasteful to livestock and heavy growths of the plant are a nuisance in pasture land. Heavy grazing in an area promotes the growth of this hardy iris.

Other Uses: … Dye….Yields a green dye (part of plant used is not specified).
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_missouriensis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_missouriensis

Solanum scabrum

 

Botanical Name: Solanum scabrum
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. scabrum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Synonyms: S. intrusum. S. melanocerasum. All. S. scabrum.

Common Name: Garden Huckleberry

Habitat: The origin of the species is uncertain, although Linnaeus attributed it to Africa, but it also occurs in North America, and is naturalized in many countries. In Africa it is cultivated as a leaf vegetable and for dye from the berries. It grows in cultivated bed.

Description:
Solanum scabrum is an annual or short-lived perennial herb to 1 m tall, hairless or sparsely hairy. The leaves are usually ovate, 7–12 cm long and 5–8 cm wide, with petioles 1.5–7 cm long. The inflorescence is simple or sometimes branched with 9–12 flowers. The white corolla is stellate, 15–20 mm diam., and sometimes tinged purple and with yellow/green basal star. The berries are globular, 10–17 mm diam., purple-black. The seeds are 1.8–2.2 mm long, pale or stained purple.

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It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Dislikes shade. Caterpillars and slugs are particularly fond of this plant and can totally destroy it. This is a cultivated form of S. nigrum, grown for its edible fruit. There is at least one named form. See notes about possible toxicity at the top of this page. There is some disagreement among taxonomists as to the correct name of this plant. It is also listed as S. melanocerasum. Grows well with clover. Does not grow well with wormwood or white mustard and, when these plants are growing Closely related to S. nigra, they increase its content of toxic alkaloids.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. The seed can also be sown in a greenhouse during the spring if required since this will normally produce larger crops of fruit. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant out in late spring.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves.

Solanum scabrum is grown as an edible leaf crop in Africa. It is the most intensively cultivated species for leaf cropping within the Solanum nigrum complex, and as such has undergone genetic selection by farmers for leaf size and other characteristics.

Fruit – cooked.. Used in preserves, jams and pies. A pleasant musky taste. Only the fully ripe fruits should be used, the unripe fruits contain the toxin solanine. Often cooked with some baking soda first in order to remove any bitterness. The fruit contains about 2.5% protein, 0.6% fat, 5.6% carbohydrate, 1.2% ash. The fruit is up to 12mm in diameter. Young leaves and new shoots – raw or cooked as a potherb or added to soups.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiperiodic; Antiphlogistic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Narcotic; Purgative.

The whole plant is antiperiodic, antiphlogistic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, narcotic, purgative and sedative. It is harvested in the autumn when both flowers and fruit are upon the plant, and is dried for later use. Use with caution, see notes above on toxicity. The leaves, stems and roots are used in the treatment of cancerous sores, leucoderma and wounds. Extracts of the plant are analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator. The plant has been used in the manufacture of locally analgesic ointments and the juice of the fruit has been used as an analgesic for toothaches.

Other Uses:
Dye:
In Africa a stocky form of Solanum scabrum is cultivated as a dye crop using the ripe berries.

Known Hazards: There is a lot of disagreement over whether or not the leaves or fruit of this plant are poisonous. Views vary from relatively poisonous to perfectly safe to eat. The plant is cultivated as a food crop, both for its fruit and its leaves, in some parts of the world and it is probably true to say that toxicity can vary considerably according to where the plant is grown and the cultivar that is being grown. The unripe fruit contains the highest concentration of toxins
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanum_scabrum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Solanum+scabrum

Prunus cerasifera

Botanical Name : Prunus cerasifera
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Prunus
Section: Prunus
Species: P. cerasifera
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Prunus domestica myrobalan.

Common Names: Cherry Plum, Myrobalan Plum, Newport Cherry Plum, Pissard Plum

Habitat : Prunus cerasifera is native to Europe and Asia and naturalized in scattered locations in North America. It grows on woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge.

Description:
Prunus cerasifera is a wild type deciduous Tree growing to 9 m (29ft) by 9 m (29ft) at a medium rate, with leaves 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 inches) long. It is one of the first European trees to flower in spring, often starting in mid-February. The flowers are white and about 2 cm (0.8 inches) across, with five petals. The fruit is a drupe, 2–3 cm in diameter, and yellow or red. It is edible, and reaches maturity from early July to mid-September.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Specimen. Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on limestone. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers some chalk in the soil but apt to become chlorotic if too much is present. A very ornamental plant, it is sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit, unfortunately this is not often borne in large quantities in Britain, but large crops are produced every 4 years or so. There are some named varieties. Included as a part of P. divaricata by some botanists though others include P. divaricata as a sub-species under this species. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Blooms are very showy.
Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring. Division of suckers in the dormant season. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.
Fruit – raw or cooked in pies, tarts, jams etc. The size of a small plum with a thin skin and a nice sweet flavour. The flesh is somewhat mealy but is also juicy. The fruit can hang on the tree until October. The fruit is about 30mm in diameter and contains one large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Desperation’, ‘Fear of losing control of the mind’ and ‘Dread of doing some frightful thing’. It is also one of the five ingredients in the ‘Rescue remedy’. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.
Other Uses:
Dye; Hedge; Hedge; Rootstock; Shelterbelt.

A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit. Makes quite a good windbreak hedge though it cannot stand too much exposure. Often used as a rootstock for the cultivated plums, giving them a semi-dwarfing habit.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherry_plum
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+cerasifera

Prunus avium

Botanical Name : Prunus avium
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Cerasus
Species: P. avium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Cerasus nigra. C. sylvestris.

Common Names: Wild cherry, Sweet cherry, or Gean

Habitat : Prunus avium is native to Europe, Anatolia, Maghreb, and western Asia, from the British Isles south to Morocco and Tunisia, north to the Trondheimsfjord region in Norway and east to the Caucasus and northern Iran, with a small isolated population in the western Himalaya. The species is widely cultivated in other regions and has become naturalized in North America and Australia. It grows in better soils in hedgerows and woods, especially in beech woods.
Description:
Prunus avium is a deciduous tree growing to 15–32 m (49–105 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in diameter. Young trees show strong apical dominance with a straight trunk and symmetrical conical crown, becoming rounded to irregular on old trees. The bark is smooth purplish-brown with prominent horizontal grey-brown lenticels on young trees, becoming thick dark blackish-brown and fissured on old trees. The leaves are alternate, simple ovoid-acute, 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long and 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) broad, glabrous matt or sub-shiny green above, variably finely downy beneath, with a serrated margin and an acuminate tip, with a green or reddish petiole 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) long bearing two to five small red glands. The tip of each serrated edge of the leaves also bear small red glands. In autumn, the leaves turn orange, pink or red before falling. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as the new leaves, borne in corymbs of two to six together, each flower pendent on a 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) peduncle, 2.5–3.5 cm (0.98–1.38 in) in diameter, with five pure white petals, yellowish stamens, and a superior ovary; they are hermaphroditic, and pollinated by bees. The ovary contains two ovules, only one of which becomes the seed. The fruit is a drupe 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) in diameter (larger in some cultivated selections), bright red to dark purple when mature in midsummer, edible, variably sweet to somewhat astringent and bitter to eat fresh. Each fruit contains a single hard-shelled stone 8–12 mm long, 7–10 mm wide and 6–8 mm thick, grooved along the flattest edge; the seed (kernel) inside the stone is 6–8 mm long.

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Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded.
The fruit are readily eaten by numerous kinds of birds and mammals, which digest the fruit flesh and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some rodents, and a few birds (notably the hawfinch), also crack open the stones to eat the kernel inside. All parts of the plant except for the ripe fruit are slightly toxic, containing cyanogenic glycosides.

It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Espalier. Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on limestone. Prefers some chalk in the soil but apt to become chlorotic if too much is present. A very ornamental plant, it is fast growing on deep moist soils but is shallow rooting. Trees cast a light shade and are themselves intolerant of heavy shade. They produce quite a lot of suckers and can form thickets, especially if the main trunk is felled. This species is a parent of many cultivated forms of sweet cherries, especially the black fruited forms. Where space is at a premium, or at the limits of their climatic range, sweet cherries can be grown against a wall. Most cultivars will grow well against a sunny south or west facing wall though east or north facing walls are not very suitable. The main problems with growing this species against a wall are firstly that it is usually completely self-sterile and so there needs to be space for at least two different cultivars, secondly it is very vigorous and so is difficult to keep within bounds. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. An excellent tree for insects and the fruit is a good food source for birds. A bad companion for potatoes, making them more susceptible to potato blight, it also suppresses the growth of wheat. It also grows badly with plum trees, its roots giving out an antagonistic secretion. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus. Special Features:Edible, Not North American native, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame[200]. Division of suckers in the dormant season. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. Layering in spring.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. It can be sweet or bitter but it is not acid. The fruit can be cooked in pies etc or used to make preserves. The fruit contains about 78% water, 8.5 – 14% sugars. The fruit is about 20mm in diameter and contains one large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes above on toxicity. An edible gum is obtained by wounding the bark.
Medicinal Uses:

Antitussive; Astringent; Diuretic; Tonic.

The fruit stalks are astringent, diuretic and tonic. A decoction is used in the treatment of cystitis, oedema, bronchial complaints, looseness of the bowels and anaemia. An aromatic resin can be obtained by making small incisions in the trunk. This has been used as an inhalant in the treatment of persistent coughs. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.
Other Uses:
Dye; Gum; Tannin; Wood.

A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit. The bark usually only contains small amounts of tannin, but this sometimes rises to 16%. Wood – firm, compact, satiny grain. Used for turnery, furniture, instruments.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_avium
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+avium

Glaux maritima

Botanical Name : Glaux maritima
Family: Primulaceae
Subfamily: Myrsinoideae
Genus: Lysimachia
Species: L. maritima
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Lysimachia maritima

Common Names: Black Saltwort, Sea milkwort, Sea milkweed
Habitat : Glaux maritima has a circumpolar distribution in the northern hemisphere and is native to Europe, central Asia and North America. The species grows mainly in coastal habitats in Europe but also occurs in mesic interior habitats in Asia and North America, in both wet ground and water. It is known from alkaline meadows in desert regions in Utah, at elevations of up to 2600 m (8500 ft).
Description:
Glaux maritima is a perennial plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). Rootstock is creeping, branching. Stem is ascending–erect, unbranched–branched at base, glabrous.

This plant differs from all other genera of the Primulaceae in having apetalous flowers with a pink, petaloid calyx. It is generally pentamerous both in the calyx and the seed capsule.

.
Flower: Corolla lacking. Corolla-like calyx regular (actinomorphic)–campanulate, light red and dark-spotted, 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 in.) wide, fused, 5-lobed till halfway, lobe margins white, membranous. Stamens 5. Pistil a fused carpel. Flowers solitary in axils.

Leaves: At most opposite, upper part alternate, stalkless, slightly amplexicaul. Lowest leaves scaly, brown. Upper leaves with blade ovately lanceolate–elliptic, fleshy, glabrous, bluish green, faintly dark-spotted.

Fruit: Spherical, 3 mm (0.12 in.) long capsule.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation: Succeeds in most soils. Dislikes shade.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have sufficient seed it should be worthwhile trying an outdoor sowing in situ in mid spring. Division in spring. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
Edible Uses:
Young shoots – raw or pickled. Roots – cooked. (This report refers to the sub-species G. maritima obtusifolia.) The roots can be harvested at almost any time of the year. The North American Indians would boil them for a long time before eating them. Even so, eating the roots was considered to make one sleepy and eating too many of them could make one nauseous.

Medicinal Uses: …..Sedative.
Some native North American Indians ate the boiled roots to induce sleep.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysimachia_maritima
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Glaux+maritima
http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/sea-milkwort

Astragalus complanatus

Botanical Name: Astragalus complanatus
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Astragalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabaless

Synonyms: Sha Yuan Zi, Flatstem Milkvetch Seed, Flatstem Tribulus
Common Names: Bei Bian Huang Qi

Habitat: Astragalus complanatus is native to East AsiaChina. It grows on dry slopes, meadows and gravelly soils at elevations of 1000-2400 metres in Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, W Sichuan, Yunnan.

Description:
Astragali Complanati Perennial herb of Leguminosae family,Height 30~100cm. Root thick and long,stem weak and slim,little flat,small white pubes growing at stem root.Feather like leaves grows intercross,small leaves 9~21,egg shape,long 0.7~2 cm,width 3~8 cm,margin slight concave.flower 3~9,flower bud white soft hair surfaced,flower yellow color,bloosom during july to september,fruiting september to october.

It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. Seed is flat shaped kidney,2~2.5mm length,thick 1 mm,colored brown green or pale brown.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing – but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours. Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 – 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Medicinal Uses:
This species has been used for almost 2,000 years in China as a liver and kidney tonic. The seed is hepatic and ophthalmic. It is used in the treatment of kidney diseases, lumbago, spontaneous seminal emissions, frequent micturation, vertigo and decreased sight.
Known Hazards: Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+complanatus
https://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper04502.html
http://www.herballove.com/herbs-minerals/astragalus-complanatus

Arnica angustifolia alpina

Botanical Name : Arnica angustifolia alpina
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Arnica
Species: A. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: A. alpina. (L.)Olin.

Common Name: Mountain Tobacco

Other Name: Narrowleaf Arnica

Habitat : Arnica angustifolia alpina is native to N. Europe. N. Asia and Northern N. America. It grows in pasture and open woodland on neutral to calcareous soils. Bare rocky alpine slopes and summits.

Description:
Arnica angustifolia alpina is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in)

*Rootstock: Rootstock long. Forms stands.

*Stem: Stem quite delicate, densely haired especially at top, also with glandular hairs.

*Flower: Flowers 3.5–5 cm (1.4–2 in.) broad, single flower-like capitula surrounded by involucral bracts. Capitulum flowers yellow, ray-florets tongue-like; disc-florets tubular, small. Stamens 5. Gynoecium composed of 2 fused carpels. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, same length, lanceolate, base densely haired, with purple tips. Solitary capitulum terminating stem, often nodding, sometimes with additional 1–4 capitula in stem-leaf axils.

*Leaves: In basal rosette and on stem usually 1–2 pairs opposite, stalkless. Blade lanceolate–lanceolately ovate, long-tipped, with entire margins, almost parallel-veined, short-haired.

*Fruit: Ridged achene, tip with white unbranched hairs.

*Flowering time: July-August.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. This species is more lime tolerant than other members of the genus[200]. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat. Closely related to A. montana.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and make sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring

Medicinal Uses:
The whole flowering plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory and vulnerary. This species is closely related to A. montana and is included in that species by some botanists. The medicinal uses of that plant are as follows:- Arnica has a long history of herbal use, especially as an external treatment for bruises and sprains – it is an ingredient of a number of proprietary preparations[238]. Internally, it has been used in the treatment of heart complaints and as a booster for the immune system. Arnica increases local blood supply and accelerates healing, it is anti-inflammatory and increases the rate of absorption of internal bleeding. Generally the plant is nowadays only recommended for internal use as a homeopathic medicine, principally for treating shock, injury and pain. If used as a decoction or tincture it stimulates the circulation and is valuable in the treatment of angina and a weak or failing heart, but it can be toxic even at quite low doses and so is rarely used this way. The flowers are the part most commonly used, they are harvested when fully open and dried – the receptacles are sometimes removed since these are liable to be attacked by insects. The root is also used, it is harvested after the leaves have died down in the autumn and dried for later use. The whole plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory, vulnerary. Although a very valuable remedy, it should be used with caution. It has been known to cause contact dermatitis when used externally and collapse when taken internally. Only take it internally under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The freshly crushed flowers cause sneezing if inhaled. The leaves have also been smoked as a tobacco, though it is unclear whether this was for medicinal reasons The whole plant, harvested when in flower, is used in homeopathic remedies. It is especially useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries, sores and bruises. The homeopathic dose has also been used effectively in the treatment of epilepsy and seasickness, and it might be of use as a hair growth stimulant.

Other Uses : This plant is used as a hair conditioner. No further details are  available.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica_angustifolia
http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/alpine-arnica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+angustifolia+alpina