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Allium schoenoprasum sibiricum

Botanical Name : Allium schoenoprasum sibiricum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Allium sibiricum.

Common Name : Giant Chives

Nome italiano: Erba cipollina
English name: Wild Chives
U.S. name: Wild Chives
French name: Civette
Spanish name: cebollino común
Portuguese name: cebolinha-francesa
German name: Schnittlauch
Swedish name: gräslök

Habitat : Allium schoenoprasum sibiricum is native to N. America to E. Asia – Siberia, Japan. It grows on calcareous or basic rock, gravels and shores, Alaska and southwards.

Description:
Allium schoenoprasum sibiricum is a bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August.
Leaf arrangement:- basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
Leaf blade shape: the leaf blade is filiform (extremely narrow, thread-like). the leaf blade is linear (very narrow with more or less parallel sides)
Leaf blade length: 200–600 mm.

Flower petal color: blue to purple, pink to red
Flower petal length: 7–15 mm
Petal fusion: the perianth parts are separate

Inflorescence type: the inflorescence is an umbel (with an axis so short it appears the flowers all originate from the same point)

Ovary position: the ovary is above the point of petal and/or sepal attachment

Fruit type (specific): the fruit is a capsule (splits along two or more seams, apical teeth or pores when dry, to release two or more seeds)
Fruit length : Up to 4 mm

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a rich moist but well-drained soil. Succeeds in most soils and in light shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.2 to 8.3. This is a more robust form of A. schoenoprasum, the chive. It is often grown in the garden for its edible leaves which are available from late winter to the beginning of the next winter. The bulbs divide rapidly and large clumps are quickly formed. There are some named varieties. Regular cutting of the leaves ensures a continuous supply of young leaves and prevents flowering. Plants can be moved into a frame or other protected environment in the autumn and will then produce leaves throughout the winter. Do not do this every year or it weakens the plants. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. A good bee plant. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. Helps to reduce the incidence of scab when it is grown under apple trees. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually free and easy, pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle easily and plant out in the following spring. Division can be carried out at almost any time of the year but is probably best done in spring. The clumps should be divided at least every 3 or 4 years in order to maintain vigour, the divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Leaves – raw, cooked or dried for later use. The leaves have a mild onion flavour and are an excellent addition to mixed salads, they can also be used as a flavouring in soups etc. This form has a stronger garlic flavour than common chives The leaves are often available from late winter and can continue to produce leaves until early the following winter, especially if the plant is in a warm, sheltered position. A good source of sulphur and iron. The bulbs are rather small but can be used as spring onions. They can be harvested with the leaves still attached and be used as spring onions. They have a pleasant mild onion flavour. The flowers can be used as a garnish in salads etc. The flowers of this species are rather dry and less desirable than the flowers of many other species.

Medicinal Uses:

Appetizer; Digestive; Hypotensive; Tonic.

The whole plant has a beneficial effect on the digestive system and the blood circulation. It improves the appetite, is digestive, hypotensive and tonic. It has similar properties to garlic (A. sativum), but in a much milder form, and it is rarely used medicinally.

Other Uses:
Fungicide; Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as an insect repellent, it also has fungicidal properties and is effective against scab, mildew etc. The growing plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in very large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chives
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+schoenoprasum+sibiricum

http://luirig.altervista.org/flora/taxa/index1.php?scientific-name=allium+schoenoprasum

https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/allium/schoenoprasum/

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Allium monanthum

Botanical Name : Allium monanthum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. monanthum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Allium biflorum Nakai, Allium monanthum var. floribundum Z.J. Zhong & X.T. Huang

Common Name : Korean wild chive

Habitat :Allium monanthum is native to E. Asia – China, Japan. It grows in woods and thickets on hills and lower mountains all over Japan. Grassy mountain slopes and woods.
Description:
Allium monanthum is a BULB growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in June. Leaves are flat, long and narrow, longer than the scape. Umbels are small, with one flower on pistillate (female) plants and 4-5 flowers on staminate (male) plants. All flowers are white, pink or red.

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The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. This species might succeed in light woodland in Britain[K]. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer. Unusual in the genus for having dioecious flowers. This means that male and female flowers are borne on different plants and at least one plant of each sex needs to be grown in order for fertilization to take place.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Allium monanthum is called dallae in Korean, and used in Korean herbal cooking alongside other sannamul(mountain vegetables) such as deodeok, dureup, gondre and myeongyi. Having a similar flavor profile to jjokpa, dallae can be eaten raw or blanched as a namul vegetable, pickled as a jangajji, or pan-fried to make buchimgae. As a herb, and makes a good last minute addition to doenjangjjigae and other jjigaes, as well as soy sauce based dips.
Condiments
Dallaeganjang – a type of dip, made by adding chopped dallae into the mixture of soy sauce, maesilcheong(plum syrup), gochutgaru(chili powder), sesame oil, and toasted sesame seeds

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Dishes:
*Dallaebuchimgae – a type of buchimgae, made by mixing dallae with wheat flour, salt, water, julienned carrot, sliced onion, and a little bit of coarsely chopped garlic chive, then pan-frying them in oil

*Dallaedoenjang – a type of jjigae, made by boiling doenjang(soybean paste) with dallae, river snail meat, cubed potatoes and aehobak, sliced oyster mushrooms, and anchovy-kelp broth.

*Dallaemukimchi – a type of kimchi, made by adding boiled and cooled brine, sugar, and gochutgaru to dallae and julienned mu(radish). It is a popular spring banchan(side dish) in North Korea.

*Dallaemuchim – a type of namul, made by mixing raw dallae with gochutgaru(chili powder), soy sauce, maesilcheong(plum syrup), sesame oil, and toasted sesame seeds
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.
Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system[K].
Other Uses
Repellent.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_monanthum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+monanthum

Allium cepa ascalonicum

Botanical Name : Allium cepa ascalonicum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. cepa
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Common Names: Shallot, Small onion

Shallots probably originated in Central or Southwest Asia, travelling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name “shallot” comes from Ashkelon, an ancient Canaanite city, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated.

Indian names for shallots include kaanda or gandana or pyaaz (Hindi, Marathi, Marwari and Punjabi), gundhun (Bengali), cheriya ulli or chuvanna ulli (Malayalam), (ulli piaja in Odia), chinna ullipayi (Telugu) and chinna vengayam (or sambar vengayam in the Chennai region) (Tamil). In the Kashmiri language, shallots are called praan. In Nepal, shallots are called chyapi .

In Southeastern Asia, shallots are called bawang merah kecil (small red onions) in Malay, brambang in Java, sibuyas bombay (Indian onion) in the Philippines (in contrast with sibuyas Tagalog, the larger, red onion), and hom (???, fragrant) in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer), shallots are called katem kror hom, where katem or ktem is a species of onion, and kror hom or hom meaning “red”, describes their colour

The name shallot is also used for the Persian shallot (A. stipitatum), from the Zagros Mountains in Iran and Iraq. The term shallot is further used for the French red shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum, or the A. cepa Aggregatum Group) and the French gray shallot or griselle (Allium oschaninii), a species referred to as “true shallot”; it grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia.

The term eschalot, derived from the French word échalote, can also be used to refer to the shallot. The usage of green onion for shallot is found among English-speaking people in Quebec; but when shallot is used, stress is on the second syllable.

Habitat : Allium cepa ascalonicum or sallot is a botanical varity of Allium cepa or plain onion, is cultivated and grown throught the world for culinary uses.

Description:
Allium cepa ascalonicum is a bjulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.

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Like garlic, the bulbs are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. The skin colour of shallots can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta.

Shallots are extensively cultivated for culinary uses, propagated by offsets. In some regions (“long-season areas”), the offsets are usually planted in autumn (September or October in the Northern Hemisphere). In some other regions, the suggested planting time for the principal crop is early spring (typically in February or the beginning of March in the Northern Hemisphere).

In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and the soil surrounding the bulbs is often drawn away when the roots have taken hold. They come to maturity in summer, although fresh shallots can now be found year-round in supermarkets. Shallots should not be planted on ground recently manured.

In Africa, shallots are grown in the area around Anloga in southeastern Ghana.

Edible Uses:
Shallots are used in fresh cooking in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced, deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine, often served with porridge. As a species of Allium, shallots taste somewhat like a common onion, but have a milder flavor. Like onions and garlic, when sliced, raw shallots release substances that irritate the human eye, resulting in production of tears.

Chemical Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Root (Fresh weight)

•72 Calories per 100g
•Water : 79.8%
•Protein: 2.5g; Fat: 0.1g; Carbohydrate: 16.8g; Fibre: 0.7g; Ash: 0.8g;
•Minerals – Calcium: 37mg; Phosphorus: 60mg; Iron: 1.2mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 12mg; Potassium: 334mg; Zinc: 0mg;
•Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.06mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.02mg; Niacin: 0.2mg; B6: 0mg; C: 8mg;

Medicinal Uses:
Although rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. The bulb is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontripic, stomachic and tonic. When used regularly in the diet it offsets tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and tooth decay. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores. Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites, grazes or fungal skin complaints. When warmed the juice can be dropped into the ear to treat earache. It also aids the formation of scar tissue on wounds, thus speeding up the healing process, and has been used as a cosmetic to remove freckles.

Other Uses:
Cosmetic; Dye; Hair; Polish; Repellent; Rust.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent and can also be rubbed onto the skin to repel insects. The plant juice can be used as a rust preventative on metals and as a polish for copper and glass. A yellow-brown dye is obtained from the skins of the bulbs. Onion juice rubbed into the skin is said to promote the growth of hair and to be a remedy for baldness. It is also used as a cosmetic to get rid of freckles. The growing plant is said to repel insects and moles. A spray made by pouring enough boiling water to cover 1kg of chopped unpeeled onions is said to increase the resistance of other plants to diseases and parasites.
Known Hazards :There have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of this plant. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shallot
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cepa+ascalonicum

Brassica rapa

Botanical Name : Brassica rapa
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species:B. rapa
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Common Names: Turnip, Field mustard, Toria, Yellow sarson, Bird rape, Keblock, and Colza

Habitat : Cultivated in Europe for over 4000 years, probably native to central and southern Europe, now spread throughout world, including most parts of the tropics.

Description:
Brassica rapa is a biennial herb with swollen tuberous white-fleshed taproot, lacking a neck; leaves light to medium green, hairy or bristly, stalked, lyrate-pinnatifid, 30–50 cm long, stem-leaves sometimes glaucous with clasping base; flowers bright yellow, sepals spreading: petals 6–10 mm long, those in anthesis close together and commonly overtopping the unopened buds; outer 2 stamens curved outwards at base and much shorter than inner stamens; fruit 4–6.5 cm long, with long tapering beak, on divaricate-ascending pedicels 3.2–6.5 cm long; seeds blackish or reddish-brown, 1.5–2 mm in diameter. Fl. and fr. second spring.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Turnip is basically a cool climate crop that is resistant to frost and mild freezes. The plants are very easily grown, provided they grow quickly when young and the soil is not allowed to dry out. They succeed in full sun in a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. Turnips grow best in deep, friable, highly fertile soil with pH 5.5 – 6.8. They are said to prefer a light sandy soil, especially when grown for an early crop in the spring, and dislike a heavy soil. They prefer cool moist growing conditions. Turnips tolerate an annual precipitation of 35 to 410cm, an annual average temperature range of 3.6 to 27.4°C and a pH in the range of 4.2 to 7.8. Temperatures below 10°C cause the plants to run to seed, even if they have not yet formed an edible root. The turnip is often cultivated, both in the garden and commercially, for its edible root. A fast growing plant, it can take less than ten weeks from sowing to harvesting. Its short growing season makes turnips very adaptable as a catch crop[269]. There are several named varieties and by careful selection and successional sowing it is possible to harvest roots all year round. The roots are fairly cold hardy and can be left in the ground during the winter, harvesting them as required. However, they can be troubled by slugs and other creatures so it is often better to harvest them in late autumn or early winter and store them in a cool but frost-free place. This species has long been cultivated as an edible plant and a large number of forms have been developed. Botanists have divided these forms into a number of groups, and these are detailed below. Separate entries in the database have been made for each group. B. rapa. The species was actually named for the cultivated garden turnip with its edible swollen tap root. This form is dealt with on this record. B. rapa campestris. This is the wild form of the species. It does not have a swollen root and is closest to the forms grown for their oil-rich seeds. B. rapa chinensis. Pak choi has long been cultivated in the Orient for its large tender edible leaves which are mainly produced in the summer and autumn. B. rapa dichotoma. Cultivated in the Orient mainly for its oil-rich seeds. B. rapa narinosa. Chinese savoy is another Oriental form. It is grown for its edible leaves. B. rapa nipposinica. Mizuna is a fast-growing cold-hardy form with tender edible leaves that can be produced all year round. B. rapa oleifera. The stubble turnip has a swollen edible root, though it is considered too coarse for human consumption and is grown mainly for fodder and as a green manure. It is also cultivated for its oil-rich seeds. B. rapa parachinensis. False pak choi is very similar to B. rapa chinensis with tender edible leaves, though it is considerably more cold-hardy. B. rapa pekinensis. Chinese cabbages are widely grown in the Orient. The large tender leaves often form a cabbage-like head. B. rapa perviridis. Spinach mustard is grown for its edible leaves. A very cold-hardy plant, and also able to withstand summer heat, it can provide a crop all year round. B. rapa trilocularis. Indian colza is mainly grown for its oil-rich seeds. Grows well with peas but dislikes growing with hedge mustard and knotweed. A good bee plant.
Propagation:
Seed – sow in situ from early spring to late summer. The first sowing can be made under cloches in late winter and will be ready for use in early summer. The latest sowings for winter use can be made in mid to late summer.
Edible Uses:.. Leaves; Root……
Leaves – raw or cooked. The cooked leaves make an acceptable vegetable, though they are coarser than the related cabbage. They are more often used as a spring greens, sowing the plants in the autumn and allowing them t overwinter. Young leaves can also be added in small quantities to salads, they have a slightly hot cabbage-like flavour and some people find them indigestible. A nutritional analysis is available. Root – raw or cooked. Often used as a cooked vegetable, the young roots can also be grated and eaten in salads, they have a slightly hot flavour like a mild radish. A nutritional analysis is available

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)

*2300 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 30g; Fat: 4g; Carbohydrate: 54g; Fibre: 7g; Ash: 12g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 1600mg; Phosphorus: 1000mg; Iron: 17mg;

*Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 4500mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 30mg; Riboflavin (B2): 2mg; Niacin: 8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 500mg;

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the leaves or stems is used in the treatment of cancer. The powdered seed is said to be a folk remedy for cancer. The crushed ripe seeds are used as a poultice on burns. Some caution should be exercised here since the seed of most brassicas is rubefacient. The root when boiled with lard is used for breast tumours. A salve derived from the flowers is said to help skin cancer.

Known Hazards: Occasionally suspected of poisoning bovines, sheep, and pigs.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_rapa
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_rapa.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica+rapa

 

Cooking with vegetable oil is not good for health

Cooking with vegetable oils releases toxic cancer-causing chemicals, say experts

Scientists warn against the dangers of frying food in sunflower oil and corn oil over claims they release toxic chemicals linked to cancer

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Cooking with vegetable oils releases toxic chemicals linked to cancer and other diseases, according to leading scientists, who are now recommending food be fried in olive oil, coconut oil, butter or even lard.
The results of a series of experiments threaten to turn on its head official advice that oils rich in polyunsaturated fats – such as corn oil and sunflower oil – are better for the health than the saturated fats in animal products.
Scientists found that heating up vegetable oils led to the release of high concentrations of chemicals called aldehydes, which have been linked to illnesses including cancer, heart disease and dementia.

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